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& 1. Read the introduction to the unit and answer the questions:

1. Which two kinds of natural resources ensure the well-being of our civilisation?

2. Since when have people lacked mineral resources?

The well-being of our society depends on the resources provided by the earth. There are removable resources such as timber, food, and water, and non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and minerals; the earth also provides maintenance of the life-support systems such as pollution absorption capacity. Until the world population reached 3 billion the means the earth provided were adequate. However, the present growth in population coupled with industrial growth has caused all the resources, which are limited, to be outstripped by human demands. And they are not just overexploited to a small degree: both society and the natural world are being destroyed at such a rate that the very survival of our species on this planet is now seriously threatened.

& 2. Read the text and find words which are similar in meaning to the following. Then answer the questions.

made to think of insisted
very sadly tragically
endangered, the ones that soon may no longer exist threatened
the place where animals or plants live habitat
cutting down trees for wood logging
a factory where trees are cut into flat pieces sawmill
gone down in number declined
non-existent extinct
an extremely beautiful place paradise
a small light a glimmer
people concerned about saving the natural world conservationists
greatly vastly
very good, splendid magnificent
destroyed wiped out
hit sth extremely hard with a lot of damage or noise crash


The chin may be too large and the arms too long, but when you look at an orangutan, you are often reminded of someone you know. And there's a simple reason. Humans share 97% of their genes with orangutans.

Orangutans are found mostly in the rainforests in Indonesia, on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. Tragically, the survival of these beautiful, human-like animals is being threatened. In the last fifty years, much of their natural habitat has disappeared. Nearly 80% of the rainforests in Indonesia have been destroyed, mainly by logging but also by forest fires.

In parts of the rainforests, the noise of trees can be heard crashing to the ground every three or four minutes. According to studies by the WWFN (Worldwide Fund for Nature), as soon as trees reach a certain size - 20 cm in diameter - they are cut down and transported to the nearest port ready to be shipped as hardwood to the developed world, particularly the USA.

The result of so much logging is that orangutans have been forced out of their natural habitat so rapidly that they may be completely wiped out. Their numbers have declined by 50% in the last 20 years. Fewer than 25,000 orangutans were recorded in 2001 and today there are only 15,000. For Indonesian wildlife this is a continuing tragedy. Says one wildlife officer in Borneo: 'If orangutans become extinct, part of our paradise will be destroyed.'

But there is a glimmerof hope. A few years ago in Gunung Leuser National Park in Borneo, where the orangutans' natural habitat was being severely threatened, conservationists insisted that illegal logging should be stopped and tried to ban the international sale of hardwood from Indonesian rainforests. By December 2002 the sawmills there had been closed down and illegal logging had been vastly reduced.

The question is: can anything more be done to save our magnificent red-haired cousin from extinction before it is too late?

s3. Answer these questions about the text.

1. Why are orangutans like humans? 4. What has happened to the orangutan population in the last 20 years?
2. Who buys the hardwood?
3. Why is logging dangerous for
orangutans? 5. And to the sawmills in Borneo?

@ 4. Complete the factfile about orangutans:

Animal in danger: Where found: Natural habitat: Estimated existing number: Reasons for decline: Recent measure:

5. Look at the pictures and match them with the names of some endangered species from the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (RDBRF), also known as Red Book:


Amur Sturgeon, Puffin, Golden Eagle, Ladoga seal

_ 6. Talk about these questions:

1. What animals, birds or fish in our country are endangered?

2. What should people do to save them?

Begin like that: To my mind, ...

one of the best ways to protect endangered species is to prevent their decline and deterioration   to maintain healthy populations of fish, wildlife, and plant species   to promote broad-based conservation efforts
Other ideas: to save all our natural resources, to stop interfering in vital breeding and behavioral activities, donate to organisations protecting wildlife

# 7. Fill in the gaps with the following words: ecosystem, back, chain, forever, disastrous

Once they are gone, they are gone _________ and there is no going _________. Losing even a single species can have _________ impacts on the rest of the_________, because the effects will be felt throughout the food _________.




s 8. Answer the questions in this quiz.

1. You decide to fly to an island 5,000 miles away for a holiday. How many trees would you need to plant to make up for the C02 emissions produced by the flight?

A. 0.2   B. 20   C. 2    
2. Which is the most environmentally friendly way to clean your clothes?
A. Hand-wash the clothes in hot water.  
B. Take them to the dry cleaners.  
C. Machine-wash the clothes in cold water.  
3. You are tidying up your house in the evening, going back and forth between the bedroom, kitchen and living room, spending five to ten minutes in each room as you sort out the clutter. What is the best way to make sure your lights aren't needlessly wasting energy?  
A Keep the lights on as you go from room to room until the job is done.  
В Turn the lights off every time you leave a room and then on again when  
you return.  
4. You decide to cook a baked potato for lunch. Which is the most energy-efficient way of cooking the potato?    
A Put it in an electric oven to cook slowly for an hour.  
В Quickly zap it in the microwave.  
5. You want to really make a significant contribution to the reduction of C02 emissions. Which of these would be of the most benefit over the course of a year?    
A Taking the train instead of driving a car.  
В Hanging your washing out to dry rather than using the tumble dryer.  
С Working from home one day a week.  

8 9. Listen to the answers to find out how environmentally aware you are.

$ 8. Find in the unit English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases. отблеск надежды, поведенческий, выгода, размножение, пищевая цепь, защитники природных ресурсов, обрушивающиеся на землю, уменьшаться, пагубный, химчисткa, выделение (углекислоты), обеспечивать, вымерший, беркут, среда обитания, настаивать, (прекратить) вмешательство, испытывать нехватку, система жизнеобеспечения, заготовка леса, великолепный, использовать природные ресурсы выше уровня их естественного восстановления, рай, топорик (порода птиц), лесопилка, Ладожская нерпа, суровый (об угрозе исчезновения), осётр, само выживание, угрожать, трагически, уничтожить /стереть с лица земли.


Unit 5. GLOBAL vs. LOCAL

1. Study the words and their meanings:

a state of civil emergency - чрезвычайное положение
anarchist ['&nJkIst] - анархист
at the expense of - в ущерб чему-л., за счет чего-л.
clash [&] - сталкиваться с кем-л.(бороться)
consider - считать, иметь мнение
demolish [dI'mOlIS] - разрушать, уничтожать (что-л.)
destroy - уничтожать, стирать с лица земли
dominance - господство; влияние
environmentalist [InvaIJrJ'mentJlJst] - защитник окружающей среды
exploit [eks'plOIX] - использовать, эксплуатировать
globalisation [YlJubJlaI'zeISn]    
host - выступать в роли хозяина или организатора
impact ['Imp&kt] - сильное воздействие; влияние
injure ['IndZJ] - ранить, ушибить
peacefully - мирно, миролюбиво
property - имущество; собственность
public [V] - публика; общественность
smash [sm&S] - крушить; ломать; с размаху; вдребезги
spread - распространять
violence ['vaIJlJns] - жестокость, насилие, применение силы
violent ['vaIJlJnt] - насильственный
World Trade Organisation - Всемирная торговая организация, ВТО

& 2. Read the text and match these titles to the four paragraphs.

a. The spread of the anti-globalisation movement  
b. Protests against specific companies  
c. The first anti-globalisation demonstration  
d. What the protests are about  

In November 1999, a collection of 50,000 environmentalists, students, anarchistsand ordinary members of the publicgathered in Seattle, USA, to protest against a meeting there of the World Trade Organisation. The demonstration began peacefully, but by the end of the day, protestors had smashed shop windows and destroyed property, the police had fired plastic bullets and gas into the crowd, and a state of civil emergencyhad been declared. The 'Battle of Seattle' is now seen as the start of a world-wide anti-globalisation movement.

Similar demonstrations have now spreadoutside of the USA and have become common in cities that hostglobal monetary meetings. In London's financial district, anti-globalisation demonstrations take place annually every 1st of May. The largest protest so far took place in Genoa ['dZenJuJ], Italy, in 2001, where 300,000 demonstrators clashed with police in a violentconflict: one person died and hundreds were injured.

Anti-globalisation protestors are protesting about the dominancein the world economy of large (usually American) multi-national companies. They considerthat these companies spread their own western culture at the expense of other cultures, and that they exploit developing countries and the environment in general.

Targets for violence and vandalism are often American companies such as McDonald's, GAP and Starbucks. In 1999, Jose Bove, a French farmer who had been in the Seattle protest, became a national hero when he demolished a new McDonald's as a protest about the standardisation of food, the impact of McDonald's on local businesses and the high level of US taxes on imported European food.

s3. Answer these questions about the text.

1. Why was Seattle chosen for the first anti-globalisation demonstration?

2. Was the demonstration completely peaceful?

3. When do anti-globalisation demonstrations regularly take place in London?

4. When was there a large demonstration in Genoa?

5. How many people died in that demonstration?

6. What sort of companies are anti-globalisation protestors protesting about?

7. Which three specific companies does the text mention?

8. What did Jose Bove do to protest about globalisation in France?

4. Can you match these American company names to their products? Can we buy their products in Russia?

1. Calvin Klein a. fast food
2. GAP b. jeans
3. Levi's c. sports clothes
4. Mattel d. cola
5. McDonald's e. designer clothes and perfume
6. Nike f. coffee
7. Pepsi g. casual clothes
8. Starbucks h. dolls



Well, I always ... never buy drink wear go to the...   Pepsi, Nike’s...   drinks, trainers... because   it / they/ their food   is are   really   nice/ cheap/ expensive/ cool/ comfortable/ tasty / disgusting

[ 5. Find adverbs of frequency in this word snake. Put them in order starting with always and finishing with never. Tell the group if you like or dislike the American brands mentioned in 4 and why.

86. Listen to two people, Amy and Bill, discussing globalisation. Who expresses the following opinions? Write A for Amy and В for Bill.

1. Globalisation could harm the regional way of life. .......

2. Globalisation can help people who live within a small area. .......

3. Worldwide, more people eat traditional food than fast food. .......

4. People can enjoy products from many different cultures today. .......

5. Large overseas companies have control over the non-alcoholic drink market. .......

6. If not for globalisation, companies from different countries would not join together to do business. .......

7. People who travel prefer to see unusual and exciting things instead of symbols used by big companies.......

8. Experiencing something from another country does not take away your feeling of belonging to your country. .......

9. A range of different cultures can be reflected in food bought overseas...

10. No single company has complete control over the fashion industry. .......

7. Now listen again and cover the listening script. Write the words or phrases from the conversation that mean the same as the words in bold in 6.

way of life = culture,--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Bill = B: Amy =A

B: Just look at this, they're putting one of those cheap restaurant chains in where that nice tea-shop used to be. They're owned by some multinational company. At this rate our culture will disappear altogether and we'll all end up eating the same bland food. Ты только посмотри, они устраивают один из своих дешевых сетевых ресторанов на том месте, где раньше было славное кафе. Это какая-то международная компания. С такими темпами вся наша культура исчезнет целиком, и кончится тем, что все мы будем одинаково умеренно питаться.
A: Well, a lot of people are worried about globalisation and the impact it could have on the local people. But actually I'm beginning to think it works the other way around. Ну, многие волнуются по поводу глобализации и ее влияния на коренное население. Но я, на самом деле, начинаю думать, что все совсем наоборот.
B: You can't be serious. Ты, наверное, шутишь!
A: Yes, I'm reading a book about it actually and the author makes some very valid points. Нет, я как раз читаю об этом книгу, и автор приводит некоторые очень веские доводы.
B: He probably works for one of the big multinationals himself! Он сам, наверняка, работает на одну из международных корпораций!
A: Actually, no. I'm pretty sure he's a journalist. На самом деле, нет. Я совершенно уверена, что он – (просто) журналист.
B: So, what does he say then? И что же он говорит?
A: Well, he points out that there are far more ethnic restaurants in England than people realise, for example, there are seven Indian restaurants for every one McDonald's in the UK. В общем, он отмечает, что в Англии гораздо больше этнических ресторанов, чем людям кажется. Например, на один McDonald's в Великобритании приходится семь индийских ресторанов.
B: Really? I didn't realise that. Правда? Я и не думал.
A: Yes, and globally, pizzas are actually more popular than burgers. I think globalisation could mean that we end up living a more interesting and multicultural life. Да, а пицца в мировом масштабе намного более популярна, чем бургеры. Я думаю, что глобализация может привести к тому, что мы будем жить более интересной и культурно разнообразной жизнью.
B: Yes, but you've got to admit that, worldwide, the soft drinks market is totally dominated by just one or two big companies. Да, но тебе придется признать, что весь мировой рынок безалкогольных напитков полностью во власти одной-двух больших компаний.
A: Well, according to this author, there's a new energy drink taking over the market and it's a joint venture between Thailand and Austria. Without globalisation, international companies just wouldn't merge like that. Ну вот, согласно этому автору, один новый энергетический напиток, который сейчас выходит на мировой рынок, производится на совместном предприятии Таиланда и Австрии. Без глобализации такие международные компании просто не могли бы объединиться, как эта.
B: Well I think that globalisation just pushes popular culture to the masses and spreads it even further. When people go travelling to far flung places, they want to see something exotic, not the same icons they see all around them at home! В общем, я думаю, что глобализация навязывает массовую культуру и распространяет ее все дальше и дальше. Когда люди едут в какие-нибудь нетронутые цивилизацией места, они хотят видеть что-нибудь экзотическое, а не всё те же товарные знаки, которые окружают их дома!
A: Yes, but I doubt the local people there feel they're losing their national identity just because a fast food outlet has opened up. And anyway, the nice thing about it is that, in many places, these chains have to change the food they sell to suit the local culture. So there is a lot of give and take going on and you still get cultural diversity to some extent. Да, но я сомневаюсь, что местные жители чувствуют, будто они утрачивают свою национальную принадлежность только из-за того, что открывается какой-нибудь ресторан быстрого питания. Так или иначе, во всем этом есть и нечто хорошее - во многих местах этим сетевым ресторанам приходится изменять продукты, которые они продают, чтобы соответствовать (местным традициям и) культуре. Поэтому происходит постоянный взаимообмен, к тому же, мы видим разнообразие стилей жизни.
B: I suppose so. I suppose so. I guess no one big multinational has a monopoly over the fashion market either, does it? Может быть, может быть... Думаю, ни одна транснациональная компания не имеет монополии на рынке моды, ведь так?
A: That's right, the big fashion labels are spread over a lot of different countries. Правильно, самые модные бренды – это компании совершенно разных стран.

^ 8. With your partner, make up your own dialogue of 4 to 6 phrases about advantages and disadvantages of globalisation. Use the words, phrases and some of the ideas from the unit. Act out your dialogue.

The best /worst thing about ...   One point of view in favour of /against globalisation is that multinationals local people travellers you...


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