How Quality in Meat is Judged

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How Quality in Meat is Judged

For convenience in buying and selling, many commodities are classified and graded, that is, divided into lots of groups, which have more or less uniform characteristics. Meat, which usually is produced and processed far from the market in which it is sold, is such a commodity. In formulating a system of classifying and grading, it is necessary to set up certain specific standards, which are described in terms which are definitely understood by seller and buyer. Terms, which are used to designate the more important characteristics of beef, pork, veal and lamb are: conformation, finish and quality. Since these characteristics are factors involved in judging all kinds of meat, they are defined here. The consumer will find it helpful to understand these factors which are the basis of judging and grading meat.

The term conformation covers the general build, form, shape contour of outline of the carcass, side or cut. Good conformation implies short necks and shanks, deep plump rounds, thick backs and full loins, well-fleshed ribs and thickness of flank. In other words, the most desirable cuts from loins, ribs, and round have muscles and a large proportion of edible meat to bone.

The term finish refers specifically to the quality, amount, color, and distribution of fat. The best finish implies abundant marbling ( intermingling of fat with lean) and a smooth even covering of firm fat over the exterior surface of the carcass, side or cut. A high degree of finish adds to the attractiveness of the cut, but its significance is due to the fact that palatability, which includes juiciness, depends upon a certain proportion of fat being present.

The term quality as it applies to meat is limited to the factors, which affect the palatability of the cooked meat, provided the cooking has been done properly. Quality, therefore, refers to the certain characteristics of the flesh and fat included therein. Quality pertains primarily to the firmness and strength of both muscles fiber and connective tissue, for these affect the tenderness of the meat. Palatability also involves the amount, consistency, and character of the juices which surround and permeate the muscle fiber and connective tissue. Although cooked meat should yield a high proportion of juice, the uncooked meat should be of such a consistency that the flesh when chilled remains firm and resilient.

     ‘The factors of conformation, finish and quality are the measuring sticks applied in judging all meats, but they will differ in beef, pork, lamb, and veal. In other words, the character and color of the fat and lean will not be the same in beef as it is in pork; pork will have heavier fat covering than veal; the color of one kind of meat differ from the color of another, etc. These individual differences will be explained in the sections devoted to the four kinds of meat’.

Задание 2. Вставьте нужную форму глагола и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на страдательный залог:

1. At the present time particularly attention (to concentrate) on new applications of meat by-products.

2. During practice the meat-packing house (to attend) by many students.

3. The rate of this process greatly (to influence) by temperature.

4. The body’s need for energy (to meet) through carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

5. Another class of the compounds (to derive) from the fats.


Задание 3. Изложите главную идею текста (5 – 7 предложений). Постарайтесь осветить следующие вопросы :

1. What does the term conformation cover?

2. What does the term finish refer to?

3. What does the term quality refer to?

4. What are the measuring sticks applied in judging all meats?


Задание 4. Дополните предложения :

1. Meat is produced and processed… .

2. There are some terms, which are used to designate… .

3. The term quality is limited to the factors which … .

4. By the end of the year the production of precooked meat … .


Вопросы к практическому занятию

1. Какие термины являются ключевыми для данного текста?

2. Какими навыками и знаниями нужно обладать, чтобы различать туши мяса?

3. Как вы могли бы озаглавить каждый абзац данного текста?

4. Как образуется страдательный залог во временах группы Simple?

Практическое занятие 23

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