Scarcity is a condition that



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Scarcity is a condition that



a. exists only in poor countries.

b. only poor individuals experience.

c. all individuals and societies face.

d. rich people never experience.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. In economics the term value means ... . 2. Someone may say that ... .
3. Early economists observed that ... . 4. Later economists decided that ... . 5. If something is to have value ... . 6. Utility is not something that ... . 7. Someone may, for example, get ... . 8. Wealth is the sum of those economic products that are... . 9. National wealth includes all such items as ... . 10. A country’s total worth, then is ... .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the term value mean in economics? 2. What did early economists observe? 3. What did later economists decide? 4. Diamonds are so scarce that they have great value, aren’t they? 5. What has to be a thing in order to have value? 6. What is utility? 7. What does the term wealth mean in economics? 8. Are services counted as wealth? 9. Is it easy to measure the value of services? 10. What is the country’s total worth? 11. What does the national wealth include?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Вартiсть визначається цiною, яку хтось заплатив би за товар.
2. Парадокс «вода — дiамант», вiдомий також як парадокс вартостi, допомагає вiдповiсти на питання, чому деякi предмети коштують дорожче, нiж iншi. 3. Ранiше економiсти помiтили, що вода необхiдна для життя, проте має малу грошову вартicть. 4. Iншi речi, такi як дiаманти, не є життєво необхiдними, але мають набагато вищу вартicть. 5. Коли щось має вартiсть, то воно повинно бути дефiцитним та корисним для когось. 6. Багатство — це сума реальних дефiцитних корисних економiчних продуктiв, якi можуть переходити вiд однiєї людини до iншої. 7. Бiльшiсть економiчних товарiв визнаються за багатство, а послуги — нi.

IX. Retell the text D using the following words and

word-combinations:

the term value; valuable coin; diamond-water paradox; to be essential to life; the paradox of value; monetary value; higher value; thereason was due to; scarcity;on the other hand; to have great value; in order to; utility; a great deal of; the capacity to be useful to someone; economic concept; wealth; transferable; economic goods; contribution; people’s abilities and talents; nation’s wealth; in existence at a given time; tangible things; natural resources.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Past Indefinite Tense

I. Give the forms of the Past Indefinite:

a) to regulate, to smile, to hope, to help, to learn, to stop, to plan, to visit, to offer, to prefer, to discuss, to study, to enjoy, to play, to cry;

b) to be, to have, to do, to go, to sit, to begin, to become, to make, to eat, to teach, to write, to leave, to tell, to think, to take, to get, to buy, to read, to say, to bring, to forget, to pay.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. When were you born? 2. Where were you born? 3. Where were you yesterday? 4. What was the weather like last Sunday? 5. When were you at the theatre last? 6. Whom were you at the theatre with? 7. What was your hometask for today? 8. Why wasn’t your teacher pleased with your answer?

III. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. My brother was at home last night. 2. The baby was asleep. 3. There was somebody in the room. 4. You were glad to hear this news. 5. The students were at the meeting last Friday. 6. He was late for the train. 7. The trees were yellow in September. 8. The weather was sunny last week.

IV. Translate into English:

Де ти був учора ввечерi? Тебе не було вдома. — Я був у театрi.
Я часто ходжу в театр. — З ким ти був у театрi? — Я був там зi своїм другом. Я був дуже задоволений. Спектакль був дуже цiкавий i було дуже багато людей. А коли ти був у театрi востаннє? — Я не пам’ятаю, коли я був там востаннє. Це було дуже давно. Я не театрал. Я дуже люблю читати книжки i вчора я був у бiблiотецi. Я ходжу туди регулярно.

V. Give short and full answers:

1. Did you sleep well last night? 2. Did you wake up early this morning[1]? (it is no longer morning) 3. Did you have breakfast this morning? 4. Did you drink some coffee before class? 5. Did you catch the bus this morning? 6. Did you understand what I said? 7. Did you tell your friend the news?

VI. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. The children slept in the open air. 2. He answered at once. 3. Mother turned off the gas. 4. They decided to go to the Crimea in July. 5. Olga passed all her exams. 6. We heard a terrible noise. 7. The clock struck twelve when he came. 8. They asked us to help them. 9. She thought about it.

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What time do you usually get up? 2. What time did you get up this morning? 3. What time did the sun rise this morning? 4. What did you have for breakfast? 5. What did you drink this morning? 6. What time do you go to bed? What time did you go to bed last night? 7. What did you buy last week? 8. What did you wear yesterday? 9. What did you do last night?
10. What did you have for lunch yesterday?

VIII. Put questions to the italisized words:

1. Myaunt grew beautiful roses. 2. Theylost their way because it wasdark. 3. My friend visited his grandmother on Sunday. 4. The studentsworked on the farm in summer. 5. Our family went to the Caucasus lastyear. 6. Father talked with my teacher a few minutes ago. 7. The concert lasted for two hours. 8. The children drank milk in the morning.

IX. Complete the Disjunctive Questions:

a) 1. Your grandfather was a millionaire, ... ? 2. The twins arrived last night, ... ? 3. Bill put the money in the bank, ... ? 4. You had a good time, ... ? 5. That was Ann on the phone, ... ? 6. That was an easy test, ... ? 7. His mother was very proud of him, ... ? 8. You thought about it, ... ?

b) 1. Mary wasn’t angry, ... ? 2. You weren’t at home last night around nine, ... ? 3. Our teacher didn’t give us a home assignment, ... ?
4. There wasn’t any problem, ... ? 5. It didn’t matter very much, ... ? 6. He didn’t wake you up, ... ? 7. Nobody called on the phone, ... ? 8. The children weren’t surprised, ... ?

X. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite Tense:

1. I didn’t want to meet Paul so when he (enter) I (to leave).
2. Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time. 3. Last year I (live) near my office. I always (walk) there. I (not work) at this office five years ago. 4. When you (return) home the day before yesterday. — I (return) home at 7 o’clock the day before yesterday. 5. What language you (study) five years ago? — I (study) German. 6. Our family (go) to the Crimea last summer.

XI. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or

the Past Indefinite Tense:

1. You (to lock) the door before you left the house? 2. He (not to smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up. 3. He (to fall asleep) at half past seven. 4. I (to phone) you twice yesterday and (to get) no answer. 5. It (to be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer. 6. I (to read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much. 7. We (to miss) the bus. Now we’ll have to walk. 8. He (to leave) the house at 8.00. — Where he (to go)? — I (not to see) where he (to go).

XII. Translate into English:

О котрiй годинi ти звичайно встаєш? — Я встаю о сьомiй годинi. — О котрiй годинi ти встав учора? — Учора я встав о восьмiй. Я завжди встаю о восьмiй у недiлю. — Що ти робив учора? Чому ти мені не зателефонував? Невже в тебе не було часу зателефонувати мені? — Учора я був дуже зайнятий. Я виконував домашнє завдання. Я читав i перекладав новий текст. Я перекладав його без словника, оскiльки вiн не був дуже важким. Потiм перекладав речення з української мови на англiйську. — Скiльки часу ти витратив на те, щоб виконати домашнє завдання? — Близько двох годин. Потiм я пiшов прогулятися. Погода була гарна, i на вулицi було багато людей.

The Functions of the Verb «to do»

XIII. State the functions of the verb «to do»:

1. What subjects do you study? 2. What are you going to do on Sunday? 3. Did you speak to him? — No, I didn’t. 4. Where does he live? 5. He will do it himself. 6. Don’t open the window. 7. What did he do there? 8. I am sorry you don’t know my brother. — But I do know him.
9. Do have another cup of tea. 10. Do stay with us a little longer.

The Future Indefinite Tense

XIV. Answer the following questions:

1. How old are you? How old will you be next year? How old will you be in three years? 2. At what time will you get up tomorrow? 3. Who will wake you up tomorrow? 4. What will you do tomorrow morning?
5. When will you take your examinations? 6. When will you help your mother about the house? 7. When will you do your homework? 8. Will you be busy tonight? 9. At what time will you go to bed?

XV. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. She will cook breakfast for us. 2. I shall see you on Monday. 3. They’ll buy a camera next month. 4. It will rain in the evening. 5. The students of our group will take their exams on Tuesday. 6. Our family will have dinner at three on Sunday. 7. She will study French next year. 8. The meeting will begin at ten.

XVI. Put questions to the italicized words:

1. Our friends will come to see us today. 2. Bob and John will work inthe laboratory tomorrow. 3. His parents will be at home at six. 4. Ann won’t go to the cinema because she is busy. 5. The graduates will work in variousfields of our economy. 6. There will be a meeting at three o’clock. 7. The party will start at eight. 8. These students will write a dictation in three days.

XVII. Complete the Disjunctive Questions:

1. You’ll help me, ... ? 2. You won’t tell anyone, ... ? 3. This won’t take long, ... ? 4. You’ll be ready in a few minutes, ... ? 5. This student will graduate from the University next year, ... ? 6. Dinner will be at seven, ... ? 7. The plane will be on time, ... ? 8. Dr. Smith will be back in a few minutes, ... ? 9. Jane and Mark won’t be at the party, ... ? 10. The weather will turn cold in October, ... ?

XVIII. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite Tense:

1. There (be) a lot of people at the meeting tomorrow. 2. I hope I (find) it. 3. I (remember) this day all my life. 4. Perhaps he (arrive) in time for lunch. 5. I am sure that you (like) our new house. 6. If you think it over you (see) that I am right. 7. He (move) to a new flat next week. 8. The book (not be) interesting for them. 9. I (know) the result in a week. 10. You (understand) when you are older. 11. You (have) time to help me tomorrow? 12. I never (forgive) him.

XIX. Translate into English:

О котрiй годинi ти встанеш завтра? — Я встану о сьомiй годинi. — Що ти робитимеш завтра вранцi? — Я поснiдаю, потiм зателефоную своєму друговi. Якщо буде гарна погода, ми пiдемо в лiс по гриби. — Коли ти будеш удома? — Я думаю, що буду вдома пiсля восьмої години вечора. — Чи будеш ти зайнятий завтра ввечерi пiсля восьмої? — Так, я буду вчити новий текст. У понедiлок у нас буде диктант. Але я сподіваюсь, що все буде гаразд i я напишу його без помилок. — Коли ти закiнчиш унiверситет? — Я закiнчу його через три роки i споді­ваюсь, що буду працювати менеджером в однiй із приватних фiрм.

The Imperative Mood

XX. Use the verbs in the Imperative Mood:

Pattern: to come in — Come in, please!

to explain the rule; to tell the news; to use my pen; to read the text aloud; to be ready for the seminar; to speak to the dean; to say that again.

XXI. Make the imperative sentences emphatic:

Pattern:Come to see us tonight! — Do come to see us tonight!

take care of yourself; tell me about it; make a good first impression; find a job; improve your health; perfect your English; get married.

XXII. Make the following negative:

Pattern A: Tell him the time. — Don’t tell him the time.

Send them a telegram; turn off the light; give him my dictionary; close the door; study this rule; leave me alone; go away; enter the room; leave your things here; discuss this question now; make notes.

Pattern B: Let him come in. — Don’t let him come in.
Let him not come in.

Let’s add this point to the plan; let them enter the library till ten; let him go there alone; let her do this work herself; let the students leave class early; let the children watch late-night horror movies.

 

Pattern C:go to bed after 10 p.m. — My parents letme go to bed after 10 p.m. They don’t letme go to bed after 10 p.m.

They didn’t let me go to bed after 10 p.m.

Travel alone; visit my friends’ homes; eat chocolate when I wanted; ride my bike on the road; go shopping alone; buy my own clothes.

XXIII. Use the words below to complete the sentences:

have a rest; go for a drink; go inside; ask someone for help; do another exercise; go and see it.

1. I’m thirsty. Let’s ... . 2. It’s very hot. Let’s ... . 3. There is a good film on at the cinema. Let’s ... . 4. I need more practice. Let’s ... . 5. We are lost. Let’s ... . 6. I’m tired. Let’s ... .

XXIV. Translate into English:

1. Не зачиняйте вiкнo. 2. Не плач. Усе буде гаразд. 3. Не гнівись на мене, будь ласка. 4. Обов’язково прочитайте цю статтю. 5. Покажiть менi цi документи, будь ласка. 6. Нехай вiн пiде туди сам. 7. Нехай вона зробить цю роботу сама. 8. Нехай вони зачекають на мене внизу.
9. Давайте не будемо говорити про це. 10. Принеси менi цю книжку.
11. Неодмінно приходьте до нас увечері. 12. Нехай вiн розповість про свою роботу.



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