XXX. Memorize the following proverbs. Translate them into 

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XXX. Memorize the following proverbs. Translate them into


1. One cannot please everyone. 2. We never know the value of water till the well is dry. 3. You cannot eat your cake and have it. 4. We know not what is good until we have lost it. 5. One cannot make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear. 6. You cannot teach old dogs new tricks. 7. You cannot judge a tree by its bark. 8. We soon believe what we desire. 9. You cannot wash charcoal white.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Insert may or might:

1. It ... rain, you’d better take a coat. 2. He said that it ... rain. 3. He said that we ... use his office whenever we liked. 4. You ought to buy now; prices ... go up. 5. You ... be more attentive in class. 6. They said they ... come tomorrow. 7. ... I borrow your umbrella? 8. Some of these mines ... even become profitable again. 9. We ... go to the country tomorrow.

II. Insert can, could or be able to:

1. He was very strong: he ... ski all day and dance all night. 2. I had no key so I ... lock the door. 3. When I first went to Spain I ... read Spanish but I ... speak it. 4. I was a long way from the stage. I ... see all right but I ... hear very well. 5. I’m locked in. I ... get out! (negative). 6. I ... go to the lecture today because I feel bad. 7. When I was a child I ... understand adults, and now when I am an adult I ... understand children. 8. ... you tell me the time, please? I’m afraid I ... . I haven’t got a watch.

III. Change the sentences into the Past and Future Indefinite:

1. He must sell the house. 2. We must do it at once. 3. Must you pay for it yourself? 4. She must learn the text by heart. 5. They must change trains in Paris. 6. They must read it carefully. 7. We must study hard. 8. I must change my shoes. 9. We must hurry. 10. They must be at the University at 8.30.

IV. Insert must orthe present, future, or past form of have to:

1. You ... read this book. It’s really excellent. 2. She felt ill and ... leave early. 3. Mr Pitt ... cook his own meals. His wife is away. 4. Farmers ... get up early. 5. Park notice: All dogs ... be kept on leads. 6. Employer: You ... come to work in time. 7. He sees very badly and he ... wear glasses all the time. 8. Tell her that she ... be here by six. I insist on it. 9. The buses were all full and I ... get a taxi. 10. This work ... be done at once. 11. I hadn’t enough money and I ... pay by cheque. 12. You ... be careful crossing the road.
13. I never remember his address; I always ... look it up.

V. Insert must not or need not:

1. We ... drive fast; we have plenty of time. 2. You ... drive fast; there is a speed limit here. 3. You ... drink this: it is poison. 4. You ... smoke in a non-smoking compartment. 5. You ... ring the bell; I have a key. 6. Mother to child: You ... play with matches. 7. You ... write to him for he will be here tomorrow. 8. You ... bring an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain. 9. Candidates ... bring books into the examination room. 10. You ... do all the exercise. Ten sentences will be enough. 11. We ... make any noise or we’ll wake the baby. 12. I’ll lend you the money and you ... pay me back till next month.

VI. Put «to» where necessary:

1. He was able (explain). 2. He should (be) ready by now. 3. May I (ask) you a question? 4. You are not (mention) this to anyone. 5. The doctor said that I ought (give up) smoking. 6. It might (kill) somebody. 7. You needn’t (come) tomorrow. 8. He has (do) it himself. 9. We’ve got (get out). 10. You ought (have finished) it last night. 11. We didn’t have (pay) anything. 12. She ought (accept) the offer. 13. You can’t (cross) the street here.
14. You could (see) the sea from the house. 15. They ought (warn) people about the dangerous currents. 16. He used (live) here.

VII. Insert one(s) or one’s:

1. No, that’s not their car. Theirs is a blue ... . 2. I’ve never seen such big tulips as these ... . 3. If you don’t like this magazine, take another ... .
4. I liked this story very much, but I disliked that ... you told us yesterday.
5. ... must do ... duty. 6. ... shouldn’t forget ... promises. 7. Your texts are too easy, I shall give you some difficult ... . 8. ... ought to take care of ... health. 9. I prefer red roses to white ... . 10. Students who do well in examinations are often the ... who ask questions in class. 11. If you want a drink, I’ll get you ... .

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Можна було б чекати від нього більш увічливої відповіді.
2. Його кімната гарна, але та, в якій ви живете, набагато ліпша. 3. Завжди приємно зустрічати старих друзів. 4. Потрібно завжди відповідати на листи негайно. 5. Тепер можна розмовляти по телефону на будь-якій відстані. 6. Ніколи не знаєш, що він може зробити. 7. Це велика кім­ната, а та маленька (кімната). 8. Ці цифри можна знайти в будь-якому довіднику з цього питання. 9. Треба бути підготовленим. 10. Тут завжди продають гарні фрукти. 11. Треба бути завжди ввічливим. 12. Нікому не подобається бути покараним. 13. Ніколи не можна бути певним.
14. Кажуть, що цього року буде чудовий урожай пшениці. 15. Треба зробити це. 16. Потрібно взяти до уваги, що це питання дуже складне. 17. Я загубив свій годинник і мені довелося купити новий. 18. Якщо у вас немає словника, ви можете взяти його в бібліотеці. 19. Тут немає склянки. Принесіть, будь ласка.


U N I T 10

TOPIC: DEMAND TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C GRAMMAR: The Passive Voice. Indefinite Pronouns: all, both, either neither



1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

product, willingness, influence, price, relatively, vary, quantity, happen, portion, budget, couple, obstacle, rise, double;

b) stress the second syllable:

demand, determine, relationship, express, reduction, inversely, consume, consumer, consumption, ability, desire, elastic;

c) stress the third syllable:

economic, economics, correlation, inelastic.


Text A

Most people think of demand as being the desire for a certain economic product. That desire must be coupled with1the ability and willingness to pay. Effective demand, that is desire plus ability and willingness to pay, influences and helps to determine prices.

In economics the relationship of demand and price is expressed by the Law of Demand. It says that the demand for an economic product varies inversely2with its price. In other words, if prices are high the quantities demanded will be low. If prices are low the quantities demanded will be high.

The correlation between demand and price does not happen by chance3. For consumers price is an obstacle to buying, so when prices fall, the more consumers buy.

The demand for some products is such that consumers do care about changes in price when they buy a great many more units of product because of a relatively small reduction in price. The demand for the product is said to be elastic4.

For other products the demand is largely inelastic. This means that
a change in price causes only a small change in the quantity demanded.
A higher or lower price for salt, for example, probably will not bring about5much change in the quantity bought because people can consume just so much salt.

Even if the price were cut in half6, the quantity demanded might not rise very much. Then too, the portion of a person’s yearly budget that is spent on salt is so small that even if the price were to double7, it would not make much difference in the quantity demanded.


COMMENTS be coupled with — бути поєднаним

2.inversely — обернено пропорцiйно chance — випадково

4. ... the demand for the product is said to be elastic — кажуть, що попит на продукт еластичний bring about — призвести

6.if the price were cut in half — якщо цiну треба було б зменшити вдвiчi

7.were to double — треба було б подвоїти



I. Find equivalents:

1. the Law of Demand 2. to be coupled with 3. to bring about 4. by chance 5. to determine prices 6. ability and willingness to pay 7. effective demand 8. reduction in price 9. inversely 10. changes in price 11. in other words 12. the quantity demanded a. обернено пропорцiйно б. призвести в. визначати цiни г. необхiдна кiлькiсть д. випадково е. змiни в цiнi є. закон попиту ж. інакше кажучи з. бути поєднаним и. зниження цiни i. ефективний попит ї. здатнiсть та готовнiсть платити

II. Match the synonyms:


by chance, to double the price, an obstacle, to consider, efficient, a cut in price, to bring about, to happen, by accident, a relationship, to cause, effective, to raise the price a hundred per cent, a barrier, to think, to occur, a correlation, a reduction in price.


III. Match the antonyms:

ability, higher price, to cut, to supply, to demand, inelastic, to consume, to raise, least, to couple, small, large, inversely, to part, incapacity, to produce, most, elastic, directly, lower price.


IV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Most ... people think ... demand as being the desire ... a certain economic product. 2. In economics the relationship ... demand and price is expressed ... the Law ... Demand. 3. It says that the demand ... an economic product varies inversely ... its price. 4. The demand ... some products is such that consumers do care ... changes ... price when they buy a great many more units ... product ... a relatively small reduction ... price. 5. The correlation ... demand and price does not happen ... chance. 6. A higher or lower price ... salt probably will not bring ... much change ... the quantity bought because people can consume ... so much salt.


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