XVIII. Replace the Subordinate Clause by the Absolute



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XVIII. Replace the Subordinate Clause by the Absolute



Participle Complex:

Pattern A: As the weather was fine, we went for a walk.

The weather being fine, we went for a walk.

1. As it is rather cold, I put on my coat. 2. As the play was very popular, it was difficult to get tickets. 3. As my friend lives far from here,
I go to his place by bus. 4. As her son was ill, she could not go to the theatre. 5. As his mother teaches English, he knows the language very well. 6. As we specialize in economics, we must take an interest in all its latest achievements.

Pattern B: As the bridge was destroyed, we could not cross the river.

The bridge being destroyed, we could not cross the river.

1. As houses are built very quickly nowadays, we’ll soon get a new flat.2. As all the shops were closed, we couldn’t buy anything. 3. As the road was being repaired, I couldn’t go there by bus. 4. As the book was being printed, we hoped to get it soon. 5. As the work was done, we went home. 6. As the letter was written, I went to post it. 7. As all preparations were made, they started the experiment. 8. As the report was written in French, we couldn’t understand one word.

 

Pattern C: When the work had been done, they went home.

The work having been done, they went home.

1. When the house had been built, we got a new flat. 2. As our teacher had visited India, we asked him to tell us about that country. 3. After the sun had risen, we continued our way. 4. As the road had been repaired, we couldn’t go there by bus. 5. As my friend had bought the tickets beforehand, we didn’t need to hurry. 6. When the waiting room had been cleaned, the passengers were let in. 7. As all the tickets had been sold out, we couldn’t see the performance. 8. As the key had been lost, she couldn’t get into the room.

XIX. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. The work having been done, we received high salary. 2. The question being too difficult, no one could answer it. 3. The teacher being ill, the lesson was put off. 4. All this having been settled, he went home. 5. The preparations being completed, they began to climb up the mountain. 6. Time permitting, they will discuss the matter tomorrow. 7. It being Saturday, everyone went out of town. 8. The play being very popular, it was difficult to get tickets.
9. The moon being bright, everything was clearly visible. 10. Peter being away, Alexander had to do his work. 11. My task having been finished, I went to bed. 12. It being very stormy, they stayed at home. 13. The game having ended, the crowd went home. 14. The door being opened, he entered the house. 15. Dinner being over, we went into the garden. 16. The letter having been delayed, the news reached us too late.

XX. Translate into English:

1. Коли завдання було виконано, я ліг спати. 2. Оскільки там нікого не було, я пішов. 3. Якщо дозволить погода, ми проведемо вихідний день у лісі. 4. Коли лекції закінчилися, студенти пішли додому. 5. Оскіль­ки ніч була тепла, ми спали в саду. 6. Коли мій брат закінчив школу, ми переїхали до Києва. 7. Оскільки вітер дув з півночі, було дуже холодно. 8. Коли лист був підписаний, я відіслала його. 9. Оскільки мій брат узяв ключ, я не зміг увійти до будинку. 10. Оскільки було дуже холодно, вони розклали багаття. 11. Коли все було готове, ми почали експеримент.
12. Оскільки стежина загубилася у високій траві, вони зупинилися.
13. Оскільки мій друг загубив книжку, він не зміг підготуватися до занять. 14. Оскільки лист затримався, звістка дійшла до нас занадто пізно. 15. Оскільки телефон був несправний, я не зміг зателефонувати вам.
16. Коли батько прийшов, усі сіли за стіл обідати.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Open the brackets, using the correct form of the Participle:

1. He didn’t pay any attention to the (to ring) telephone. 2. The method (to follow) by scientists was not simple. 3. (To find) no one at home he went to his neighbours. 4. This is the book so much (to speak) about. 5. A letter (to lie) on the table must be posted. 6. (To obtain) new results, they decided to publish them. 7. Never (to visit) the place before, she got lost. 8. The house (to build) at the corner of the street will be a library. 9. You needn’t repeat the lesson so well (to remember) by everybody. 10. He sat in a comportable armchair (to smoke) a cigarette. 11. (To read) half the book, he fell asleep. 12. (To realize) that she had missed the train the woman began to walk slowly. 13. It (to be) very cold, they made a fire. 14. The book (to take) from Petrenko is very interesting.

II. Complete the sentences using the Participle or complexes

with the Participle:

1. He noticed a man ... . 2. They watched the children ... . 3. He didn’t see her ... . 4. I didn’t notice you ... . 5. I’ve never heard you ... . 6. I didn’t see anybody ... . 7. The girl saw someone ... . 8. Here is the letter ... . 9. Where is the article ... . 10. She was seen ... . 11. The car stopped at the gate and we saw ... . 12. He will tell you eveything if ... . 13. ... He couldn’t say a word. 14. He was always angry when ... .

III. Combine the two sentences into one using complexes

with the Participle:

Pattern:I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare.

Knowing that he was poor, I offered to pay his fare.

1. She became tired of my complaints about the programme. She turned it off. 2. He found no one at home. He left the house in bad temper.
3. He had spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job. 4. He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk.
5. She didn’t want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 6. We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park. 7. I turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw. 8. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost. 9. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his bed. 10. She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking.

IV. Use the Participal Complex instead of a Subordinate Clause:

1. I noticed that she was speaking very coldly to him. 2. He saw that we were crossing the road in the wrong place. 3. It was pleasant to watch how they were enjoying themselves. 4. We heard that somebody was laughing in the next room. 5. Because of the noise nobody heard that the telephone was ringing. 6. We watched as they were repairing the car.

V. Translate into English:

1. Ми живемо в місті, що засноване 1500 років тому. 2. Чули, як вона плакала. 3. Чоловік, який читав лекцію, показав багато діаграм.
4. Оскільки вистава була дуже популярною, важко було дістати квитки. 5. Я чув, як він піднімався сходами кілька хвилин тому. 6. Розбита чаш­ка лежала на столі. 7. Я чув, як вона розповідала йому про це. 8. Отри­мавши телеграму, вони поїхали до Києва. 9. Він хоче полагодити чере­вики. 10. Він сидів у кріслі, читаючи газету. 11. Він поїхав, не обгово­ривши зі мною це питання. 12. Я помітив чоловіка, який відчиняв двері. 13. Вона пішла, не попрощавшись. 14. Оскільки погода була гарна, усі вікна було відчинено. 15. Усі бачили, як він біг вулицею, нікого не помі­чаючи. 16. Я роблю зачіску в перукарні щоп’ятниці. 17. Бачили, як вони фотографувалися після останнього іспиту. 18. Це сестра мого това­риша, яка живе в квартирі по сусідству зі мною. 19. Він тихо зачинив двері, не бажаючи її будити. 20. Не отримавши від неї листа, він надіслав їй телеграму. 21. Переходячи через міст, я зустрів свого друга.


U N I T 15

TOPIC: MONEY and FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS TEXT A TEXT B GRAMMAR: The Gerund. Forms and Functions The Gerundial Complex

 

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

money, currency, basically, reasonably, substance, medium, worth, store, value, serve, issue, government, shape, kind, modern, primitive, portable, share, payment, carry, measure, coin, checkbook, durable, normal, purchase, stable;

b) stress the second syllable:

exchange, convert, familiar, metallic, addition, inflation, consider.

Text A

Basically, money is what money does. This means that money can be any substance1that functions as a Medium of Exchange, a Measure of Value, and a Store of Value.

As a medium of exchange, money is something generally accepted as2payment3for goods and services

As a measure of value, money expresses worth in terms that most individuals understand.

Money also serves as a store of value. This means goods or services can be converted into4money that is easily stored until some future time.

The different forms of money are in use in the United States today. The most familiar are coin and currency. The term coin refers to metallic forms of money. The term currency refers to paper money issued by government. While money has changed in shape, kind or size over the years, modern money still shares many of the same characteristics of primitive money. Modern money is very portable5when people carry checkbooks. For example, they really are carrying very large sums of money since checks can be written in almost any amount.

Modern money is very durable6. Metallic coins last a long time under normal use7and generally do not go out of circulation8unless they are lost. Paper currency also is reasonably durable. Modern money also rates high in divisibility9. The penny which is the smallest denomination of coin10, is more than small enough, for almost any purchase. In addition, checks almost always can be written for the exact amount. Modern money, however, is not as stable in value. The fact, that the money supply11often grew at a rate 10 to 12 per cent a year was considered as major cause of inflation.

 

COMMENTS

1. to be any substance — бути будь-якою річчю

2. to be accepted as — бути прийнятим як ...

3. payment — плата, платіж

4. to be converted into — бути конвертованим у ...

5. to be very portableтут: легко переносити

6. to be very durableтут: довго використовуватися

7. ... last a long time under normal use — за нормального використання довго перебувають в обігу

8. to go out of circulation — виходити з обігу

9. to rate high in divisibility — високо цінити за можливість поділятися

10. denomination of coin — вартість монети

11.money supply — грошова маса

 

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:



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