IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite or



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IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite or



Past Continuous Tense:

1. What you (think) of his last book? ¾ I (like) it very much. 2. I didn’t want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave). 3. Unfortunately, when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time for a few words. 4. Her mother often (tell) her that she (spend) too much money but she never (listen). 5. When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph.
6. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.

V. Translate into English:

1. Він проглядав газети, коли побачив це повідомлення. 2. Ми бачили їх учора. Вони гуляли в саду. 3. Коли ми повернемося додому, мати вже накриватиме на стіл. 4. Цікаво, що ви будете робити о цій порі наступної п’ятниці? ¾ Як завжди, працюватиму. Я працюватиму цілий день. З 9 до 11 ранку я буду готувати доповідь у бібліотеці. Потім я читатиму лекцію для студентів нашого університету. У суботу я буду на стадіоні. Я тренуватимуся цілий день. 5. Чому ти запрошуєш їх до себе? Хіба ти не будеш готуватися до екзаменів? 6. Вона не співатиме завтра на концерті. У неї болить горло.

VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Continuous Tense:

1. This time next month I (sit) on a beach. 2. I (wait) for you when you come out. 3. We’d better go out tomorrow because Mary (practise) the piano all day. 4. When you arrive I probably (pick) fruit. 5. When I get home my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. 6. He (use) the car this afternoon.
7. When you next see me I (wear) my new dress. 8. It’s a serious injury but he (walk) again in six weeks. 9. That football club has lost some of its players. They (look out) for new men. 10. When we reach England it very likely (rain). 11. Why did you take his razor? He will (look for) it everywhere tomorrow.

VII. Complete the following sentences by using adjectives:

1. The weather is hot today, but it was ________ yesterday. 2. My hair is light, but my brother’s hair is __________ . 3. These dishes are clean, but those dishes are _________ . 4. An orange is sweet, but a lemon _________ . 5. This suitcase is heavy, but that suitcase is _________ . 6. Linda is tall, but her sister is _______ . 7. This street is narrow, but that street is ______ .
8. This exercise is easy, but that exercise is _________ . 9. A chicken is stupid, but a human being is _______ . 10. A kitten is weak, but a horse is _________ . 11. Dick is fat, but his brother is _______ . 12. This answer is right, but that answer is ________. 13. Tom is hard-working, but his brother is __________ .

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Сьогодні не так холодно, як учора. Сьогодні набагато тепліше і вітер не такий сильний, як учора. 2. Ваша кімната в два рази більша за мою, але моя так само світла, як і ваша. 3. Це найнудніший фільм з усіх, які я коли-небудь бачила. 4. Він був голодний, як вовк. 5. У мене в два рази менше англійських книг, ніж французьких. 6. Його валіза значно важча за мою. 7. Хто найліпший студент у вашій групі? 8. Лист має бути якомога коротшим. 9. Це найкоротший шлях до станції. 10. Я на п’ять років старший від своєї сестри. 11. Мій старший син уже пішов на роботу. 12. Це був найщасливіший день у моєму житті. 13. Ця будівля найстаріша в нашому місті. 14. Ця пісня найпопулярніша нині. 15. Більшість моїх знайомих ¾ студенти. 16. Цей текст найскладніший із усіх текстів, які ми коли-небудь перекладали.

IX. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form:

1. It was (good) meal I’ve ever had. 2. Tokyo is one of (large) cities in the world. 3. The examination was (easy) than we expected. 4. (Old) he grew (wise) he became. 5. Who is your (good) friend? 6. Iron is (useful) of all metals. 7. Are you (young) than me? 8. The twenty second of December is (short) day of the year. 9. Silver is (heavy) than copper. 10. Australia is (small) continent in the world. 11. London is (large) city in England. 12. Yesterday was (hot) day we have had this summer. 13. My brother is (old) than I am. 14. Wood isn’t as (hard) as metal. 15. I think good health is (important) thing in life. 16. This room is (small) than all the rooms in the house.

 


U N I T 7

 

TOPIC: ECONOMIC SYSTEMS TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C GRAMMAR: The Past Perfect Tense. The Future Perfect Tense Indefinite Pronouns: some, any, no, none

 

Reading drILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

scarcity, common, organize, market, ritual, custom, habit, stable, punish, century, harsh, differently, since, system, major, stagnant;

b) stress the second syllable:

survive, survival, society, community, determine, traditional, command, result, ability, prescribe, behaviour, distribute, advantage, discourage, provide, activity, continuous, decision, economy.

 

Text A

The survival of any society depends on its ability to provide food, clothing and shelter for its people. Since these societies are also faced with scarcity decisions concerning What, How and for Whom to produce must be made.

All societies have something else in common. They have an economic system or an organized way of providing for the wants and needs of their people. The way in which these decisions are made will determine the type of economic system they have. There are three major kinds of economic systems: traditional, command and market.

Traditional Economy

In a society with a traditional economy nearly all economic activity is the result of ritual and custom. Habit and custom also prescribe mostsocial behaviour1. Individuals are not free to make decisions based on what they want or would like to have. Instead, their roles are defined. They know what goods and services will be produced, how to produce them, and how such goods and services will be distributed.

An example of traditional economy is the society of polar eskimo2of the last century. For generations, parents taught their children how to survive in a harsh climate, make tools, fish and hunt. Their children, in turn, taught these skills to the next generation. The main advantage of the traditional economy is that everyone has a role in it. This helps keep economic life stable and community life continuous. The main disadvantage of the traditional economy is that it tends to discourage3new ideas and even punishes people for breaking rules or doing things differently. So ittends to be stagnant4or fails to grow over time5.

COMMENTS

1.social behaviourтут: поведiнка суспiльства

2.polar eskimo — ескiмоси пiвночi

3.to discourage — розхолоджувати

4. ... tends to be stagnant — має схильнiсть до застою

5. ... fails to grow over time — не може розвиватися далi

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to survive, to depend on, to provide, to prescribe, to decide, to distribute, to determine, to organize, to generate, to behave, to define, to know, to punish, to tend, to grow, to direct.

II. Find equivalents:

1. to make decisions 2. to have smth in common 3. economic system 4. traditional economy 5. command economy 6. market economy 7. social behaviour 8. major kinds 9. for generations 10. main advantage 11. main disadvantage 12. to make tools а. із поколiння в поколiння б. традицiйна економiка в. поведiнка суспiльства г. головнi типи д. головний недолiк е. приймати рiшення є. командна економiка ж. головна перевага з. ринкова економiка и. економiчна система i. мати щось спiльне ї. виробляти знаряддя

III. Match the synonyms:

decision, approximately, produce, shelter, to make, type, habitation, as, the community, major, concerning, to produce, the society, main, nearly, about, kind, since, product, solution.

IV. Match the antonyms:

scarcity, last, advanced, to produce, to discourage, next, stagnant, stable, to encourage, to distribute, disadvantage, to accumulate, uncommon, advantage, to consume, unstable, common, abundance.

 

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. The survival ... any society depends ... its ability to provide ... food, clothing and shelter ... its people. 2. All ... societies have an economic system or an organized way ... providing ... the wants and needs ... their people. 3. There are three major kinds ... economic systems: traditional, command and market. 4. In a society ... a traditional economy ... all ... economic activity is the result ... ritual and custom. 5. An example ... traditional economy is the society ... polar eskimo ... the last century.

 

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. The survival of any society depends on ... . 2. Since these societies are also faced with scarcity ... . 3. All societies have an organized way of providing for ... . 4. The way in which these decisions are made ... . 5. There are three major kinds of economic systems: ... . 6. In a society with traditional economy nearly all economic activity is ... . 7. Individuals are not free to make decisions based on ... . 8. An example of traditional economy is ... . 9. For generations, parents taught their children ... . 10. The main advantage of the traditional economy is ... . 11. The main disadvantage of the traditional economy is ... .

 

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the survival of any society depend on? 2. What are all societies faced with? 3. What have all societies in common? 4. What determines the type of economic system? 5. What are the major kinds of economic systems? 6. What prescribes most social behaviour? 7. What is the role of individuals in a traditional economy? 8. What did polar eskimo teach their children? 9. What is the main advantage/disadvantage of the traditional economy?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Кожному суспiльству доводиться приймати рiшення стосовно того, що, як та для кого виробляти. 2. Виживання суспiльства залежить вiд того, чи воно спроможне забезпечувати своїх людей їжею, одягом та житлом. 3. Кожному суспiльству притаманна своя економiчна система. 4. Тип економiчної системи визначається методом, за яким приймають­ся рiшення про задоволення бажань та потреб людей. 5. У суспiльствi з традицiйною економiкою вся економiчна дiяльнiсть є результатом тра­дицiй та звичаїв. 6. Люди не вiльнi приймати рiшення, якi ґрунтуються на тім, що вони хочуть або хотiли б мати. 7. Люди знають, якi товари або послуги будуть вироблятися, як вони вироблятимуться та як вони розподiлятимуться. 8. Ескiмоси пiвночi навчали своїх дiтей, як виго­товляти знаряддя, ловити рибу та полювати. 9. Головний недолiк традицiйної економiки полягає в тім, що вона схильна розхолоджувати ідеї. 10. Головна перевага традицiйної економiки в тім, що кожний у нiй має свою роль. 11. Традицiйна економiка схильна до застою i не може розвиватися далi.

 

Reading drILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

leader, government, quota, industry, planning, growth, shift, strengthen, military, drastically, relatively, similar, wages, seldom, quality, tendency, costs, operate, choice;

b) stress the second syllable:

command, authority, production, consumer, direct, direction, regardless, defence, equipment, supply, incentive, encourage, bureaucracy, require, consult, economy, addition, expect, process, increase.

Text B

Other societies have a command economy — one where a central authority makes most of the What, How and for Whom decisions.

Economic decisions are made at the top and people are expected to go along with1choices made by their leaders. It means that major economic choices are made by the government. It decides goals for the economy and determines needs and production quotas for major industries. If the planning body wants to stress growth of heavy manufacturing, it can shift resources2from consumer goods to that sector. Or, if it wants to strengthen national defence, it can direct resources from consumer goods or heavy manufacturing to the production of military equipment and supplies.

The major advantage of a command system is that it can change direction drastically in a relatively short time. The major disadvantage of the command system is that it does not always meet the wants and needs of individuals.

The second disadvantage of the command economy is the lack of incentives3that encourage people to work hard. In most command economies today workers with different degrees of responsibility receive similar wages.In addition4, people seldom lose their jobs regardless of5the quality of their work. As a result, there is a tendency for some to work just hard enough to fill production quotas set by planners.

The command economy requires a large decision-making bureaucracy. Many clerks, planners, and others are needed to operate the system. As a result, most decisions cannot be made until a number of people are consulted, or a large amount of paperwork is processed. This causes production costs6to increase and decision-making to slow down. Thus, a command system does not have the flexibility to deal with day-to-day problems.

 

COMMENTS

1. ... people are expected to go along with — сподiваються, що люди приєднаються

2.to shift resources — перемiстити ресурси

3.the lack of incentives — брак стимулiв

4.in addition — до того ж; крім того

5.regardless of — незважаючи на

6.production costs — витрати виробництва

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Define the parts of speech of the following words:

economy, economic, authority, leader, production, large, responsibility, drastically, decide, decision, to stress, defence, military, equipment, advantage, incentive, relatively, different, tendency, to increase.

II. Form the new words using suffix -ity:

similar, personal, fertile, productive, responsible, able, provincial, active, stable, special, flexible, equal, scarce, possible.

III. Give the English equivalents for:

кoмандна економiка; економiчний вибiр; плановi органи; змiцнювати нацiональну оборону; центральнi керiвнi органи; визначати потреби; основнi галузi промисловостi; перемiщати ресурси; важка промисловiсть; споживчi товари; вiйськове устаткування; у вiдносно короткий промiжок часу; рiшуче змiнювати напрям; задовольняти бажання та потреби людей; заохочувати людей наполегливо працювати; брак стимулів; ви-
трати виробництва; незважаючи на; якiсть роботи; великий бюрократич­ний апарат, що приймає рiшення; займатися щоденними проблемам; керувати системою; рiзний рiвень вiдповiдальностi.

IV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Economic decisions are made ... the top and people are expected to go ... choices made ... their leaders. 2. The government decides goals ... the economy and determines needs and production quotas ... major industries.
3. In most ... command economies people ... lose jobs regardless ... the quality ... their work. 4. As a result, there is a tendency ... some to work ... hard enough to fill ... production quotas set ... planners. 5. A command system does not have the flexibility to deal ... day-to-day problems.

V. Complete the following sentences:

1. In a command economy decisions are made ... . 2. It means that ... .
3. Government decides ... . 4. If the planning body wants to strengthen national defence, it can ... . 5. The major advantage of a command system is ... . 6. The major disadvantage of a command system is ... . 7. The second disadvantage of the command economy is ... . 8. The command economy requires ... .

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. Who makes most of What, How and for Whom decisions in a command economy? 2. Who determines needs and production quotas for major industries? 3. What is the major advantage of a command system?
4. What disadvantages does the command economy have? 5. What does the command economy require? 6. The command system doesn’t have the flexibility to deal with day-to-day problems, does it?



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