DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS



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DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS



Adjectives and Adverbs Positive Comparative Superlative Formation
One-syllable adjectives and adverbs old wise hot easy fast early older, elder wiser hotter easier faster earlier oldest, eldest wisest hottest easiest fastest earliest For most one-syllable adjectives and adverbs, -er and -est are added.
Two-syllable adjectives and adverbs famous slowly more famous more slowly most famous most slowly For most two- syllable adj. and adv., more and most are used.
  busy pretty busier prettier busiest prettiest -Er/-est are used with two-syllable adjectives that end in-y. The -y is changed to -i.
  clever     gentle     friendly cleverer more clever   gentler more gentle   friendlier more friendly cleverest most clever   gentlest most gentle   friendliest most friendly Some two-syllable adjectives use -er/-est or more/most:able, pleasant, angry, handsome,simple, common, quiet, narrow, sour, polite, cruel.
Adjectives and adverbs with three or more syllables important   productive   carefully more important more productive more carefully most important most productive most carefully More andmost are used with long adjectives and adverbs.  
Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs
good/well bad/badly far much/many little better worse farther/further more less best worst farthest/furthest most least

Numerals

Cardinal Numerals (how many?) Ordinal Numerals (Which?)
1,000 1,000,000 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety a hundred a thousand a million first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth twenty-sixth twenty-seventh twenty-eighth twenty-ninth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth millionth
1,006 5,000 260,127 a/one hundred and forty four hundred a/one thousand and six five thousand two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven
Dates March 10, 1998 ¾ the tenth of March nineteen ninety-eight or March the tenth nineteen ninety-eight
Fractional Numerals Common Fractions: ¾ a half; ¾ a quarter; ¾ a/one fifth; ¾ three fifths; ¾ one and a half; ¾ three and four fifths; Decimal Fractions: 0.1 ¾ nought point one; 10.92 ¾ ten point nine two; 8.04 ¾ eight point nought four;
Percentage a kind of decimal fraction, denominator of which is always 100: 2 % ¾ 2 per cent ¾ 2 p.c. ¾ two per cent.
Roman Numerals 1 ¾I 2¾II 3 ¾III 4¾IV 5 ¾ V 6 ¾ VI 7 ¾ VII 8 ¾ VIII 9 ¾ IX 10 ¾ X 11 ¾ XI 12 ¾ XII 13 ¾ XIII 14 ¾ XIV 15 ¾ XV 16 ¾ XVI 17 ¾ XVII 18 ¾ XVIII 19 ¾ XIX 20 ¾ XX 21 ¾ XXI 30 ¾ XXX 40 ¾ XL 50 ¾ L 60 ¾ LX 70 ¾ LXX 80 ¾ LXXX 90 ¾ XC 100 ¾ C 1000 ¾ M
       

NUMBERS IN MEASUREMENT

Weight Measure Міри ваги 1 dram 1 ounce 1 pound 1 stone 1 quarter 1 hundredweight 1 ton драхма унція фунт стон квартер хандредвейт тонна dr oz (16 dr) lb (16 oz) st (14 lb) gr (28 lb) hwt (112 lb) tn (20 hwt) 1.77 g 28.35 g 453.59 g 6.35 kg 12.7 kg 50.8 kg 1016 kg
Linear Measure Лінійні міри 1 inch 1 foot 1 yard 1 mile 1 International Nautical Mile дюйм фут ярд миля миля морська in ft (12 in) yd (3 ft) ml (1760 yd) INM (6076 ft) 2.54 cm 30.48 cm 91.44 cm 1609.33 m 1.852 km
Dry Measure Міри сипких речовин 1 gill 1 pint 1 quart 1 gallon 1 bushel 1 quarter джил пінта кварта галон бушель квартер gi pt (4 gills) qt (2pt) gal (4qt) bu qr (8 bu) 0.14 l 0.57 l 1.14 l 4.55 l 36.35 l 290.94 l
Square Measure Міри площини 1 square inch 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 acre 1 square mile кв. дюйм кв. фут кв. ярд акр кв. миля sq in sq ft (144 sq in) sq yd (9 sq ft) ac (4.8 sq yd) sq ml (640 ac) 6.45 cm2 9.29 dm2 0.836 m2 0.4 hectare 2.59 km2
Cubic Measure Міри об’єму 1 cubic inch 1 cubic foot   1 cubic yard 1 register ton куб. дюйм куб. фут   куб. ярд тонна реєстрова cu in cu ft (1728 cu in) cu yd (27 cu ft) reg t (100 cu ft) 16.39 cm3 28.32 cm3   764.53 cm3 2.83 m3
Time Measure Міри часу 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 week хвилина година день тиждень 60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 7 days
Angles Measure Міри кута 1 minute 1 degree (1) 1 right angle 1 circle хвилина градус прямий кут розгорнений кут 60 seconds (60¢¢) 60 minutes (60¢) 90 degrees (90°) 360 degrees (360°) 4 right angles

ОСОБОВІ ФОРМИ ДІЄСЛОВА

FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

Дійсний спосіб The Indicative Mood
Активний стан Active Voice to ask
Пасивний стан Passive Voice to be asked
Неозначені часи Indefinite Tenses to ask Доконані часи Perfect Tenses to have asked
to be asked to have been asked
Present Past Future Present Past Future
ask asks asked shall ask will have asked has had asked shall have will asked
am is asked are was asked were shall be will asked have been has asked had been asked shall have been will asked
Тривалі часи Continuous Tenses to be asking Перфектно-тривалі часи Perfect Continuous Tenses to have been asking
to be being asked
Present Past Future Present Past Future
am is asking are was asking were shall be asking will have been has asking had been asking shall have been will asking
am is being are asked was being asked were

INDEFINITE TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Indefinite
work (s), write (s)
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I work, write   He/she works, writes   We/you/they work, write Do I work, write? Does he/she work, write?   Do we/you/ they work, write? I do not work, write   He/she does not work, write   We/you/they do not work, write Do I notwork, write? Does he/she not work, write?   Do we/you/they not work, write?
Past Indefinite
worked, wrote
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I worked, wrote   He/she worked, wrote   We/you/they worked, wrote DidI work, write? Didhe/she work, write?   Didwe/you/ they work, write? I did not work, write He/she did not work, write   We/you/they/ did not work, write Did I not work, write? Did he/she not work, write?   Did we/you/they not work, write?
Future Indefinite
shall/will + work, write
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we shall work, write   He/she/you/ they will work, write Shall I/we work, write?   Will he/she/ you/they work, write? I/we shall not work, write   He/she/you/ they will not work, write Shall I/we not work, write?   Willhe/she/ you/they not work, write?
         

CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Continuous
am, is, are + working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I am working, writing He/she is working, writing We/you/they are working, writing Am I working, writing? Ishe/she working, writing? Are we/you/ they working, writing? I am not working, writing He/she is not working, writing We/you/they are not working, writing Am I not working, writing? Is he/she not working, writing? Are we/you/they not working, writing?
Past Continuous
was, were + working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/he/she was working, writing We/you/they were working, writing Was I/he/she working, writing? Were we/you/ they working, writing? I/he/she was not working, writing We/you/they/ were not working, writing Was I/he/she not working, writing? Were we/you/ they not working, writing?
Future Continuous
shall/will + be working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we shall be working, writing He/she/you/ they will be working, writing Shall I/we be working, writing? Will he/she/ you/they be working, writing? I/we shall not be working, writing He/she/you/ they will not be working, writing Shall I/we not be working, writing? Will he/she/ you/they not be working, writing?

PERFECT TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Perfect
have, has + worked, written
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we/you/they have worked, written   He/she has worked, written   Have I/we/ you/they worked, written?   Has he/she worked, written?   I/we/you/they have not worked, written   He/she has not worked, written   Have I/we/ you/they not worked, written?   Has he/she notworked, written?  

 

  Past Perfect
had+ worked, written
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/he/she/we/ you/they had worked, written Had I/he/she/ we/you/they worked, written? I/he/she/we/ you/they had not worked, written Had I/he/she/ we/you/they notworked, written?  

 

Future Perfect
shall/will have + worked, written
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/ We shallhave worked, written   He/she/you/ they will have worked, written   Shall I/we have worked, written?   Will he/she/ you/they have worked, written? I/ We shall not have worked, written He/she/you/ they will not have worked, written   Shall I/we not have worked, written? Will he/she/ you/they not haveworked, written

PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Perfect Continuous
have, has + been + working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we/you/they have been working, writing   He/she has been working, writing   HaveI/we/ you/they been working, writing?   Has he/she been working, writing? I/we/you/they have not been working, writing   He/she has not been working, writing? Have I/we/ you/ they not been working, writing? Hashe/she not been working, writing?
Past Perfect Continuous
had + been + working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/he/she/we/ you/they had been working, writing   Had I/he/she/ we/you/they been working, writing?   I/he/she/we/ you/they had not been working, writing   Had I/he/she/ we/you/they not been working, writing?  
Future Perfect Continuous
shall/will + have been working, writing
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative- Negative
I/we shall have been working, writing   He/she/you/ they will have been working, writing Shall I/we have been working, writing?   Willhe/she/ you/they have been working, writing? I/we shall not have been working, writing   He/she/you/ they will not have been working, writing Shall I/we not have been working, writing?   Will he/she/ you/they not have been working, writing?

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB «TO BE»

 

Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb He is at home now. The students are in the classroom.
2. An Auxiliary Verb He is writing a letter. I wasasked a difficult question.
3. A Link Verb Jhon isa student. He is intelligent. He is the best student in our group.
4. A Modal Verb   We are to meet at noon. They are to begin this work at once.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB «TO HAVE»

 

Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb She has a large family. We have got a comfortable flat.
2. An Auxiliary Verb He has graduated from the University. I have been waiting for you for half an hour.
3. A Modal Verb I have to get up early on Mondays. They had to go there. He will have to do it.

 

 

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB «TO DO»

 

Functions Examples
1. The Notional Verb The exercise was done well. You didn't do anything to help her.
2. An Auxiliary Verb a) The Present and Past Indefinite (interrogative and negative forms) b) The Imperative Mood (negative form) c) to express emphasis   He doesn'twork here. Did you see him yesterday? — Yes, I did. Don't be late for the lessons. But I do know him.

General Questions

Predicate or auxiliary verb Sub- ject Part of the Predicate Object Adverbial Modifiers Short Answers
          Affirmative Negative
Is Do Does Did Will Are Was Can he you she it he you Ann you   take live rain be living? studying?   swim?   books   French?     at home? here? in Kyiv? last night? there? in class? Yes, he is. Yes, I do. Yes,she does Yes, it did. Yes, he will. Yes, I am. Yes, she was. Yes, I can. No, he isn't. No, I don't. No, she doesn't. No, it didn't. No, he won't. No, I'm not. No, she wasn't. No, I can't.

 

Tag questionS

Jack cancome, can'the? Fred can't come, can he? A tag question is a question added at the end of a sentence. Speakers use tag questions chiefly to make sure their information is correct or to seek agreement.
Affirmative Sentence + Negative tag = Affirmative answer expected Mary is here, isn't she? Yes, she is. You like tea, don't you? Yes, I do. Theyhaveleft,haven't they? Yes, they have.
Negative Sentence + Affirmative tag = Negative answer expected Mary isn't here,is she? No, she isn't. You don'tlike tea, do you? No, I don't. They haven't left, have they? No, they haven't.
This/Thatis your book, isn't it? These/Those are yours, aren't they? The tag pronoun for this/that = it The tag pronoun for these/those= they
There is a meeting tonight, isn't there? In sentences with there + be, there is used in the tag.
Everything is okay, isn't it? Everyonetook the test, didn'tthey? Personal pronouns are used to refer to indefinite pronouns. They is usually used in a tag to refer to everyone,someone,everybody,somebody,no one, nobody.
Nothing is wrong, isit? Nobody calledon the phone, did they? You've never beenthere, have you? Sentences with negative words take affirmative tags.
I amsupposed to be here, am I not? I am supposed to be here, aren't I? am I not? is formal English. aren't I? is common in spoken English.
     

Question words

When

When did they arrive? Whenwill you come? Yesterday. Next Monday. When is used to ask questions about time.

 

Where

Where is she? Where can I find a pen? At home. In that drawer. Where is used to ask questions about place.

 

Why

Why did he leave early? Why aren't you coming with us? Because he's ill. I'm tired. Why is used to ask questions about reason.

 

 

How

How did you come to school? How does he drive? By bus.   Carefully. How generally asks about manner.
How muchmoney does it cost? How manypeople came? Ten dollars.   Fifteen. Howis used with muchandmany.
How old are you? How coldis it? How soon can you get there? How fast were you driving? How long has he been here? How often do you write home? How far is it to Paris from here? Eighteen. Ten below zero. In ten minutes.   50 miles an hour.   Two years.   Every week.   500 miles. Howis also used with adjectives and adverbs.     How long asks about length of time. How oftenasks about frequency. How farasks about distance.

 

More questions with How

Question Answer  
a) How do you spell «coming»? c-o-m-i-n-g. b) How do you say «yes» in Japanese?Hai. c) How do you say/pronounce this word? To answer a): Spell the word. To answer b): Say the word. To answer c): Pronounce the word.
d) How are getting along? Great. e) How are you doing? Fine. f) How's it going? Okay. So-so. In d), e), and f): How is your life? Is your life okay? Do you have any problems? NOTE: f) is often used in greetings: Hi, Bob. How's it going?
g) How do you feel? Terrific! How are you feeling? Wonderful! Great! Fine. Okay. So-so. A bit under the weather. Not so good. Terrible! Awful! The questions in g) ask about health or about general emotional state.
h) How do you do? How do you do? How do you do? is used by both speakers when they are introduced to each other in a somewhat formal situation.

Who

Whocan answer that question? Whocame to visit you? I can.   Jane and Tom. Who is used as the subject of a question. It refers to people.
Who is coming to dinner tonight? Who wantsto come with me?   Ann and Tom.   We do. Who is usually followed by a singular verb even if the speaker is asking about more than one person.

Whose

Whose bookdid you borrow? Whose keyis this? (Whose is this?) David's. It's mine. Whose ask questions about possession.

What

Whatmade you angry? What went wrong? His rudeness. Everything. What is used as the subject of a question. It refers to «things».
Whatdo you need? Whatdid Alice buy? Whatdid he talk about? About what did he talk? (formal) I need a pencil. A book. His vacation. What is also used as an object.
What kind ofsoup is that? What kind ofshoes did he buy? It's bean soup. Sandals. What kind ofasks about particular variety or type of something.
Whatdid you do last night? What is Mary doing? I studied. She is reading a book. What + a form of dois used to ask questions about activities.
What countries did you visit? What timedid she come? What colour is his hair? Italy and Spain.   Seven o'clock. Dark brown. What may accompany a noun.
Whatis Tom like?   What is the weather like? He's kind and friendly. Hot and humid. What + be likeasks for a general description of qualities.
What does Tom look like?   What does her house look like? He is tall and has dark hair. It's a large, red brick house. What + look like asks for a physical description.    

 

Which



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