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THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTICIPLE IN A SENTENCE



SENTENCE WORD ORDER

Adverbial Modifier + Subject + Predicate + Object + Adverbial Modifier

The Participle has two syntactic functions:

  An Attribute An Adverbial Modifier
building The young men building our house with me are my brothers. Молодые люди, которые строят наш дом вместе со мной, мои братья. Не made his living building summer houses or garages for people. Он зарабатывал на жизнь, строя людям беседки и гаражи.
being built The white stone house being built near the park is a new building of our Art museum. Белокаменное сооружение, строящееся у парка, – новое здание нашего музея изобрази- тельных искусств. Being builtwith great skill and care, the mansion has been used by the family for centuries. Так как особняк был построен (будучи построенным) очень искусно, он служит семье уже несколько веков.
built They are reconstructing the house builtin the 18th century. Они реставрируют здание, построенное в XVIII веке. If built of the local stone, the road will serve for years. Если построить дорогу из этого местного камня, она будет служить долгие годы.
having built Having built the house, he began building a greenhouse. Построив дом, он принялся за оранжерею.
having been built Having been built of concrete, the house was always cold in winter. Так как дом был построен из бетона, в нем всегда было холодно зимой.

NOTES

1. In some cases Participle I Active in the function of an attribute is rendered in Russuan by a clause.

He came back and stood on the steps leading down to the street.

Он вернулся и стоял на лестнице, которая вела на улицу.

2. Participle I Passive (being read) is very seldom used as an attribute.


3. The Past Participle (Participle II) can be an adverbial modifier when it is used with the conjunctions when, while, as if/as though, though, unless, if.

When told to come in he seemed to change his mind.

Когда его попросили войти, он, казалось, передумал.

She continued staring at the screen as if fascinated.

Она продолжала смотреть на экран, как будто завороженная.

4. The verbs catch, spot, find, discover and smell are not followed by an infinitive. All may be followed by an object and a Present Participle (Participle I).

The teacher caught the pupil cheating.

The search party found (spotted, discovered) the climbersclingingto a rock face.

He smelt the meat cooking.

The verbs spot, find and discover may be followed by an object + Past Participle:

The police found the money hidden in a disused garage.

5. The verbs leave and keep (someone in a certain situation or condition) share some of the characteristics of find and discover. They can be followed by an object + Present or Past Participle:

He left me sitting in the restaurant alone.

He kept me waiting.

He left his bicycle propped against a wall.

He kept the dog chained up.

6. If the actions named by the Participle and by the predicate closely follow each other, the Indefinite Participle is used instead of the Perfect Participle.

Seeingme he smiled happily.

Увидев меня, он счастливо улыбнулся.

7. When we mention two consecutive actions one of them may be named by the Indefinite Participle.

He looked at me smiling.

Он посмотрел на меня и улыбнулся. Seeing that it was getting cold we went home.

Мы увидели, что становится холодно, и пошли домой.

 

RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS OF PARTICIPLES USED AS ATTRIBUTES

ACTIVE

Russian English Examples
читающий, который читает READING Look at this reading boy! He is only five.
читавший*, который читал (тогда) READING We looked at the reading boy. He had a nice voice.
прочитавший, который прочитал (раньше) who HAD READ The boy who had read the poem now was taking part in the discussion.  
который будет читать who WILL READ (is going to...) We've never heard of the actor who will read the poems.

PASSIVE

 

применяющиеся, при- меняемые, которые применяются (обычно) USED These are the methods used for metal treatment.
применявшиеся, кото- рые применялись (раньше) USED There were several methods usedbefore the invention.
примененные, которые были применены (тогда) USED This is the method used in the first experiment.
применяемые, которые применяются (в момент речи) BEING USED What do you think of the method being used?
которые будут приме-няться (в будущем) toBE USED (the Infinitive) The methods to be used in our new project are quite modern.

RUSSIAN EQUIVALENTS OF PARTICIPLES USED AS ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS

 

Russian English Examples
читая, когда читаю, когда читал   прочитав, когда прочитал, потому что прочитал (раньше) (when/while) reading     having read (While) reading this book I always remember my own childhood. (When) reading this book I wrote out a number of useful expressions. Having read this book I learnt a lot. Having read this book I can tell you my opinion of it.

 

NOTES

 

When translating Russian participles ending in -вший we use Present Participle (reading) only if the action expressed by the participle is simultaneous with that of the finite verb. If it is prior to that named by the finite verb, we use a clause.

 

COMPARE

 

Я подошел к молодому человеку, Все толкали молодого человека,

стоявшему у двери. вставшего у двери вагона.

I came up to the young man Everyone pushed the young man who

standing at the door. had placed himself at the car door.

Present Participle being (from to be) is not used in adverbial modifiers of time, we use "while-phrase" or a clause instead.

Будучи в Москве, я посетил Кремль.


While in Moscow (= while I was in Moscow) I visited Kremlin.

Будучи мальчиком, я любил играть в футбол.

When a boy (= when I was a boy) I liked to play football.

NB!being is used in adverbial modifiers of cause.

Being tired (= as he was tired) he went home at once.

Будучи усталым (= так как он устал), он сразу же пошел домой.

EXERCISES

Translate the sentences from English into Russian, paying special attention to the function of the Participle in the sentence

I

1. The boy playing in the garden is my sister's son. 2. You can get the recommended book in the library. 3. He asked her to go on with her story, promising not to interrupt her again. 4. Receiving no letters from her father, she called him. 5. He left the office at three o'clock, saying he would be back at five. 6. She stood leaning against the wall. 7. He lay on the sofa reading a newspaper. 8. Seeing her he raised his hat. 9. Having signed the letter the manager asked the secretary to send it off at once. 10. Informed of the arrival of the ship, they sent a car to the port. 11. Having lived in that town all his life, he knew it very well. 12. Having arranged everything, he went home on the 10.30 train. 13. Having been well prepared for the interview, he could answer all the questions. 14. Being checked with great care, try report didn't contain any errors. 15. These machines will be sent to the plant being constructed in this region. 16. Having been advised by the doctor to go to the south, she decided to spend her leave in Sochi. 17. Being told of his arrival, I went to see him. 18. Having been three times seriously wounded, he was no longer fit for active service.

II

1. A person bringing good news is always welcome. 2. While skating yesterday, he fell and hurt himself. 3. She showed the travellers into the room reserved for them. 4. When writing an essay we must use new words and phrases. 5. The leaves lying on the ground reminded us of autumn. 6. Books read in childhood seem like old friends. 7. The answer received from her greatly surprised us. 8. There are many wonderful books describing the life of people in the North. 9. Being a great book-lover, he spent a lot of money on books. 10. The figures mentioned in his article were published in the Izvestia. 11. Receiving the telegram, he rang the manager up.

 

Translate the following participles

I.

покупающий, покупая, купленный, покупаемый

получающий, получая, полученный, получаемый

переводящий, переводя, переведенный, переводимый

1. написанный; 2. принесенный; 3. давая; 4. разговаривающий; 5. спрошенный; 6. отвечая; 7. читаемый; 8. рассказанный; 9. издаваемый; 10. работающий; 11. читая; 12. открывающий; 13. берущий; 14. потерянный; 15. сделанный; 16. стоя; 17. идущий; 18. входя; 19. смотрящий; 20. построенный; 21. видя.

II.

1. разбитая чашка; 2 проигранная игра; 3. разорванный конверт; 4. проигравшая команда; 5. проигрывающая команда; 6. кипяченая вода; 7. кипящая вода; 8. забытый метод; 9. человек, забывший (раньше); 10. лающая собака; 11. испытанный метод; 12. жареная рыба; 13. жарящаяся рыба; 14. вспрыгнувший на стол кот; 15. прыгающая собака; 16. украденная тема; 17. смеющийся голос; 18. смеявшаяся девушка; 19. выбранная тема; 20. печеный картофель; 21. потерянный шанс; 22. найденное решение; 23. выигравший спортсмен; 24. написанное письмо.

 





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