Human Musculoskeletal System



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Human Musculoskeletal System



Muscles ( Part III )

I.Запомните правило:

1.Суффикс-ness образует существительные от прилагательных. Существительные выражают состояние, качество или степень

e.g. aware [ə`wɛə ]-сознающий, знающий

awareness [ə`wɛənis]- осознание, осведомлённость

 

Прочтите и переведите на русский язык следующие существительные:

* redness, whiteness, coldness, weakness, breathlessness, dryness, sleeplessness, unpreparedness, kindness, darkness, bitterness, aggressiveness, effectiveness, loudness, sadness. warm-heartedness, readiness, badness, smoothness, straightness, illness;

 

2 .Суффикс-hood [hud]-обычно образует существительные от других существительных:

e.g. сhild [t∫aild]-ребёнок, дитя

сhildhood [΄t∫aildhud]-детство

 

Прочтите и переведите на русский язык следующие существительные, пользуйтесь словарем, если необходимо:

adulthood, brotherhood, motherhood, fatherhood, manhood, neighbourhood, likelihood, priesthood, nationhood, boyhood.

 

II. Essential words to know:

1.smooth [smu: ]-adj. гладкий; спокойный

2.bundle [`b ndl]-n.узел; пучок; связка

3.pattern [`p n]-n.образец; модель; узор; структура; стиль

4.to appear [ pi ]- 1.появляться; развиваться

2.казаться; выглядеть

5.stripe [straip]-n. полоса

6.posture [`p st ]-n. поза; осанка; положение

7.to arrange [ `reind ]-v.приводить в порядок; располагать классифицировать; подготавливать (for)

8.to bend [bend]v.(bent,bent)-сгибать(ся); гнуть(ся); изгибать(ся)

9.damage [`d mid ]-v.повреждать; нарушать

n. повреждение; нарушение

10.straight [streit]- adj. прямой

11.to consider [k n`sid ]-1.считать; полагать

2.рассматривать

12.voluntary [`v o l nt ri]-добровольный; мед. произвольный

13.awareness [ə`wɛənis]-n.осведомлённость

aware [ `w ] –сознающий; знающий; осведомлённый

14.to oppose [ `p ouz] –v.противопоставлять (with,against);сопротивляться

15.to grow [qr u] v(grew; grown) -1.расти,вырастать

2.как глагол связка в составном именном

сказуемом-делаться, становиться

to grow dark-темнеть

to grow worse-ухудшаться

to grow pale-бледнеть

growth [qrou ] –n.1)рост,выращивание;

2)мед. опухоль, новообразование

 

III . Read and translate one-rooted words:

 

· to oppose; opposed; opposition; opposite; opposing

· to arrange; arrangement; arranged

· aware; unaware; awareness

· to appear; to disappear; appearing; disappearing

· to grow; growing; grown; growth

· to consider; consideration; considerable; inconsiderable; considerably; considering

· damage; to damage; damaged; undamaged; damaging

· smooth; smoothly; smoothness; to smooth

· straight; to straighten; straightened; straightness

· voluntary; involuntary; voluntarily; volunteer

 

IV. Define the part of speech. Translate the words into Russian:

 

I II III IV

distinctly harmful layer moisten

vitally spongy composition eliminate

similarly supplementary maturity nourish

closely various accomplishment convert

blindly several adulthood move

residually protective effectiveness consist of

completely tiny temperature change

primarily constant artery grow

mainly responsible

delicately breathless

smoothly similar

involuntarily yellowish

 

V. Fill in the gaps using the words in the box:

  arranged; damage; smooth; pattern;   opposing; straight; consider; unaware; bends  

1. Smoking can …… your health.

2. A …… line is the shortest distance between two points.

3. The illness is not following its usual ……. .

4. The books in the library are …… on the shelves in alphabetical order.

5. This plastic tube …… easily in all directions.

6. This lotion makes your skin …… .

7. I …… that this pain-killer is much more effective in such cases.

8. They have quite an …… views on this question.

9. I was …… of harmful effect of this drug.

 

VI. Mix and match:

1. to arrange 2. a ware 3. bundle 4. to bend 5. to consider 6. smooth 7. to damage 8. straight 9. posture 10. pattern 11. stripe 12. opposed 13. to appear 14. voluntary 15. to grow · a number of things hold together · to think about, to take into account · not bent · to put into a correct order · a band of color · to increase in size by natural development · against · having knowledge or understanding · under the control of will · to ruin, to destroy · to curve, away from a straight position · the general way of holding body when standing, sitting or walking · having an even surface without · a regularly repeated arrangement · to develop

 

VII. Read the word-combinations incorporating new words:

· to be aware of the problem; to be well aware that …; to be a very aware person; person’s awareness

· a bundle of nerves; bundles of contractile fibers

· brain damage; to produce serious damage to smth.; to be badly damaged; to have a damaging effect

· to bend one’s head; an old woman who was bent down with age

· to be considerably colder; to consider the situation; to be carefully considered; to take into consideration; considering the strength of opposition

· smooth work of the heart/brain; smooth surface; smooth skin

· a straight line; to get a straight answer to a straight question; to straighten the elbow

· a flag with blue, white and red stripes; to appear as stripes; striped muscles

· voluntary/involuntary contractions; the voluntary muscle

 

VIII. Master the pronunciation of the following words :

microscope [ maikr skoup ]

balance [`b l ns ]

hormone [` ho:m oun ] ]

testosterone [tes `tost roun ] ]

contractile [ k n`tr ktail ] ]

 

 

IX. Give Russian equivalents to these word-combinations:

smooth muscles; bundles of fibres; regular pattern; speed of contraction; responsible for posture; opposing groups; to bend the elbow; countering movements; the damage to the system; voluntary muscles controlled by the brain; growth hormonе

 

X. Читая текст, обратите внимание на предложения со словом «counter» :

e.g. These countering movements are balanced.

Muscles are countered by muscles that straighten it.

N.B. Слово «counter» в английском языке может быть :

1.частью речи – а) глаголом-«противостоять», «противодействовать»

б) прилагательным –« противоположный»

С) существительным-«обратное», «противное»

2. приставкой – «противо»-, «контр»-

e.g. counteraction-противодействие; counterbalance-противовес; counterpart-копия, дубликат; counterweight-противовес

Скажите, в каком значении употребляется слово «counter» в тексте.

 

XI .Read the text:

Muscles

 

There are three types of muscles: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac (heart). Two of these kinds -skeletal and smooth - are part of the musculoskeletal system.

 

Skeletal muscle is what most people think of as muscle, the type that can be contracted to move the various parts of the body. Skeletal muscles are bundles of contractile fibers that are organized in a regular pattern, so that under a microscope they appear as stripes (hence, they are also called striped or striated muscles). Skeletal muscles vary in their speeds of contraction. Skeletal muscles, which are responsible for posture and movement, are attached to bones and arranged in opposing groups around joints. For example, muscles that bend the elbow (biceps) are countered by muscles that straighten it (triceps). These countering movements are balanced. The balance makes movements smooth, which helps prevent damage to the musculoskeletal system. Skeletal muscles are controlled by the brain and are considered voluntary muscles because they operate with a person's awareness. The size and strength of skeletal muscles are maintained or increased by regular exercise. In addition, growth hormone and testosterone help muscles grow in childhood and maintain their size in adulthood.

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into sub-groups: the single-unit and multiunit muscle. Within single-unit (smooth) muscle tissues, the autonomic nervous system innervates a single cell within a bundle. Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cell; as such, they allow for fine control and gradual responses, much like motor unit recruitment in skeletal muscle.

Smooth muscle is found within the walls of blood vessels such as in the layer of large (aorta) and small arteries, arterioles and veins. Smooth muscle is also found in lymphatic vessels, the urinary bladder, uterus, male and female reproductive tracts, gastrointestinal tract, etc. The structure and the function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different organs.

 

XII. Make the sentences complete:

 

1. Smooth muscles are sometimes called …. muscles.

2. This type of muscles can not be … .

3. Smooth muscles are found in the … system allowing …. to make its journey through the body.

4. Skeletal muscles are sometimes called … muscles because the light and … parts of the muscle fibers make them look striped.

5. Skeletal muscles are …. muscles, which means that a man can … what they do.

6. Skeletal muscles help to make up the …. system.

7. In most cases, a skeletal muscle is …. to one end of a bone.

8. It stretches all the way across a …. and then attaches again to another bone.

9. The skeletal muscles work together with the bones to give the body power and …. .

 

striated; digestive; attached; joint; involuntary; musculoskeletal; controlled; strength; voluntary; food; control; dark;

XIII. Substitute English words for the Russian ones:

 

Мышца is a сократительная ткань of animals and is derived from mesodermal слой of embryonic germ клеток. Muscle cells содержат contractile filaments that двигаются past each other and изменяют the size of the cell. They are classified as скелетные, cardiac, or гладкие muscles. Their функция is to produce силу and cause motion. Muscles can cause передвижение either of the organism itself or движение of internal organs. Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction происходит without person`s осознания and is necessary for survival. Examples are cокращение the of the heart and peristalsis which pushes food через the digestive system. Voluntary contraction of the skeletal muscles используется to move the body and can be finely controlled. Examples are movements of the eye or of the бедро. There are two основных types of voluntary muscle : slow twitch and fast twitch.

 

XIV. Listen to the text “Smooth muscle” and retell it in Russian. Before listening, look through the list of words:

 

Vocabulary:

 

1.fusiform [`fju:zifom ] – веретенообразный

syn. spindle-shaped [spindl ]

2.single-unit = multiunit

3. to tense = to relax

 

XV. Render from Russian into English:

1. Скелетная мышца это форма полосатой мышечной ткани.

2. Скелетная мышца находится под контролем соматической нервной системы.

3. Большинство скелетных мышц прикрепляются к костям пучками коллагеновых волокон, известных как сухожилия (tendons).

4. Скелетная мышца состоит из индивидуальных компонентов, называемых мышечные волокна.

5. Мышечные волокна сформированы вследствие слияния миобластов (myoblasts).

6. Скелетная мышца имеет полосатый внешний вид.

 

XVI. Read and translate some “Fun Facts” about muscular system:

 

Do you know that:

 

* Thereare more than 600 muscles in the human body

* There are twenty muscles in each hand

* 200 muscles are used in each step you take

* There are about 60 muscles in your face. Smiling is easier than frowning. It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown.

* The longest muscle in the body is the sartorius, from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It rotates the thigh outwards and bends the knee.

* The smallest muscle in the body is the stapedius, deep in the ear. It is only 5 mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing.

* The biggest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus, in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking, running and climbing steps.

 

 

Lesson 13.



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