IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite or



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IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite or



Future Perfect:

1. He (receive) the telegram tomorrow. 2. He (receive) the telegram by tomorrow. 3. By next winter I (save) the necessary sum of money. 4. I hope it (stop) raining by five o’clock. 5. I (do) the exercises by seven o’clock. 6. I (do) the exercises in the afternoon. 7. I am sure that they (complete) their work by May. 8. I am sure that they (complete) their work in May. 9. I (not work) at eight o’clock. 10. By this time you (take) your examination. 11. You (take) your examination next week. 12. The teacher (correct) our dictations by the next lesson.

V. Fill in the blanks with some or any:

1. He bought ... stamps and ... envelopes. 2. I want to buy ... flowers, as we haven’t ... flowers in our garden this year. 3. Have you read ... good books lately? 4. There isn’t ... hot water in the kettle. 5. Will you have ... pudding or ... fruit? 6. Did you put ... salt in the soup? 7. Will you give me ... water, please? 8. He never puts ... sugar in his coffee. 9. He didn’t buy ... butter, but he bought ... cheese. 10. Give me ... money, please.

VI. Fill in the blanks with some, any and their derivatives:

 

1. Ann has bought ... new shoes. 2. Does ... mind if I smoke? 3. Would you like ... to eat? 4. Can I have ... milk in my coffee, please? 5. There is ... at the door. Can you go and see who it is? 6. I can’t see my glasses ... . 7. Are there ... letters for me? 8. Would you like ... more coffee? 9. ... can tell you how to get there. (Everyone knows the way.) 10. Don’t let ... in. I’m too busy to see ... . 11. ... tells me you’ve got ... bad news for me. 12. Here are ... letters for you. 13. Are there ... lemons in the cupboard? 14. There are ... oranges in the cupboard but there aren’t ... lemons. 15. Can you give me ... information about places to see in the town?

VII. Complete the sentences with something, someone, anything,

anyone, nothing or no one :

1. I have ______ in my pocket. 2. Do you have ______ in your pocket? 3. Bob doesn’t have ______ in his pocket. 4. There is ______ in my pocket. It’s empty. 5. I bought ______ when I went shopping yesterday.
6. Ann saw ______ in the park. 7. Alice didn’t buy ______ when she went shopping. 8. Did you buy ______ when you went shopping? 9. Ann didn’t tell ______ her secret. 10. Did Tom give you ______ for your birthday?
11. Tom didn’t give me ______ for my birthday. 12. Jane gave me ______ for my birthday. 13. I talked to ______ at the phone company about my bill. 14. My sister is writing a letter to ______ . 15. Did you talk to ______ about your problem? 16. My roommate is speaking to ______ on the phone.

VIII. Translate into English:

 

1. Я провів свою відпустку в маленькому селі на Дніпрі. Один мій друг порадив поїхати туди. 2. Вона приїхала до нашого міста три роки тому. До того часу вона вже закінчила університет. 3. Вона ска­зала, що знала його з 1980 року. 4. Я думав, що він знає англійську мову добре, тому що він жив у Англії кілька років. 5. Я був певен, що ніколи не бачив цю людину раніше. 6. Зачекайте трохи. Я попрошу когось купити молока та хліба. 7. Я нікого не чекаю сьогодні ввечері.
8. Хтось телефонував тобі сьогодні й хотів розповісти щось цікаве.
9. Ви можете дістати цю книжку в будь-якій бібліотеці. 10. Будь-хто може зрозуміти це. 11. Повідомте мене, коли щось трапиться.

 


U N I T 8

 

TOPIC: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS TEXT A TEXT B TEXT C GRAMMAR: The Perfect Continuous Tenses Indefinite Pronouns: much, many, few, little

 

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

business, enterprise, scarce, chance, satisfy, partnership, savings, retail, effort, profit, minimal, legal, legally, liable, personal, personally, loss, property, debt, borrow, terminate;

b) stress the second syllable:

proprietor, proprietorship, restriction, consumer, achieve, success, aside, financial, compete, involve, dissolve, assume, salon, repair, incur, ability;

c) stress the third syllable:

institution, economic, satisfaction, corporation, operation, disadvantage, recognition, liability, opportunity, continuity.

 

Text A

One of the major economic institutions is the business organization, a profit-seeking enterprise1that serves as the main link between scarce resources and consumer satisfaction. These businesses compete with one another for the chance to satisfy people’s wants.

There are three major kinds of business organizations: the sole proprietorship2, the partnership3and the corporation4.

The most common form of business organization is the sole proprietorship — a business owned and run by one person. The main advantage of a sole proprietorship is that it is the easiest form of business to start and run. There is almost nored tape5involved. Most proprietorships are able to open for business as soon as they set up operations. In the event that the owner wants to dissolve the business6, a sole proprietorship is as easily dissolved as it is formed.

Sole proprietors own all the profits of their enterprises and are free to make whatever changes they please. They have minimal legal restrictions and do not have to pay the special taxes placed on corporations. They also have the opportunity to achieve success7and recognition through their individual efforts. Sole proprietorships are generally found in small-scale retail and service businesses such as beauty salons, repair shops, or service stations.

The major disadvantage of a sole proprietorship is the unlimited liability8that each proprietor faces. Since the business and the owner are legally the same, the sole proprietoris liable for9all financial losses or debts that the business may incur. If a business fails, the owner must personally assume the debts10. This could mean the loss of personal property such as automobiles, homes and savings11.

A second disadvantage of the sole proprietorship is that it has limited financial resources. The money that a proprietor can raise is limited by the amount of savings and ability to borrow. Another serious problem faced by the sole proprietorship is the lack of continuity of the business. When the owner dies, the business also legally terminates.

COMMENTS

1.a profit-seeking enterprise — прибуткове пiдприємство

2.sole proprietorship/sole trader/one-man firm — одноосiбна власнiсть

3.partnership — партнерство

4.corporation — корпорація

5. red tape — бюрократизм

6.to dissolve the business —припинити діяльність підприємства

7. to achieve success — досягти успіху

8.unlimited liability — необмежена юридична відповідальність

9. to be liable for — бути відповідальним за

10. to assume the debts — приймати/брати на себе борги

11.savings — заощадження

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. State the part of speech and say how the words are formed:

economic, organization, enterprise, consumer, compete, scarce, common, satisfy, satisfaction, proprietor, legal, legally, free, assume, personal, personally, owner, opportunity, generally, recognition, financial, lack, another.

II. Find equivalents:

1. to be liable for smth 2. a partnership 3. to dissolve the business 4. profit-seeking enterprise 5. sole proprietorship 6. retail business 7. the main link 8. red tape 9. unlimited liability 10. to compete 11. scarce resources 12. the main advantage 13. to achieve success 14. savings 15. to pay taxes a. конкурувати б. одноосiбна власнiсть в. основна сполучна ланка г. прибуткове пiдприємство д. заощадження е. бути вiдповiдальним за щось є. припинити діяльність підприємства ж. партнерство з. платити податки и. дефіцитні/недостатні ресурси i. головна перевага ї. необмежена відповідальність й. бюрократизм к. досягти успіху л. роздрібна торгівля

III. Substitute the words in bold type by their synonyms:

1. Business organization is a profitable enterprisethat serves as the main link between scarce resources and consumer satisfaction. 2. The firms compete with one another for the chance to meet people’s requirements. 3. The simplest form of business undertaking is that managedby one person. 4. There is almost nobureaucracy involved. 5. In the event the owner wants to go out of business, a sole proprietorship is as easily dissolved as it is formed. 6. Sole proprietors have the chance to succeed in business through their individual efforts. 7. Theyare responsible for the firm’s operation and take all risks of loss. 8. Many small businesses have gone bankrupt recently.

IV. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. A business organization is a profit-seeking enterprise that serves ... the main link ... scarce resources and consumer satisfaction. 2. These businesses compete ... one another ... the chance to satisfy people’s wants. 3. The most ... common form ... business organization is the sole proprietorship — a business owned and run ... one person. 4. Most ... proprietorships are able to open ... business ... they set ... operations. 5. Sole proprietors have the opportunity to achieve success and recognition ... their individual efforts. 6. Another serious problem faced ... the sole proprietorship is the lack ... continuity ... the business.

V. Match the antonyms:

profitable, separately, advantage, producer, to give permission, limited, to start a business, unprofitable, jointly, to go out of business, to agree, illegal, to succeed in business, to be out of business, consumer, to disagree, unlimited, legal, disadvantage, to prohibit.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. One of the major economic institutions is ... . 2. These businesses compete with one another ... . 3. There are three major kinds of business organizations ... . 4. The most common form of business ownership is ... .
5. The main advantage of a sole proprietorship is ... . 6. In the event that the owner wants to dissolve the business ... . 7. Sole proprietorships are generally found ... . 8. Sole proprietors have ... . 9. The major disadvantage of a sole proprietorship is ... . 10. Since the business and the owner are legally the same, the sole proprietoris ... . 11. If a business fails ... . 12. A second disadvantage of the sole proprietorship is ... .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a business organization? 2. What are the major kinds of business organizations? 3. What is the most common form of business organization? 4. The sole proprietorship is a business owned and run by one person, isn’t it? 5. What is the main advantage of a sole proprietorship?
6. What other advantages does it have? 7. In what businesses are sole proprietorships generally found? 8. What are the major disadvantages of
a sole proprietorship?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Є три форми органiзацiї бiзнесу: одноосiбна власність, парт­нерство та корпорація. 2. Найбiльш поширеною формою органiзацiї бiзнесу є одноосiбна власність. 3. Одноосiбна власність — це бізнес, який пiдпорядкований i провадиться однiєю особою. 4. За винятком певних лiцензiй i внескiв, якi можуть вимагати урядовi органiзацiї, бiльше жодного бюрократизму не iснує. 5. Головним недоліком одно­осібного підприємства є необмежена юридична відповідальність.
6. Оскільки підприємство та власник — та сама юридична особа, власник несе відповідальність за фінансові збитки та борги підприємства.
7. Якщо бізнес зазнає краху, власник особисто бере на себе всі борги.
8. Іншим недоліком одноосібної власності є обмежені фінансові ресурси.



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