VI. Define which of the following items best completes



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VI. Define which of the following items best completes



the statement:

1. Economics is a social science like

a. history.

b. politics.

c. mathematics.

d. sociology.

2. Economics deals with

a. production.

b. distribution.

c. exchange.

d. consumption.

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is necessary to know studying economics for the first time? 2. What does economics deal with? 3. What questions does economics answer? 4. Why does economics not stop with the description of economic activity? 5. What kind of science is economics? 6. What does economics study?
7. What do economists study? 8. What must people make up their own minds about? 9. How shall we define economics?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Неможливо визначити економiку одним словом. 2. Економiка визначалася як вивчення людства в повсякденному дiловому життi.
3. Економiка вiдповiдає на питання: Як визначається цiна? 4. Еконо­мiка не вичерпується описом економiчної дiяльностi. 5. Економiсти ви-
вчають зусилля людини, спрямовані на задоволення своїх необмежених потреб і водночас на бережливе використання вiдносно недостатнiх ресурсiв. 6. Ученi в жодному разi не мають намiру розповiдати про те, що має бути. 7. Отже, економiку зв’язано з дiяльнicтю для забезпечення добробуту.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

term, need, want, necessary, clothing, purchase, sometimes, love, shelter, food, level, means, satisfy, hamburger, favourite, point, difference, marketplace, product, count, range, willingness, measurable;

b) stress the second syllable:

vocabulary, demand, requirement, survival, accomplishment, acceptance, review, express, reflect, particular, ability, desire;

c) stress the third syllable:

represent, individual.

 

Text B

Economics like any other social science has its own vocabulary. To understand economics, a review of some key terms1is necessary: needs2, wants3, and demands4.

A need is a basic requirement for survival. People have basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. People also have higher level needs, such as communication, love, acceptance, knowledge, hope and accomplishment.

A want is a means of expressing a need. Food, for example, is a basic need related to survival. To satisfy this need, a person may want a pizza, hamburger or other favourite food. That is there are any number of foods that will satisfy the basic need for food.

The point is5that the range of things represented by the term «want» is much broader than those represented by the term «need».

Sometimes the difference between a want and a need is clear, at other times, it is not.

A basic need is reflected in a want for a particular product6. A want cannot be counted in the marketplace until it becomes a demand — the willingness and ability to purchase a desired object. Since an individual has limited resources, only some wants will end up as measurable demands7.

 

COMMENTS

1.key terms — основнi термiни

2.needs — потреби

3.wants— бажання

4.demand— попит

5.the point is — річ у тім, що

6.particular product — певний продукт

7.measurable demand — урахований попит

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the English equivalents for:

суспiльна наука; основнi термiни; бажання; попит; основнi потреби; житло; основна вимога для виживання; певний продукт; потреби вищого ґатунку (рiвня); почуття завершеностi; спосіб вираження потреби; улюблена їжа; річ у тім, що; готовнiсть; урахований попит; здатнiсть (спроможнiсть); бажана рiч; обмеженi ресурси.

II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to require, to know, to accept, to survive, to achieve, to satisfy, to differ, to communicate, to develop, to fulfil, to employ, to relate, to express, to reflect, to establish, to accomplish.

 

III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

service; social science; product; basic needs; demand; need; want; marketplace.

1. Economics like any other ________ has its own vocabulary. 2. People have _____________ such as food, clothing and shelter. 3. The range of things represented by the term _________ is much broader than those represented by the term __________ . 4. A want cannot be counted in the __________ until it becomes a __________ . 5. Demand is the consumer’s willingness and ability to buy a _________ or _________ at a particular time and place.

 

IV. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. Economics like any other social science has its own vocabulary.
2. A need is a basic requirement for survival. 3. People have basic needs and higher level needs. 4. A want is a means of expressing a need. 5. Food is a basic need related to survival. 6. Demand is a willingness and ability to purchase a desired object. 7. The difference between a want and a need is always clear.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. What is necessary to understand economics? 2. What are the key terms of economics? 3. What does the term need mean? 4. What are basic people’s needs? 5. What is a means of expressing a need? 6. Is food a basic need related to survival? 7. Is the difference between a want and a need always clear? 8. What is demand?

VI. Translate into English:

1. Економiка, як і будь-яка iнша cуспільна наука має свiй слов­ник. 2. Спiлкування, почуття кохання, пiзнання, сподiвання — усе це людськi потреби вищого ґатунку. 3. Бажання — це спосіб вираження потреби. 4. Iснує багато продуктiв харчування, якi можуть задоволь­нити основну потребу в їжi. 5. Попит — це готовнiсть та спроможнiсть купити бажану рiч. 6. Оскiльки людина має обмеженi ресурси, тiльки деякi бажання реалiзуються як урахований попит.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

useful, relatively, possibly, scarce, price, service, final, capital, sunshine, rainfall, haircut, lawyer, touch, plentiful, willing, pay, major;

b) stress the second syllable:

concern, transferable, impossible, appliance, describe, consumer, intend, important, command, produce, perform, performance, include, repair;

c) stress the third syllable:

manufacture, entertainment.

 

Text C

The study of economics is concerned with economic products — goods and services that are useful, relatively scarce and transferable to others. The important thing is that economic products are scarce in an economic sense. That is one cannot get enough to satisfy individual wants and needs1. The fact that economic products command a price shows that they have these characteristics.

The terms goods and services are used to describe many things people desire. Consumer goods are intended for2final use by individuals to satisfy their wants and needs. Manufactured goods used to produce other goods and services are calledcapital goods3. An example of capital goods would be a computer in a school.

The other type of economic product is a work that is performed for someone. Services can include haircuts, repairs to home appliances4and forms of entertainment like rock performances. They also include the work performed by doctors, lawyers and teachers. The difference between goods and services is that the services are something that cannot be touched or felt like goods.

Many other things — sunshine, rainfall, fresh air — are known as free products5because they are so plentiful. No one could possibly own them, nor would most people be willing to pay anything for them. In fact, some are so important, that life would be impossible without them. Even so, free products are not scarce enough to be major concern in the study of economics.

COMMENTS

1.wants and needs— бажання та потреби

2.to be intended for — призначатися для

3.capital goods — засoби виробництва

4.home appliances — побутовi прилади

5.free products — безкоштовні продукти

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. State the part of speech and say how the words are formed:

economics, useful, relatively, scarce, scarcity, transferable, performance, difference, economic, entertainment, service, to satisfy, plentiful, manufactured, lawyer, haircut, sunshine, rainfall, unfortunately, unlimited.

 

II. Find equivalents:



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