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a) In October 2007 Russia enacted a law that replaces the traditional five year model of education with a two tiered approach: a four year bachelor (BSc, Bachelor of Science or BA, Bachelor of Arts) degree followed by a two year Master's degree.


b) Since 2003, when it co-signed the Bologna Declaration, Russia has been in the process of migrating from its traditional education model, incompatible with existing Western academic degrees, to a modernized degree structure.


c) Defenders of Bologna process argue that the final years of the specialist program were formal and useless: academic schedules were relaxed and undemanding, allowing students to work elsewhere. Cutting the five year specialist program to a four year BSc/BA will not decrease the actual academic content of most of these programs.


d) The job market is generally unprepared for the change and critics predict that a stand alone BSc/BA diplomas will not be recognized as "real" university education in the foreseeable future, rendering the degree unnecessary and undesirable without further specialization. Institutions like MFTI or MIFI have practiced two tier breakdown of their specialist programs for decades and switched to Bologna process designations well in advance of the 2007 law, but an absolute majority of their students complete all six years of MSc/MA (formerly specialist) curriculum, regarding BSc/BA stage as useless in real life.

# 5. Fill in the gaps with the following words and phrases:

a) Bachelor's; b) defend a thesis; c) Diploma of Incomplete Higher Education (HE); d) Doctoral programmes; e) final research paper/ Diploma project; f) Master programmes; g) Master's degree; h) Medicine; i) Specialist Diploma programmes Í2; j) State final exams; k) the School Leaving Certificate; l) The Specialist Diploma

University level studies in early 2010s:

1. The first stage consists of at least two years of a higher education study programme. On leaving university, students may ask for the_ 1)___________ which entitles them to obtain jobs that require some HE training but not a degree and to continue their studies.

2) ___________ degree programmes last for at least 4 years of full-time university-level study. The programmes are elaborated in accordance with the State Educational Standards which regulate 50% of the content, the other 50% being developed by the university. The programmes include professional and special courses in Science, professional training, completion of 3)___________ and taking 4) ___________. Having obtained the Bachelor's degree, students may apply to enter the 5) __________ or continue their studies in the framework of 6) ___________. The Bachelor degree is awarded in all fields except 7) ___________ where the first stage takes six years.

Holders of the Bachelor’s are admitted to enter the Specialist Diploma and Master’s programmes. Access to these programmes is competitive.

8) _____________ is awarded after successful completion of two years of full-time studies. Students must complete advanced studies, prepare and 9) __________ and take final examinations. The Specialist Diploma can be earned in two ways: upon completion of at least 1 year's study after the Bachelor programme or upon completion of five to six years' continuous study beyond 10) ____________. The Specialist Diploma is a professional qualification that gives the right to exercise professional activities and to apply for doctoral programmes. Specialist degree is now being discontinued in universities that take part in the Bologna process, so new students do not have this option.


[ 6. Do the following:

a) Complete the diagram with the missing qualifications.

b) Using the diagram describe the two ways and the successive stages to acquire higher education in Russia.

c) How was the situation different when your parents were at university?

ERROR WARNING! Know = already have the information; find out = get the information. Study = learn about a subject through books / a course: I'm studying law; I'm studying for my exams. We don't use any other prepositions after study. NOT / am studying about law. Learn = get new knowledge or skills: I'm learning English; I'm learning to knit. I learned a lot from my father. He learned about his appointment by telephone yesterday. Last week I learned that I had been promoted. Note that we say you are taking a course, NOT learning a course. NB Prepositions after learn: learn about, learn from, learn to: I learned a lot from this course. NOT / learned a lot on this course.


s7. Underline the correct words in each sentence.

1. I would really like to learn about / study about the ancient Egyptians.

  1. We need to find out/ know where to buy the tickets for the concert.
  2. I got into trouble at school because I didn't know/find out my multiplication tables.
  3. I did well in the test because I had known/learned how to spell all of the words on the list.
  4. Excuse me, do you find out/know where the nearest post office is?
  5. It was difficult for me to learn /study at home, because we didn't have a lot of space.
  6. I want to learn how/study how to drive a car.
  7. I think you can only really learn from/learn with experience.

^ 8. Discuss these questions with a partner.

  1. Do you get stressed out if you've got an exam?
  2. What do you do the night before an exam?
  3. What's the hardest course you have done?
  4. Do you know anyone who's dropped out of university / a course? Do you know why?
  5. 4. Have you got any essays or homework you have to hand in soon? When's the deadline?

&9. Read the article about higher education in the United-States. Note some similarities and differences between Russian and American systems of higher education.

Since the mid-1990s, the number of high school graduates wishing to get accepted at a university or college has been on the rise. And it is expected to keep growing. It's going to be really hard to be admitted at top schools even with high SAT5['es 'ei 'ti:] scores. There's no such thing in America as a central system of higher education. Each state is responsible for organizing its own system of education. All colleges and universities are either state (public)or private,sponsored by the students' tuition fees6and donor contributions. The tuition at state universities is smaller, especially for the state residents. It is generally believed that the quality of education in private universities and colleges is higher. These are usually prestigious schools known as Ivy League7universities. But there some state universities as the famousUniversity of California8 well known for their high standards of education and research. There are the following institutions of higher education in America: Community Colleges(public) and Junior Colleges(private). They have two-year programs of study. After graduation you get the Associate degree.Then there are Liberal Arts Colleges,which focus on general education in literature, history languages, philosophy. They also offer some science courses. The four-year education at these colleges leads to the Bachelor's degree,which is not a science degree. The third kind are Institutes of Technology.

The universities consist of two schools; the Undergraduate school, where you get the Bachelor's degree for four years of study — the Bachelor of Arts (B. A.) or the Bachelor of Science (B. S.). If students want to continue their education, after getting the Bachelor's degree, they go to the Graduate school where they get advanced degrees — the Master's degree (the Master of Arts or the Master of Science) and the Ph.D. degree (Doctor of Philosophy), which is the only science degree in this country. A College is a part of the university that teaches a special branch of knowledge in some way similar to what we call a "faculty" in a Russian university.

A School, if it's a part of a university, is also focused on one area of study and research. There are Business Schools, Medical Schools, Law Schools etc. On graduation, Schools, like Colleges, may grant both Bachelor's degrees and Master's degrees and the Ph. D.s. They also grant professional degrees, such as M. D. (Doctor of Medicine) after Medical School and so on. And an important thing to remember, is that the word" school" may be used when speaking about any American educational insti­tution: you can use the word "school" speaking of high school and you can use the same word speaking of Harvard.

The terms "college" and "university" are often interchangeable. But there's some difference — Colleges usually offer four-year undergraduate programs and the Bachelor'sdegree, though some may offer the Master's degree. As for universities, they are usually larger than colleges and have undergraduate and graduate schools, where students can receive advanced degrees. It's also important to know that because this country does not have a Ministry of Education, there's a special accreditation systemwhich guarantees the quality of education at a university or college.

s10. Answer the questions

1. How does the system of higher education in the United States differ from that in our country? (be centralized)

2. What is the difference between public and private universities and colleges? (be sponsored; pay tui­tion)

3. What kind of higher educational institutions are there in the United States and what degrees do they grant? {Community and Junior colleges; Liberal Arts Colleges; Institutes of Technology; Universities; Associate degree; Bachelor's degree; Master's degree; Ph. D.)

4. How is an American university structured? (the Undergraduate school; the Graduate school)

5. What is accreditation? (be accredited; guarantee the quality of education).

^ 11. Note how to say you're willing to answer a question.Here are the phrases used in the informal talk:

You: "I seem to have a lot of questions to ask.

Your partner:Shoot! I'll be delighted to help. / No problem. What's the first question? / I'll try to fill you in.What's the first one?

Respond to the statements below. Use one of these phrases.


1. I'm pretty much in the dark about the arrival of the first settlers in America. 2. No problem. I'll fill you in no time.


1. I know very little about ...... But I'm afraid I've asked too many questions already.

2. My knowledge of ..... history is practically nil. But aren't you tired of my questions already?

3. I would like to know more about ..... But I have asked too many questions, haven't I?

4. Do you think you could help? I know practically nothing about the rules of this game we are going to play.

5. The after school jobs we spoke about... I'd like to know more about them. But I see you are about to leave...

Note what you say when you disagree:

No, I don't think... I can't agree (with) .... / I disagree with you...


Disagree with the statements below using one of the above phrases.

Model:1. I don't think there are any differences between British and American English.

2. I can't agree with you. There are quite a few differences between them, to my knowledge.

1. One can't get the Bachelor's degree after graduating from a Community college.

2. There is no difference between the Master's degree and the PhD.

& 11. Read the text about British university students.

At 18, British school-leavers with A-levels can apply for a degree course at university. Most of these courses last for three years, and students must pay all of their own accommodation and living costs, and some of their tuition fees. Since 1990, the government has offered student loans to help the situation. The loans arc between 3,000 and 5,000 per year depending on whether students live with their parents or away from home, and also whether or not they live in London.

Students have to pay back their loans when they leave university, but not until their income reaches £10,000 per year. The interest rates are low and there is no deadline for repayment.

However; most students find that the loans do not fully meet their needs, so many have to stay with the family home to avoid accommodation costs or take part-time jobs while they are studying.


Amanda Jenkins, 20, is a student at the University of Cardiff, her home town in Wales.

Monday 15th March had a big *row with mum and dad today. They still treat me like I'm at school even though I'm 20 now. It's not my fault that I have to live at home. I would have loved to have gone to university in Scotland - Glasgow or St Andrew's - but there's no way we could have *afford it.

Tuesday 16th March went to the job centre today to look for a -part-time job. I have to start saving some money for my future - after all, I'll have a £12,000 loan to -pay off when I graduate. I've got interviews with McDonald's and я pub, so I can work after my lectures are finished. And then l can do more studying when I finish work.

Wednesday 17-th March went into the uni Library to study then went to see Kate and Ali in their flat. They're really lucky - I'm really jealous of my friends who have their own accommodation. But their rent's £120 a week!

Thursday 18th March Another row with mum. To be honest, I think she resents me being here. She thinks that I'm too old to be living at home; it was OK when she was a student in the 70s. She got a *grant from the government, so she had more freedom to choose her university and her accommodation. Anyway, I've got my interview at McDonald's tomorrow. Perhaps something will come of that.

s12. Choose the correct answers to the questions.

1. British degree courses are usually

a. five years long.

b. three years long,

c. two years long.

2. The British government gives loans to help students pay for

a. their education.

b. their living expenses.

c. both.

3. a. Every student receives

b. Some students receive loans of 14,000 per year.

c. No student receives

4. Students have to pay back their loans as soon as

a. they finish their degree.

b. they get a job.

c. they start earning a certain sum.

5. a. There is always

b. There is sometimes

c. There isn't a time limit on the repayment of student loans.

13 Read Amanda's diary and answer the questions.

1. What accommodation does she live in?

2. How much money will she owe the government when she leaves university?

3. How much is the rent on her friends' flat?

4. How was the situation different when her mum was at university?

14. Find words in the texts that mean:

1. money that you must pay a university for teaching you.

2. students who have just taK their A-levels.

3. to leave university with a degree.

4. talks given by a university tutor to a large number of students.

5. a slang abbreviation for 'university'.


8 Read and listen to the conversation and answer the questions.

Maria: Oh, hi Dave. Long time, no see!

Dave: Hi Maria. I was in the neighborhood, so I thought I'd drop by.

Maria: Come on in. [Thanks.] Take a seat. Would you like anything to drink? I have Sprite or orange juice.

Dave: Sprite would be fine. Uh, so, how have you been?

Maria: Oh, not bad. And you?

Dave: Oh, I'm doing okay, but school has been really hectic these days, and I haven't had time to relax.

Maria: By the way, what's your major anyway?

Dave: Hotel management.

Maria: Well, what do you want to do once you graduate?

Dave: Uh... I haven't decided for sure, but I think I'd like to work for a hotel or travel agency in this area. How about you?

Maria: Well, when I first started college, I wanted to major in French, but I realized I might have a hard time finding a job using the language, so I changed majors to computer science. [Oh]. With the right skills, landing a job in the computer industry shouldn't be as difficult.

Dave: So, do you have a part-time job to support yourself through school?

Maria: Well, fortunately for me, I received a four-year academic scholarship [Wow] that pays for all of my tuition and books.

Dave: Wow. That's great.

Maria: Yeah. How about you? Are you working your way through school?

Dave: Yeah. I work three times a week at a restaurant near campus.

Maria: Oh. What do you do there?

Dave: I'm a cook.

Maria: How do you like your job?

Dave: It's okay. The other workers are friendly, and the pay isn't bad.


What does the man want to do after he graduate

A. He wants to become a teacher.

B. He hopes to go on to graduate school.

C. He'd like to work at a hotel.

What is the woman majoring in?

A. history

B. French

C. computer science

How does the woman pay for college?

A. She has a part-time job.

B. She received a scholarship.

C. Her parents are paying for it.

Where does the man work part-time?

A. at a bakery

B. in a library

C. at a restaurant

What thing did the man NOT say about his job?

A. His co-workers are friendly.

B. He works long hours.

C. The pay is okay.


How is the British higher education system different to the system in our country? Do you think students in the UK are in a better or worse position than students in Russia?


Сфера II. Я и моё образование.

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