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NOUNS: COMMON AND POSSESSIVE CASE
| a) SingularNoun
|| Possessive Form
the girl's name
my wife's coat
my baby's toys
my brother-in-law's guitar
1. 's is used with singular nouns not ending in -s.
2. Classical names ending in -s usually add only the apostrophe.
3. Other names ending in -s take 's or the apostrophe alone.
4. With compounds, the last word takes the 's.
| b) Plural Noun
|| Possessive Form
the girls' names
the men's work
my children's toys
1. A simple apostrophe (') is used with plural nouns ending in -s.
2. 's is used with plural nouns not ending in -s.
COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS
| 1. I bought a chair.
Tom bought three chairs.
2. We bought some furniture.
INCORRECT: We bought a furniture.
INCORRECT: We bought some furnitures.
|| Chair is a count noun;chairs are items that can be counted.
Furniture is a noncount noun.
In grammar, furniture cannot be counted.
| Singular Plural
|| a chair
a lot of chairs
|| A count noun:
a) may be preceded by a/an in the singular;
b) takes a final -s/-es in the plural.
a lot of
|| A noncount noun:
a) is not immediately preceded by a/an;
b) has no plural form;
does not take a final -s/-es.
| || || || || |
SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS
| 1. Whole groups made up of similar items: baggage, clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, mail, machinery, make-up, money/cash/change, postage, scenery, traffic.
| 2. Fluids: water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc.
3. Solids: ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold, iron, silver, glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool, etc.
4. Gases: steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smoke, smog, pollution, etc.
5. Particles: rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, grass, hair, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc.
| 6. Abstractions:
— beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality, importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress, recreation, significance, sleep, truth, violence, wealth, etc.
— advice, information, news, evidence, proof;
— time, space, energy;
— homework, work;
— grammar, slang, vocabulary.
7. Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc.
8. Fields of study: economics, chemistry, engineering, history, literature, mathematics, psychology, etc.
9. Recreation: baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, bridge, poker, etc.
10. General activities: driving, studying, swimming, travelling, walking (and other gerunds).
| 11. Natural Phenomena: weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, gravity, rain, lightning, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity,
USING NOUNS AS MODIFIERS
| 1. The soup has vegetables in it.
It is vegetable soup.
2. The building has offices in it.
It is an office building.
|| When a noun is used as a modifier, it is in its singular form.
| 3. The test lasted two hours.
It was a two-hour test.
4. Her son is five years old.
She has a five-year-old son.
|| When a noun used as a modifier is combined with a number expression, the noun is singular and a hyphen (-) is used.
THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE
| Use of a/an
| 1. Before a singular countable noun, when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing:
|| I can see a book on the table. They live in a flat.
He bought an ice-cream.
| 2. Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of things:
|| A child needs love = All children need/Any child needs love.
| 3. With a noun complement. This includes names of professions:
|| My friend is a manager. She'll be a dancer.
| 4. With certain numbers.
Before half when half follows
a whole number.
But kg = half a kilo, though
a + half + noun is sometimes possible.
With , ,etc a is usual:
|| a dozen, a hundred, a million (but one dozen, one hundred, one million is also possible).
kilos = one and a half kilos or
a kilo and a half;
a half-holiday, a half-portion,
a third, a quarter etc., but one is also possible.
| 5. In expressions of price, speed, ratio etc.:
|| 5p a kilo, sixty kilometres an hour, four times a day; (Here a/an=per)
| 6. Before a singular countable noun after the word whatin exclamatory sentences and after the wordssuch, quite, rather:
|| Such a long queue! Such long queues! What a pretty girl! What pretty girls! She is still quite a child.
It is rather a difficult problem.
| 7. With the nouns in the function of apposition. But when the apposition refers to a well-known person the is used:
|| The report was made by Petrenko, a student of our University.
Jack London, the great American novelist, was born in San Francisco.
| 8. In a number of set expressions: a lot of, a great many, a great deal of, a good deal of, a great number of, a good many, a couple, a little, a few, at a speed of, at a time when, at a time, in time, on a large (small) scale, all of a sudden, by bus (train), to be in a hurry, to be in a position, to be at a loss, it’s a pity, for a short (long) time, as a result of, as a matter of fact, to have a good time, to have a mind, in a loud (low) voice, to have a look, to have a headache, to take a sit, to have a cold, to go for a walk.
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
| Use of «the»
| 1. Before a noun which has become definite as a result of being mentioned:
|| I saw a new film on TV yesterday. The film wasn't very interesting.
| 2. Before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase or clause:
|| the girl in blue; the boy that I met; the place where I met him.
| 3. When the object or group of objects is unique:
|| the earth, the sea, the sky, the moon, the sun, the world.
| 4. Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one particular thing:
|| Ann is in the garden. (the garden of this house). Please open the window.
| 5. Before superlatives and first, second etc. used as adjectives or pronouns, and only:
|| the first week; the best day; the only way.
| 6. Before a noun that represents a class of animals or things: But man, used to represent the human race, has no article.
|| The cow is a domestic animal. The pine is an evergreen tree. If oil supplies run out, man have to fall back on the horse.
| 7. The + adjective represents a class of people:
|| the old = old people in general. the rich = rich people in general.
| 8. Before certain proper names of oceans, rivers, seas, gulfs, groups of islands, chains of mountains, plural names of countries, deserts, and before certain other names:
|| The Atlantic, the Thames, the Alps, the Black Sea, the Crimea, the City, the United States of America,
the Sahara, the Persian Gulf.
| 9. Before the adjectives east/west etc. + noun in certain names:
|| the East/West End, the East/West Indies, the North/South Pole.
| 10.Before other proper names consisting of adjective + noun or noun + of + noun:
|| The National Gallery, the Tower of London.
| 11.Before names of newspapers, ships, orchesras, pop groups etc.
|| the Times, the Great Britain, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Beatles.
| 12.the+ plural surname can be used to mean «the ... family»:
|| the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith (and children).
| 13.the + a singular countable noun (type of machine, invention, musical instruments).
|| The bicycle is an excellent means of transport. When wasthe telephone invented? The piano is my favourite instrument.
| 1. Before plural nouns:
|| My friends are students.
| 2. Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense:
|| Men fear death. but: The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader.
| 3. After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective:
|| the boy's uncle = the uncle of the boy It is my (blue) book = The (blue) book is mine.
| 4. Before names of meals:
|| The Scots have porridge for breakfast but: The wedding breakfast was held in her father's house.
| 5. Before names of games:
|| He plays golf.
| 6. Before parts of the body and articles of clothing, as these normally prefer a possessive adjective:
|| Raise your right hand. He took off his coat.
| 7. When home is used alone, i.e. is not preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase:
|| He is at home. He went home. I arrived home after dark. I sent him home.
| 8. Before the nouns: bed, church, court, hospital, prison, school/college/university, when these places are visited or used for their primary purpose.
We can be/get back from school/college/university.
We can leave school, leave hospital, be released from prison.
But: When these places are visited or used for other reasons the is necessary:
|| We go: to bed to sleep; to church to pray; to court as litigants; to hospital as patients; to prison as prisoners; to school/college/university to study; similarly we can be: in bed, sleeping or resting; at church as worshippers; in hospital as patients; at school as students.
Sometimes he goes to the prison to give lectures.
| 9. work = place of work.
|| He is at work. He's on his way to work.
| 10. We go to sea as sailors. To be at sea = to be on a voyage (as passengers or crew). But to go to or be at the sea = to go to or be at the seaside. We can also live by/near the sea.
| The Nominative Case
|| The Objective Case
| I — я
he — він
she — вона
it — воно (він, вона)
we — ми
you — ви, ти
they — вони
|| me — мене, мені
him — його, йому
her — її, їй
it — його, йому, її, їй
us — нас, нам
you — вас, вам, тебе, тобі
them — їх, їм
| Conjoint Form
|| Absolute Form
| my — мій, моя, моє, мої
his— його (чоловічий рід)
her — її
its —його(середній рід), її
our — наш, наша, наше, наші
your— ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші
твій, твоя, твоє, твої
their — їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні
|| mine — мій, моя, моє, мої
his— його (чоловічий рід)
hers — її
ours — наш, наша, наше, наші
yours — ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші
твій, твоя, твоє, твої
theirs — їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні
| 1st pers. 2nd pers. 3rd pers.
|| myself yourself himself, herself, itself
|| сам(а) себе
|| ourselves yourselves themselves
|| самі себе
| 1. He looked at himself in the mirror.
|| A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject of a sentence. He and himself refer to the same person.
| 2. He himself answered the phone, not his secretary.
3. He answered the phone himself.
|| Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis.
| 4. She lives by herself.
|| The expression by + a reflexive pronoun usually means «alone».
| || || || || |
|| -body, -one
усе, що завгодно
|| not ...
|| not ... anybody
not ... anyone
|| not ... anywhere
усякий, кожний, усе
мало, мало хто
|| Few birds can be seen in that place. (= almost none)
I know little about painting.
(= almost nothing)
|| Few and little have
a negative meaning. They mean not enough.
| a few
|| A few birds can be seen in that place. (= some birds)
I know a little about painting. (= something)
|| A few, a littlehave
a positive meaning. They mean some though not much (many)