XV. Use the absolute form of possessive pronouns instead of



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XV. Use the absolute form of possessive pronouns instead of



the conjoint:

Pattern: her advice — advice of hers;

my friend — a friend of mine;

his joke — a joke of his.

your cousin; her sister; our children; my daughter; my family; her niece; their relatives; your son; their grandson; my parents; my sister-in-law.

XVI. Choose the correct pronouns in italics:

1. Children should obey his, their parents. 2. Excuse me. Is this my, mine dictionary or your, yours? — This one is my, mine. Your, yours is on your, yours desk. 3. Fruit should be a part of your, yours daily diet. It, they, is good for you, them. 4. Julie fell off her bicycle and broke hers, her arm.
5. Mary had to drive my, mine car to work. Hers, her had a flat tire. 6. Those seats are not your, yours, they are our, ours. 7. I have a wonderful family.
I, me love it, him, them very much, and he, they, love I, me.

XVII. Paraphrase the following sentences:

Pattern A: This is my coat. — This coat is mine.

1. This is my note-book. 2. This is your report. 3. This is his graduation paper. 4. This is her bag. 5. This is their classroom. 6. This is our bus.
7. This is her suggestion. 8. This is our Sports Centre.

Pattern B: Your room is large. Jane’s room is larger. —

Jane’s room is larger than yours.

1. Our teacher is young. Your teacher is younger. 2. Her composition is interesting. Her friend’s composition is more interesting. 3. His camera is dear. Nick’s camera is dearer. 4. Their house is old. Our house is older.
5. My watch is good. Your watch is better.

XVIII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. A friend of mine told me about it. 2. The book which is on the table is mine. 3. This woman is a relative of hers. 4. I haven’t got a dictionary. Can you give me yours? 5. These pencils are mine, take them if you want. 6. He held out his hand. I gave him mine. 7. This is my mistake, not yours. 8. It’s no business of mine. 9. We went on holiday with some friends of ours.
10. There is a great difference between our composition and theirs.

XIX. Translate into English:

У мене є друг. Я знаю його та його сестру давно. Мiй друг i я — студенти. Ми зустрiчаємось щодня. Вiн часто дає менi кориснi поради. Вони менi дуже потрiбнi. Мiй друг добре знає англiйську мову. Ми часто виконуємо домашнє завдання разом. Ми читаємо книжки. Вони дуже цiкавi. Ми беремо їх у бiблiотецi. Сестра мого друга — викладачка. Вона працює в нашому унiверситетi. Вона викладає англiйську мову. Студентам подобаються її заняття. Вони завжди радi бачити її.

Word Order in the Simple Declarative Sentence

XX. Decide whether the word order is right or wrong.

Correct the wrong sentences:

1. Mary speaks very well English. 2. When I heard the news, I phoned him immediately. 3. Ann drives every day her car to work. 4. You should go to the dentist every six months. 5. I think I’ll go early to bed tonight. 6. How many people do you know who go on Sundays to church? 7. We both were astonished when we heard the news. 8. I usually am very tired when I get home from work. 9. I soon found the keys I had lost. 10. I am going on Monday to Paris.

XXI. Put the parts of a sentence in the correct order:

1. some interesting books/we found/in the library. 2. quietly/the door/I closed. 3. his name/after a few minutes/I remembered. 4. again/please don’t ask/that question. 5. a letter to her parents/Ann writes/every week. 6. at the top of the page/your name/please write. 7. to London/ for a few days next week/I’m going. 8. opposite the park/a new hotel/they are building. 9. he won/easily/the game. 10. children/very much/I like.

XXII. Arrange the words in the sentences using the correct

word order:

1. Ukraine, a state, is, sovereign. 2. Has, a system, democratic, political, it. 3. A referendum, in Ukraine, 1991, took place, on December 1. 4. Very, is, of Ukraine, geographical, with countries, the development, of its relations, to, favourable, the position, of Europe. 5. Textile, there are, in enterprises, many, Ukraine. 6. The main branches, what, of industry, are, in Ukraine? 7. Presently, the largest, of, branch, the machine-building, is, industry. 8. Today’s, to satisfy, the consumers’ wants, industries, are unable. 9. Branches, of, agricultural, are, main, there, Ukraine, two, production, in. 10. Farms, Ukraine, are, owned, and, controlled, most, in, the government, by.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Insert the auxiliary verbs:

1. ... the first-year students specialize in economics? 2. ... he go home by underground? 3. ... you like Political Economy? 4. ... she go to the library every day? 5. ... this student study well? 6. ... they study mathematics during the first year of studies? 7. ... you understand the importance of English for your future work? 8. ... you know much about your country?

II. Ask questions indicated in brackets:

1. Susan feels tired. (Who?) 2. Tom plays chess with his father. (With whom?) 3. Most of the time he lives in the country. (Where?) 4. They go to work by bus. (How?) 5. They want to buy some toys for their children. (What?) 6. John begins his work at nine. (When?) 7. It takes her twenty minutes to get to the park. (How long?) 8. They don’t go to work on Sunday. (When?)

III. Translate the pronouns in brackets into English:

1. (Вoнa) saw (мене) in the street. (Вона) knows (вас) and (мене) very well. (Вона) is (наш) teacher. (Вона) likes (свою) work very much. Do you know (її) and (її) brothers? 2. The man says he knows (вас) and (вашу) family. (Я) know (його) and (його) sister. (Вiн) is a highly educated man. (Вiн) teaches (нам) English. (Вiн) meets (мене) and (мого) friend every day. 3. (Я) see a car. (Я) see (його) well. (Його) colour is white. 4. (Ми) send (їм) many letters but (вони) don’t answer (на них). 5. Do (ви) know Italian? — No, (я) don’t know (його) at all. 6. Do (ви) help (своїм) parents?

IV. Replace the italicized nouns by the personal pronouns:

1. The teacher helps the students to translate the article. 2. Mother will send Mary to buy the tickets. 3. The man gavethe books to the boy.
4. Helenworks hard at history.5. My friend is going to write a letter to his sister today. 6. Thisbook is not suitable foryoung children. 7. Helen borrows the books from the library. 8. Susan makes dresses for women.

V. Insert possessive pronouns:

1. She likes ... new dress very much. 2. We have ... English classes twice a week. 3. Paul keeps ... books in the bookcase. 4. I usually go to see ... friends in the evening. 5. They often take ... children to this park. 6. The tree drops ... leaves in autumn. 7. Do you help ... parents? 8. The film is very interesting but I don’t remember ... title. 9. My son tries to deepen ... knowledge of English.

 

 


U N I T 3

 

TOPIC: ECONOMY of GREAT BRITAIN TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C GRAMMAR: Participle I. The Present Continuous Tense The Construction to be going to The Functions of the Verb to be

 

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

naval, power, primarily, public, private, enterprise, industry, nationalize, government, ferrous, transport, manage, sector, service, share, agriculture, vital, rise, workforce, company, nation, partly, presence, mineral, marble, granite, tin, slate, lead, copper, zinc, valuable, textile, science;

b) stress the second syllable:

economy, industrial, developed, electric, demand, account, predominate, technology, metallurgy, percentage, deposit, accessible, considerable, employ.

Text A

Great Britain is a highly-developed naval and industrial power. Its economy was primarily based on private enterprises. However, some industries were nationalized after World War II. Now it has a mixed private- and public-enterprise economy1. The government controls the coal-mining and electric power industries, ferrous metallurgy and shipbuilding. Part of public transport, civil aviation and national bank are also managed by the state.

The main sectors of British economy are manufacturing, services and agriculture. The share of industry in GNP2is 11 times more than that of agriculture. Manufacturing plays a vital role in British economy. It accounts for 1/5 of the GNP and employs less than 1/3 of the workforce3. Small companies predominate, though companies with 500 or more employees employ a larger percentage of the workforce.

The rise of Great Britain as an industrial nation4was partly due to5 the presence of considerable mineral resources, the most important of them being coal and iron. Next to coal and iron the chief minerals found on the British Isles are the building stone, marble, granite, slate, lead, tin, copper, zink, salt and china clay. But in the course of the last hundred years many of Britain’s most valuable and accessible deposits have been worked out.

Coal-mining, metallurgy, textile, shipbuilding are the older branches of industry. The new industries are the chemical, electrotechnical, automobile, aeromissile and electronics. The new industries have developed hand in hand6with science and technology and are equipped to meet present technical demands.

Big cities and towns such as London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and Birmingham have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry. The main centres of cotton and woolen industry are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester.

COMMENTS

1.mixed private- and public-enterprise economy — змiшана економiка,

що ґрунтується на приватному та державному пiдприємництвi

2.GNP — ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)

3.workforce — робоча сила

4.industrial nation — промислова держава

5.due to — зумовленo

6.hand in hand — плiч-о-плiч

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:

1. coal-mining a. змiшана економiка

2. GNP б. авiаракетна промисловiсть

3. hand in hand в. приватне пiдприємство

4. industrial nation г. енергетична промисловiсть

5. private enterprise д. суднобудування

6. power industry е. промислова держава

7. public transport є. плiч-о-плiч

8. workforce ж.чорна металургія

9. shipbuilding з. громадський транспорт

10. mixed economy и. ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)

11. cotton industry і. робоча сила

12. aeromissile industry ї. бавовництво

13. ferrous metallurgy й. вугледобувна промисловiсть

II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

a) to control, to transport, to service, to share, to work, to force, to rise, to head, to power, to base, to state, to centre, to demand, to mix;

b) to assossiate, to govern, to produce, to manufacture, to predominate, to account, to equip, to employ, to develop, to nationalize, to know.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. British economy was primarily based ... private enterprises.
2. Some ... industries were nationalized ... World War II. 3. Part ... public transport, power industry and most ... civil aviation are managed ... the state. 4. The rise ... Britain as an industrial nation was partly due ... the presence ... considerable mineral resources. 5. Manufacturing plays a vital role ... British economy. 6. The new industries have developed hand ... hand ... science and technology.



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