ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Complete the sentences with the Gerund or the Infinitive of the verbs in brackets, using the correct form of any pronouns that are included
a) If the Government's wages policy is to succeed, they must try (keep) prices in check.
b) The shareholders all think they know what should be done, but the board still needs (convince).
c) Let's invite him. I'm sure he would love (come).
d) Someone in the office had made a mistake, and the firm regretted (cause) the customer inconvenience.
e) We plan (take) our holidays abroad this year.
f) The teacher doesn't permit (smoke) during the lessons.
g) I vaguely remember (he, say) something like that.
h) Come over here! I'd like (you, see) this.
i) I always try (be) punctual, but I don't always succeed.
j) It's a tricky problem. I recommend (you, consult) an expert.
k) He'd prefer (you, go) to his place, if that's convenient.
l) For the second time this year Miss Black will attempt (swim) the Channel in less than five hours.
m) A child should start (learn) a language at primary school.
n) The film was so terrifying that she could hardly bear (watch) it.
o) The new committee member did not venture (speak) at his first meeting.
p) They began (drive) at six in the morning, and were still on the road ten hours later.
q) He remembered (pass) on most of the information, but omittted (mention) one or two of the most important facts.
r) The reporters asked many questions which the Prime Minister declined (answer).
THE GERUNDIAL CONSTRUCTION
In the examples discussed the subject of the main verb is also the subject of the Gerund, but there are cases when the Gerund is related to its own "subject", expressed by a noun or pronoun.
We appreciate your helping us.
Мы (высоко) ценим вашу помощь (то, что вы помогли).
We enjoyed the band's playing very much.
Нам очень понравилось то, как играл оркестр. A gerundial construction is nearly always rendered in Russian by a clause, generally introduced by "то, что''/"тем, что''/"как".
The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways:
1. If it denotes a living being it may be expressed by a possessive pronoun or a noun in the possessive case.
Do you mind my smoking?
Our talk was prevented by Richard's coming back.
When the nominal element consists of two or more nouns, possessive case is not used,
I object to Mary and Jane going out on such a windy day.
2. If the nominal element denotes a lifeless thing it is expressed by a noun in the common case.
I said something about my clock being slow.
Her thoughts were interrupted by the door opening gently.
Translate the sentences from English into Russian
1. We appreciate John's helping us. 2. I can't imagine my mother approving it. 3. They resented my winning the prize. 4. I think that's enough to start her worrying. 5. I can't excuse her not answering our invitation. 6. I can't bear his interfering with what I do. 7. Would you mind my smoking? 8. Fancy her appearing at that very moment! 9. I really miss his playing the piano in the evening. 10. Excuse my asking, but does everyone in your family approve of your flying? 11. Your coming has done him good. 12. I wonder at Jolyon's allowing the engagement. 13. I understand perfectly your wanting to leave. 14. I didn't object to other people being there.
Match the parts of sentences in A and В columns
1. We very much appreciate a. my leaving till next day.
2. He strongly denied b. their meeting that afternoon
3. We enjoyed c. her taking more responsibility.
4. The chairman suggested d. the band's playing very much.
5. I agreed to delay e. our postponing the question.
6. He should consider f. your helping us.
Study the sentences, paying special attention to the italicized pronouns and nouns followed by Gerunds
1. I'm not very friendly with him, so I was surprised by his asking me to dinner. 2. The thieves broke into the shop without anyone seeing them. 3. He doesn't mind his daughter going to the cinema once a week. 4. It is difficult to stop George talking once he begins.
Write the following sentences again, using Gerunds
Model 1: The children are making such a noise.
Can you stop them making such a noise?
Model 2: Students must write their corrections carefully. The teacher insists on ....
The teacher insists on the students' writing their corrections carefully.
1. I told you that my watch was five minutes slow. Have you forgotten ...? 2. He allows his son to drive his car. He doesn't mind .... 3. No one helped her with her homework. She did her homework without .... 4. He got my letter although I had addressed it wrongly. He got my letter in spite of .... 5. I beat him at tennis, and he wasn't pleased at all. He hated .... 6. Did you give me back the book I lent you? I can't remember .... 7. She was afraid that the baby would fall out of the bed. She was afraid of .... 8. The old lady said I could open the window. She didn't mind .... 9. I'm sure he asked you not to phone after 11 p.m. Have you forgotten ...? 10 He doesn't believe that a boy of twelve should have too much pocket-money. He doesn't believe in .... 11. My father doesn't like me to stay out late at night. He doesn't like ....
Translate the sentences from Russian into English using gerundial phrases
1. Я слышал о том, что он назначен директором большого завода. 2. Я не возражаю против того, чтобы они приехали сюда. 3. Я помню, что он мне говорил об этом несколько дней тому назад. 4. Я настаиваю на том, чтобы вы ответили им немедленно. 5. Я слышал о том, что его посылают на юг. 6. Вы можете рассчитывать на то, что он даст вам точную информацию. 7. Нет надежды, что он закончит свою работу к вечеру. 8. Извините, что я позвонил вам вчера так поздно. 9. Вы не возражаете против того, чтобы я прочел этот рассказ вслух? 10. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я курил здесь? 11. Мы настаивали на том, чтобы они начали переговоры немедленно. 12. Он возражает против того, чтобы собрание было назначено на понедельник. 13. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы он зашел к вам сегодня? 14. Доктор настаивает на том, чтобы он провел осень на юге. 15. Он отвечает за то, чтобы работа была закончена вовремя.
THE GERUND AND THE VERBAL NOUN
The Gerund can be easily confused with the verbal noun. In some cases it is impossible to tell whether you are dealing with a gerund or with a verbal noun and consequently impossible to translate the sentence with any degree of exactness. The meaning is not the same.
Only the person speaking knows in this case what he means. In most cases we can distinguish between the gerund and the verbal noun in the following way:
a) has tense and voice forms; so the forms being done, having done, having been done cannot be nouns;
b) can take a direct object; so an "-ing" form followed by a direct object (reading a letter) cannot be a noun;
c) can be modified by an adverb; so an "-ing" form modified by an adverb (reading fast) cannot be a noun;
d) can be part of an aspective verbal predicate; so "-ing" forms following the verbs to begin, to stop, to go on, to keep, to continue are mostly gerunds.
THE VERBAL NOUN
a) can be used in the plural:
Memorize the proverbs and sayings.
b) can have an article:
the banging of the door;
c) can be followed by a prepositional phrase in an attributive function:
the clicking of the clock;
d) can be modified by an adjective, a demonstrative pronoun or an indefinite pronoun.
26. Find the sentences in which: a) "-ing" form is a gerund, b) a verbal noun
1. You should think before speaking. 2. After finding the new word in the dictionary, I wrote it down and went on reading. 3. He spent much time on the copying of his literature lectures. 4. What do you mean by saying that? 5. The students found the reading of English newspapers rather difficult at first. 6. Instead of going home after school, the girls went for a walk. 7. Chalk is used for writing on the blackboard. 8. We sat by the river-side listening to the running of the water. 9. The cleaning of the room was done by the girls. 10. Working in the garden is very good for the health of people. 11. I stopped knocking at the door and began waiting for my father to come. 12. She praised herself for having come. 13. The child stopped crying and quieted down. 14. The old clock kept ticking on the mantelpiece, as if counting the seconds left before the coming of daylight.
27. Analyse the "-ing" forms in the sentences below. State which of them are gerunds and which verbal nouns. Motivate your decision
1. She read the first act between a fitting and a rehearsal, made up her mind to play Kate and there was no persuading her that the part was too young for her. 2. The whirring and banging of the lift kept her awake most of the night. 3. She kept repeating the bright sayings of her children to bored friends and relations. 4. She insisted on my showing her the letter and explaining who Pat was. 5. On getting home she felt so faint and exhausted that she went to bed without taking off her make up and creaming her face. 6. On being told to her face that she was a liar and a schemer Polly felt, like giggling and restrained herself with difficulty. 7. She broke the fastening of the purse in her hurry to get the papers out. 8. She looked with distaste at the toilet table. Dust, spilt powder and hair combings everywhere. 9. You have never learned the way of treating children kindly but without undue familiarity. 10. She promised to send me the cutting the moment she found it. 11. I could just see a faint glimmering of light in the distance. 12. For some time she said nothing and we could only hear the clicking of her false teeth – a certain sign of growing irritation. 13. On being asked what her plans were she gave a most evasive answer. 14. She lost this job through falling ill at the wrong time. 15. Her first big part was Catherine in "The Taming of the Shrew".
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