МЕТРОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОТНОСИТЕЛЬНОСТЬ



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

МЕТРОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ ОТНОСИТЕЛЬНОСТЬ



Данный лексический материал предназначен для того, чтобы студенты смогли составить высказывание о том, чем им придется заниматься, какова сущность слова “метрология” и с какими составляющими им придется иметь дело в данной области.

to be related to stated references          быть связанным с утвержденными

                                                       эталонами

to be compared                                              быть сравненным

relation between                                   отношении между

indication of a measuring instrument            показание измерительного

инструмента

value of a measurement standard         значение эталона

regime                                      режим

overlap                                                перекрывать, совпадать

to be reserved for                                           предназначено для

inexactness                                           неточность

correctness                                                    точность

measurement situations                            условия проведения измерений

measurement equipment                                измерительное оборудование

traceable                                               относимый, прослеживаемый

national standards board                    национальный совет по стандартам

thrive                                                   процветать, преуспевать

interface                                               область взаимодействия

 

Задания

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

Metrological traceability

A core concept in metrology is metrological traceability, defined by the BIPM as "the property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references, usually national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons, all having stated uncertainties." The level of traceability establishes the level of comparability of the measurement: whether the result of a measurement can be compared to the previous one, to a measurement result a year ago, or to the result of a measurement performed anywhere else in the world.

Traceability is most often obtained by calibration, establishing the relation between the indication of a measuring instrument and the value of a measurement standard. These standards are usually coordinated by national metrological institutes: National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Physical Laboratory, UK, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, etc.

Traceability is used to extend measurement from a method that works in one regime to a different method that works in a different regime, by calibrating the two using an overlapping range where both work.

Basics

Mistakes can make measurements and counts incorrect. Even if there are no mistakes, nearly all measurements are still inexact. The term 'error' is reserved for that inexactness, also called measurement uncertainty.

All other measurements either have to be checked to be sufficiently correct or left to chance. Metrology is the science that establishes the correctness of specific measurement situations. Calibration is the process where metrology is applied to measurement equipment and processes to ensure conformity with a known standard of measurement, usually traceable to a national standards board.

Society

Sufficiently correct measurements are essential to commerce. About nine out of every ten people working in metrology specialize in commercial measurement, most at the technician level. Correct measurements are beneficial to manufacturing, but other methods are available and sometimes are more appropriate.

Metrology has thrived at the interface between science and manufacturing. Aerospace, commercial nuclear power, medicine, medical devices and semiconductors rely on metrology to translate theoretical science into mass-produced reality.

Задание 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:.

1. What is metrological traceability?

2. How is traceability obtained?

3. What traceability is used for?

4. What is the synonym of inexactness?

5. What is the name of a process when metrology is applied?

 

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст еще раз и найдите синонимы следующих слов:

determined

made

connection

operate

error

about

inaccuracy

right

is used

enough

Задание 4 . Составьте  план пересказа текста.

Практическое занятие 31

GOST

ГОСТ

Теоретическая часть

Данный лексический материал предназначен для того, чтобы студенты запомнили специальные термины, встречающиеся в текстах и успешно применяли их в речи.

regulated standards                               регламентированные стандарты

recipes                                       рецепты

nutritional  facts                пищевая ценность

generic                                    общий

rename                                                 переименовывать

standards' jurisdiction                    зона применения стандартов

recognition                                                     известность

was put in charge of                             был назначен ответственным за

updating                                               обновление

disseminating                                       распространение

extensively                                                     широко

in conformity assessment activities      в действиях по оценке соответствия

in addition to                                        в дополнение к

Belarus                                            Беларусь

Ukraine                                    Украина

Azerbaijan  Азербайджан

Armenia                                 Армения

Kyrgyzstan [kigis`ta:n]                         Киргизия

Uzbekistan                      Узбекистан

Tajikistan [tadzikis`ta:n]                           Таджикистан

Georgia                                           Грузия

Turkmenistan                    Туркмения

Задания

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

GOST

GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

All sorts of regulated standards are included, from charting rules for design documentation to recipes and nutritional facts of Soviet-era brand names (which have now become generic, but may only be sold under the label if the technical standard is followed, or renamed if they are reformulated).

The notion of GOST has certain significance and recognition in the countries of the standards' jurisdiction. Russian Rosstandart government agency has gost.ru as website address.

GOST standards were originally developed by the government of the Soviet Union as part of its national standardization strategy. The word GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) is an acronym for gosudarstvennyy standart (Russian:государственный стандарт), which means state standard.

The history of national standards in the USSR can be traced back to 1925, when a government agency, later named Gosstandart, was established and put in charge of writing, updating, publishing, and disseminating the standards. After World War II, the national standardization program went through a major transformation. The first GOST standard, GOST 1 State Standardization System, was published in 1968.

The present

After the disintegration of the USSR, the GOST standards acquired a new status of the regional standards. They are now administered by EASC.

At present, the collection of GOST standards includes over 20,000 titles used extensively in conformity assessment activities in 12 countries. Serving as the regulatory basis for government and private-sector certification programs throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the GOST standards cover energy, oil and gas, environmental protection, construction, transportation, telecommunications, mining, food processing, and other industries.

The following countries have adopted all or some of GOST standards in addition to their own, nationally developed standards: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine (DSTU), Moldova, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Georgia, and Turkmenistan.

Because GOST standards are adopted by Russia, the largest and most influential member of the CIS, it is a common misconception to think of GOST standards as the national standards of Russia. They are not. Since the EASC, the organization responsible for the development and maintenance of the GOST standards, is recognized by ISO as a regional standards organization, the GOST standards are classified as the regional standards. The national standards of Russia are the GOST R standards.

Задание 2. Дайте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What is GOST?

2. Who originally developed GOST standards?

3. When was Gosstandart established?

4. Who administers the GOST standards now?

5. Do the GOST standards serve as the regulatory basis for government and private-sector certification programs throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)?

6. How many countries use the GOST standards?

Задание 3. Согласитесь или не согласитесь.

1. Charting rules for design documentation, recipes and nutritional facts of Soviet-era brand are regulated by the GOST standards.

2. The notion of GOST has low significance and recognition in the countries of the standards' jurisdiction.

3. The history of national standards in the USSR can be traced back to 1926.

4. The first GOST standard, GOST 1 State Standardization System, was published in 1968

5. 14 countries have adopted all or some of GOST standards in addition to their own.

6. The GOST standards are the national standards of Russia.

Задание 4. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями:

Make up your own sentences with the following words:

· a regional standards organization

· nutritional facts

· state standard

· certification programs

· the development and maintenance

· a regional standards organization

 

Задание 5. Найдите в тексте все неправильные глаголы и вспомните их две другие формы.

 

Практическое занятие 32



Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2021-04-05; Нарушение авторского права страницы; Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 35.172.223.30 (0.028 с.)