The nature of technological research

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The nature of technological research


A scientist tends to construct a highly simplified model of the system investigated; if possible leaving out everything that can disturb the relations to be studied. This is needed establish fundamental relations.

A technologist tries to keep closer to the real world. He preferably constructs a model that’s, say, ten times as complicated as a scientist's model. This is required to obtain results that can be put into practice. The model may still be a considerable oversimplification, but comprehensive knowledge of the system is needed to develop a model that makes sense.

Naturally, a technologist makes use of results obtained by scientists. In many cases, close cooperation with “pure” scientists will give the best results. It should also be realized that the system is often so complicated that complete and quantitative relations cannot be obtained. This means that further along the line from fundamental research to product development, trial and error methods may still have to be applied. Nevertheless, even in such a case, the research done may be very beneficial, because it allows to greatly reduce the number of trials that would lead to error.

Unfortunately, many of the results obtained in food research are unreliable. In the author's experience, there are two main types of failures occurring:

Failures of the first kind are typically made by workers with a technological background. They generally know the system well, but they may lack scientific background. The observations may be correct, but the interpretation is not. This

problem is aggravated because human beings always want to explain observations and organize them in a kind of theoretical framework. This readily leads to further errors and to new research that eventually will turn out to be futile.

Failures of the second kind are typically made by workers with a background in fundamental science who does not know the system studied, nor the processes applied to it. They tend to apply some theory or method of investigation, without regarding the specific properties and reactions of the system. A case in point is the specialist in a certain analytical technique who is convinced that its application to the problem at hand will lead to a solution. In fact, it rarely does.

The solution, i.e. the way to prevent making these two kinds of failure, is obvious: let scientists and technologists cooperate in research. Of course, scientists can learn about the system and about the constraints that it imposes on the research that can usefully be done; and technologists can learn about fundamental aspects and about the constraints they impose on the validity of conclusions. The best manner in which they learn these things is by mutual cooperation.

Задание 2. Составьте диалог на одну из следующих тем:

1. Вы – журналист и собираетесь написать статью о природе технологических исследований. Возьмите интервью у одного из учёных, занимающегося этим вопросом.

2. Будучи журналистом, узнайте точку зрения независимого эксперта по вопросу природы технологического исследования.

3. Вы – телеведущий, тема передачи «Природа технологического исследования».

Задание 3. Закончите следующие предложения, добавьте дополнительную информацию для расширения ситуации:

1.  Scientists tend to …

2. A technologist makes use of …

3. Many of the results …

4. The research done may be …

5. Failures of the firstkind are …

6. Failures of the second kind are …

7. The observations may be …

8. This problem is …

9. They tend to  

10. Scientists can learn about … .


Задание 4. Дайте три формы неправильных глаголов:

to be, to leave, to keep, to say, to put, to make, to give, to have, to want, to lead, to know, to turn, to do, to apply, to convince, to prevent, to let, to learn.

Вопросы к практическому занятию

1. Можете ли вы сказать о чем текст, основываясь на заголовке? Выскажите предположения.

2. По каким принципам определяется выбор видовременной формы глагола в предложении?

3. Как образуется прошедшее неопределенное время?

4. На какие виды делятся глаголы в этом времени?


Практическое занятие 9



Теоретическая часть

Данный лексический материал предназначен для того, чтобы студенты запомнили специальные термины, характерные для текстов по указанной тематике, и успешно применяли их в речи.

сommercial                                 промышленный, торговый, коммерческий

industry                                  промышленность

combination                                         соединение, сочетание

manufacture                                         изготовление, производство

agitate                                         перемешивать, взбалтывать

dairy products                            молочные продукты

fluid milk                                    питьевое молоко

raw milk                                     сырое молоко

whole milk                                  цельное молоко

skim milk                                    обезжиренное молоко

condensed milk                           сгущенное молоко

evaporated milk                          концентрированное молоко

dried (powdered) milk                сухое молоко

cream                                                   сливки

ice cream                                     мороженое

curd                                            творог

fermented dairy products                     кисломолочные продукты

intake                                                   прием

clarification                                          очистка

clarifier                                       очиститель

freeze (froze, frozen)                   замораживать

to churn                                      сбивать (масло)

hydrogenated fat                         гидрогенизированный жир


Задание 1.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Types of dairy products


Fluid milk for commercial distribution is usually pasteurized, that is subjected to a temperature of 61.7 °C for at least 30 min or 71.7 °C for 15 sec, and then cooled and bottled. The importance of safety and cleanliness is stressed in the dairy industry. Milk may also be condensed or evaporated, dried, powdered, or separated into skim milk and cream.

Butter is churned from cream. Margarines are similar to butter but made of hydrogenated fats, usually vegetable in origin, with added butter-type flavours and colouring.

Ice cream is the frozen product made from a combination of milk products (cream, butter, or milk – either whole or evaporated, condensed, skimmed, or dried) and two or more of the following ingredients: eggs, water, and sugar, with flavouring and colouring matter. In the manufacture of ice cream, freezing is accompanied by agitation of the ingredients to avoid crystallization and to incorporate air for proper texture.

Cheese is the product made from curd obtained from the whole, partly skimmed, or skimmed milk of cows or other animals, with or without added cream.

Many fermented products are produced from milk. These fermentations require the use of bacteria that ferment lactose or milk sugar.

Задание 2.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Is fluid milk usually pasteurized?

2. What is butter churned from?

3. What is the ice-cream?

4. What is cheese made from?

5. How many products are produced from milk?


Задание 3. Переведите следующие словосочетания :

a) commercial distribution, stainless steel, plastic pipelines, flexible plastic pipelines;

b) added flavours, frozen product, processing plant, flavouring and colouring matter, receiving station;

c)  milk sugar, truck driver, farm tank, stainless steel pipelines, skim milk fraction, discharge pipe, fat content, butter-type flavor.

Задание 4. Выберите правильный перевод следующих предложений. Обратите внимание на функцию инфинитива:

1. Milk is pasteurized to kill bacteria.

1.1 Пастеризованное молоко не содержит бактерий.

1.2 Молоко пастеризуют для того, чтобы уничтожить бактерии.

2. То make butter cream is churned.

2.1 Для того чтобы получить масло, сбивают сливки.

2.2 Процесс получения масла из сливок называется сбиванием.


Задание 5. Определите, о каком продукте идет речь:

1. A product made from curd with or without added cream 1.Сливочное                                                                                     масло.

2. A dairy product which is churned from cream.                     2. Мороженое.

3. A frozen product made from a combination of milk             3. Сыр.

products, eggs, water and sugar with flavouring and

colouring matter.

4. A product similar to butter but made of hydrogenated         4. Кисломолочныe

fats with added butter-type flavourings and colouring.             продукты.

5. Milk products fermented by bacteria.                          5. Маргарин.


Задание 6. Переведите следующее предложение:

In the manufacture of ice cream, freezing is accompanied by agitation of the ingredients to avoid crystallization and to incorporate air.


Вопросы к практическому занятию

1. Сколько продуктов производится из молока?

2. С какой целью пастеризуют молоко?

3. Что необходимо для получения кисломолочных продуктов?


Практическое занятие 10



Теоретическая часть

Данный лексический материал предназначен для того, чтобы студенты смогли составить высказывание о промышленных способах обработки молока.

tank truck                          автоцистерна

cream screw                           шнек-дозатор для сливок

raw                                    сырой

pump                                          насос

stainless                             нержавеющий

delivery                             поставка, доставка

sample                               образец

flexible                               гибкий

pipelines                            трубопроводы

similar                               похожий

clarifier                              осветлитель

fraction                              частица, фракция

discharge                           разряжать, сброс

screw                                 винт, закручивать


Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Processing of milk

Most raw milk collected at farms is pumped from stainless steel tanks into tank trucks for delivery to processing plants.

Collection and intake.

The truck drivers are required to check flavour, temperature, and volume of milk in the farm tank and to collect a sample of raw milk for analysis before pumping the milk into the truck. At the receiving station of the processing plant the milk in the farm truck is weighed and pumped into the plant through flexible plastic and stainless steel pipelines.

Separation and clarification.

The actual processing of raw milk begins with either separation or clarification. These machines are essentially similar except that in the clarifier the cream and skim milk fractions are not separated.

Separators have two discharge pipes, one for cream and one for skim milk. Clarifiers have only one pipe for whole milk. Separators have a device called cream screw by which the fat content in the cream is regulated. This screw allows more or less cream to pass out through the discharge pipe.

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is milk usually done before pumping it into the tank truck?

2. What is the difference between separation and milk clarification?

3. When does the processing of raw milk begin?

4. How many pipes do separators have?

5. What does the screw allow?


Задание 3. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

для доставки на перерабатывающее предприятие; брать образец сырого молока на анализ; сепарация и очистка; порции сливок и обезжиренного молока; две отводные трубы; содержание жира в сливках; большее или меньшее количество сливок.

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из данного ниже списка:

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