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& 1. Before reading, try to answer the questions:

1. What is one of the main reasons why some national economies are more successful than others?

2. Where do ideas come from?

Some of the major benefits of globalization, such as the new developments in the life sciences and digital technology, have opened new possibilities for world production and exchange. Innovations such as the Internet have made it possible to access information and resources across the world. Access['&kses] to knowledge and the knowledge itself have become the most important factors determining the standard of living, beyond labor and capital of production. Knowledge generates new ideas, turns them into commercial products and services, and increases revenues and incomes of those who know how to use it. Those who have knowledge can develop, grow, and succeed. All technologically advanced economies are knowledge based. Knowledge makes the nations and their economies truly competitive and successful.

&1. Read the text about the forefather of the modern computer.

When was the computer invented? Twenty? Fifty? A hundred years ago? Surprisingly, some modern computer engineers think that the father of the modern computer was Charles Babbage, a man who was born more than two hundred years ago, in 1791.

When Charles Babbage was a child, he was often ill so he only had a very simple education. Despite being ill, he liked inventing things and, when he was a child, he designed a pair of shoes for walking on water. When he was older, he studied at Cambridge University where his main subject was mathematics. After he finished university, he started to work on machines that could do mathematics.

Babbage worked on his first machines, the two Difference Engines, in the 1820s. These machines were important but they were never finished. His next idea was the Analytical Machine. This was a machine which did maths by using cards with holes and it had a memory for storing numbers. However, he never had enough money to build the Analytical Machine so it wasn't even started.

After Babbage died in 1871, his ideas were forgotten and his notes weren't found until 1937. It wasn't until 1991 that his second Difference Engine was finally built - and it worked perfectly. It can be seen in the British Museum and it proves the accuracy of Babbage's work.

If Babbage and his ideas hadn't been forgotten, we may have had computers a long time ago. Perhaps in ten years' timewe will be using the ideas of another forgotten person from history.

s 2. Decide if the sentences below are true (T) or false (F). Write don't know (DK) if the answer isn't in the text.

The computer was invented two hundred years ago. DN
1. Babbage was born in the seventeenth century.  
2. Babbage liked sports as a boy.  
3. He enjoyed inventing things when he was a child.  
4. When he left university, he had already designed a mathematical  
5. machine.  
6. The Difference Engines were designed before the Analytical  
7. The Analytical Machine kept numbers in its memory.  
8. Although he was rich, he decided not to make the Analytical  
9. Babbage's notes were lost for nearly seventy years.  
10. A Difference Machine was built in 1937.  
11. Difference Machine can be seen in a museum.  

#3. Fill in the gaps with the following words: camcorders, browser, videos, videoblogs, website.

YouTube, the phenomenally successful video sharing website, was dreamt upover dinner by three Americans in 2004. They produced a simple routine for taking videos in any format and making them play in any web browser on any computer. They built a virtual video village where registered users could upload their own videoblogs and clips, and watch and rate other people's. The rise of such websites coincidedwith the availabilityof cheap camcorders, and alongsidethat, the development of easy-to-use software.

^ 4. Ask your partner which of the following things he or she has bought on the Net? What other things have you bought? Begin with:

You: Have you or your family ever bought ...

а саг   a holiday   a flight   flowers  
a computer   books   CDs   the weekly shopping  

Partner: Yes, ... . It was ... / No, never. And you?

You: Are there any you would never buy online?

Partner: Well, there are some. For example ...

You: Why not?

Partner: Because ... . What about you?

You: As for me, I would never buy ... through the Internet, as ... .What other things have you bought?

Partner: ...

8 5. You are going to listen to a conversation between two friends who meet in the street. Pete is looking in the window of a travel agent's. Cover the conversation. As you listen, try to answer these questions.

1. What things from the list in Exercise 4 above do they talk about buying?

  1. Why does Pete want to buy them?

Now listen again and complete the gaps.

Simon = S: Pete = P:

S: Are you booking your summer holiday already, then?
P: Oh, hello. Simon. I didn't see you there. No. no. It's Karen's birthday in a few weeks' time and I was thinking of taking her away somewhere for the weeKd. There's not much on offer, though.
S: Well, have you got access to the Internet?
Yeah, well, we’re connected at work.
S: Right. Well, (1) ...............try that? You can sometimes get some really good last-minute dealsonline.
P: To be honest, I've never really had much luck buying things on the Internet. The other day, I tried to book some train tickets on Ticketline.com, but it was just so complicated. It took so long! In the end, I just gave upand did it over the phone.
S: Yes, I know what you mean. That site's not very user-friendly. (2)............... any of the cheap airline sites, though?
P: No, never.
S: Well, (3)................ I'd try some of them.
P: I've booked lots of flights online and it's always been really easy. I've never had any problems and it's usually cheaper than going to a travel agent's. You usually get a discount for online booking.
S: So, which ones are the best?
P: Well, it depends where you want to go. You (4) ................ British Airways first. They're sometimes just as cheap as the budget airlines. Their address is BA.com. And the other one I've used quite a lot is easyjet.com, but they don't fly to as many places as BA.
S: Right, that sounds much better than standing here in the pouring rain. Thanks.
P: Well, if you want any more help, (5)...............e-mail me. It's spencersimon@shotmail.com.
S: Thanks. Hey, while we're talking about it, actually, do you know any good sites for buying CDs? When Karen and I first met there was a song called 'You've been gone too long' playing in the bar and I thought it would be really nice to try to get it for her birthday.
P: Very romantic!
S: Yeah, well, I do my best. The only problem is I'm not sure who it's by and I've never seen it in any record shop.
P: I'm not sure. You (6)............... dustygroove.com. My brother's always talking about them. Otherwise, (7) ..............., I’d go to one of those music chat sites and see if anyone there can help you.
S: Right, OK.

#6. Complete the time expressions in these sentences with words from 5.

a. We're going on holiday in a few weeks'........ .
b. I'm going to Dublin .......... the weekend.
c. .......... the end, we decided not to go abroad.
d. I met John the .......... day.

8 Listen to these e-mail and website addresses and repeat.]

1. bilI.macdonald@amac.com Notes:
2. www.soccernet.com @ is said 'аt'
3. tigerlilly 17_08@wowzer.com . is said 'dot'
4. pete_smith@shotmail.com _ is said 'underscore'
5. reo@sb4-so-net.ne.jp / is said 'forward slash'
6. www.intosomethin.com/barracuda

Now listen and write down the addresses you hear.

7. lernongrass2272@shotrnail.corn 8.
9. nsgo7891 @shotmail.com 10.

@With a partner, make a list of all the good things about computers that you can think of. Then make a list of all the negative things. Compare your lists with another pair of students. Do they have any ideas you didn't think of?

$7. Find in the unit English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases: информационно ёмкий, доступ, через 10 лет, мечтать, виртуальный, существующий одновременно c, совпадать, доступность / наличие в продаже, еженедельные покупки, “горячая путевка”, сдаться, заказывать / резервировать (билеты, стол в ресторане и т.д.), доход.


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