Scientific or fundamental metrology



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Scientific or fundamental metrology



Scientific or fundamental metrology concerns the establishment of quantity systems, unit systems, units of measurement, the development of new measurement methods, realizations of measurement standards and the transfer of traceability from these standards to users in society. The BIPM maintains a database of the metrological calibration and measurement capabilities of various institutes around the world. These institutes, whose activities are peer-reviewed, provide the top-level reference points for metrological traceability. In the area of measurement the BIPM has identified nine metrology areas including length, mass and time.

Applied, technical or industrial metrology

Applied, technical or industrial metrology concerns the application of measurement science to manufacturing and other processes and their use in society, ensuring the suitability of measurement instruments, their calibration and quality control of measurements. Although the emphasis in this area of metrology is on the measurements themselves, traceability of the calibration of the measurement devices is necessary to ensure confidence in the measurements.

Legal metrology

Legal metrology "concerns activities which result from statutory requirements and concern measurement, units of measurement, measuring instruments and methods of measurement and which are performed by competent bodies." Such statutory requirements might arise from, amongst others, the needs for protection of health, public safety, the environment, enabling taxation, protection of consumers and fair trade. The OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology (Международная Организация Законодательной Метрологии) was set up to assist in harmonizing such regulations across national boundaries to ensure that legal requirements do not inhibit trade.

World Metrology Day celebrates the signature by representatives of seventeen nations of the Metre Convention on 20 May 1875. The Convention set the framework for global collaboration in the science of measurement and in its industrial, commercial and societal application. The original aim of the Metre Convention – the worldwide uniformity of measurement – remains as important today as it was in 1875.

Задание 2. Дайте полные ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What are the words is “Metrology” made of?

2. Metrology may be divided into three basic activities. What are they?

3. How many metrology areas has BIPM identified?

4. What does applied, technical or industrial metrology concern?

5. What are BIPM and OIML?

 

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст еще раз и переведите все предложения, в которых встречаются следующие слова:

·  measurement

· calibration

· traceability 

· application

 

Задание 4. Закончите следующие предложения:

1. Metrology includes …

2. Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) …

3. Scientific or fundamental metrology concerns …

4. Applied, technical or industrial metrology concerns …

5. Legal metrology "concerns …

 

Задание 5. Сделайте следующие предложения отрицательными:

1. Metrology is the science of measurement.

2. Metrology is defined as "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology”.

3. One of the basic subfields of metrology is scientific or fundamental metrology.

4. Technical or industrial metrology concerns the application of measurement science to manufacturing.

5. The original aim of the Metre Convention remains as important today as it was in 1875.

 

Задание 6. Составьте предложения со следующими словосочетаниями:

· the science of measurement

· basic subfields

· fundamental metrology

· measurement instruments

· traceability of the calibration

· confidence in the measurements

· protection of consumers

 

Практическое занятие 30

METROLOGICAL TRACEABILITY



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