Electric Power Consumers and Power Systems

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Electric Power Consumers and Power Systems

Unit I

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Electric Power Consumers and Power Systems

An electric power consumer is an enterprise utilizing electric power. Its operating characteristics vary during the hours of day, days and nights, days of week and seasons.

All electric power consumers are divided into groups with common load characteristics. To the first group belong municipal consumers with a predominant lighting load: dwelling houses, hospitals, theatres, street lighting systems, mines, etc.

To the second group belong industrial consumers with a predominant power load (electric motors): industrial plants, mines, etc.

To the third group belongs transport, for example, electrified railways. The fourth consists of agricultural consumers, for example, electrotractors.

The operating load conditions of each group are determined by the load graph. The load graph shows the consumption of power during different periods of day, month, and year. On the load graph the time of the maximum loads and minimum loads is given.

Large industrial areas with cities are supplied from electric networks fed by electric power plants. These are interconnected for operation in parallel and located in different parts of the given area. They may include some large thermal and hydroelectric power plants.

The sum total of the electric power plants, the networks that interconnect them and the power utilizing devices of the consumers, is called a power system. All the components of a power system are interrelated by the common processes of protection, distribution, and consumption of both electric and heat power.

In a power system, all the parallelly operating plants carry the total load of all the consumers supplied by the given system.

Faults of Motors and Ways of Their Repair.

Motors may have different faults. A faulty motor does not start, or, when it is started, it operates at an excessive speed.

Its brushes may spark and its windings and the commutator may be overheated and burnt. Besides, a motor may produce an abnormal noise, etc. All these and other faults should be detected and repaired.



To achieve- достигать

To belong- принадлежать, относиться

To feed- снабжать, питать

To determine- определять

To relate- относиться (к),быть связанным (с)

Predominant- преобладающий

Graph- кривая, график

National economy- народное хозяйство

To repair- ремонтировать

Brush- щетка

Gap- зазор, люфт

Spark- искра

Speed- скорость

Noise- шум

Slow- медленный

Excessive- избыточный

Check- проверка

To adjust- регулировать, подгонять


2.Выполните упражнения:

1)Распределите данные ниже слова на три группы:

Action (действие) process (процесс) doer (исполниетль)

utilizer, protect, distribution, utilize, protection, distributor, consumption, consume, utilization, consumer

2) Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What enterprises are called electric power consumers?

2. When do their operating characteristics vary?

3. What consumers belong to the four different groups?

4. What conditions does the load graph determine?

5. What type of system is called a power system?

6. What processes interconnect the components of a power system?

7. In what way is an economical utilization of power installations achieved?

3) Подберите русские эквиваленты к данным словосочетаниям:

a. load graph________________________________

lighting load______________________________

power load_______________________________

b. power utilizing devices______________________

parallelly operating plants____________________

enterprises utilizing power___________________

4) Поставьте предложения в отрицательную форму:

Water- turbine works are called hydro turbines.

Load graph determines the operating load conditions.

Interconnected operation of power plants will achieve economical concumption of electric power.

Electric Motors

Motors are used for converting different forms of energy into mechanical energy.

The main part of a motor is a coil or armature. The armature is placed between the poles of a powerful magnet. When a motor is put into operation current starts flowing through the coil (armature) and the armature starts rotating.

Electric motors are used practically in every branch of industry, transport, and agriculture. Naturally, they are produced in many different designs. They are used in industrial plants, and operate under different conditions.

Each motor is supplied with a nameplate which bears machine ratings: output power, voltage, the rated current, the starting current, the power factor, the efficiency, and the rated torque.

These motor ratings should be taken into consideration since they are necessary for the users. On them depends the length of motors' service life, which is normally equal to about 10 years, provided that the operating conditions are normal. Naturally, under abnormal conditions the service life becomes much shorter: motors operate poorly and may have different faults.

Energy Resources of Today

People are energy-rich today. Solar energy is considered to be a potentially limitless source of clean energy. The waters of the world contain potential fuel -in the form of a special isotope of hydrogen -deuterium. It is sufficient to power fusion reactors for thousands of years.


Unit II


A substation is designed to receive energy from a power system, convert it and distribute it to the feeders. Thus a substation serves as a distribution centre. Substations feed (supply) various consumers provided that their basic load characteristics are similar. Therefore the energy is distributed without transformation of the voltage supplied.

Common substations comprise isolators, switchgear buses, oil circuit breakers, fuses, power and instrument transformers and reactors.

Substations are classed into step up and step down ones. The step up substations includes transformers that increase the voltage. Connected to the busbars of the substation are the power transmission lines of power plants of the system.

Transformer substations are classed into indoor and outdoor; both types are used for feeding industrial enterprises. Compared to other types of substations, transformer substations have certain advantages. They have flexible construction and easy and reliable operation. In case of a fault in the left-hand sections, the main circuit breaker opens while the normally open sections circuit breaker closes and puts the voltage of the sections to normal. Power from a substation is delivered to distribution centres.

Hydroelectric Power Plants

Hydroelectric power plants are built on rivers. Large-capacity hydroelectric power plants are commonly located at considerable distances from the consumers of electric power.

The production process at these plants is rather simple: the water flows into the hydroturbine runner, acts upon-the runner blades and rotates the runner and the turbine shaft.

The generator shaft is connected to the turbine runner shaft. The difference in the water level influences the power capacity of a plant, i. e. the magnitude of the water head and daily inflow of water fluctuates considerably according to the season.

The production process is different at power plants of different constructions and of different kinds. In atomic power plants, for example, it is not so simple as in hydroelectric plants.



auxiliary- вспомогательный, добавочный

breaker- выключатель, прерыватель

busbar- собирательная шина

feeder- фидер

flexible- гибкий

to comprise- включать в себя

to distribute- распределять

as ... to- что касается

as well as- так же, как и

blade- лопасть

level- уровень

magnitude- величина

head- (зд.) верх, верхушка

plant-станция, завод

runner- ротор

shaft- привад, вал

to rotate- вращать(ся)

to influence- влиять

to fluctuate- колебаться


2. Выполните упражнения:

1) Завершите предложения, используя правильный вариант, переведите:

1. A substation serves a) to consume energy.

b) to distribute energy.

c) to convert energy.


2. A substation feeds consumers a) with various load characteristics.

b) with similar load characteristics.

3. The lines of power plants are a) to the busbars connected b) to the switchgear.


4. A substation comprises a) the main elements.

b) the main and auxiliary elements.


5. Flexible construction is a) an advantage.

b) a disadvantage.

2) Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What does a substation serve for?

2. What type of consumers does a substation feed?

3. What parts are the power transmission lines connected to?

4. What components does a substation comprise?

5. What types are substations classed into?

6. What are advantages of a transformer substation?

7. On what sites are hydroelectric power plants built?

8. Are large-capacity plants located far from consumers of power?

9. Is the production process at the plants simple or is it complex?

10. What influences the power capacity of a plant?

11. According to what factors does the daily inflow of water fluctuate?

12. Does the production process at the plant depend on its construction?

13. Do you know that a thermal power plant seldom has an efficiency more

than 40%?

3) Поставьте вопрос к предложению начиная с вопросительного слова, стоящего в скобках:

1) Hydroelectric power plants are built on rivers. (Where)

2) Large- capacity power plants at a short distance from consumers of power. (What)

3) The power capacity of a plant is influenced by the difference in the water level. (What by)

4) The daily inflow of water fluctuates according to the season. (How)

5) The production process depends upon the construction of the plant. (How)


Control text.

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HV Power Transmission

A high-capacity hydrogenerator produces an a.c. current at 22,000 V. The current with the potential difference of 220,000 V is produced by means of the transformers at a step-up station and then transmitted over the power lines.

The current potential difference is lowered to medium 6,600 V at the main step-down substation at the end of the line. From here the power is transmitted to the next substations. Transformers stepping the voltage down from 6,600 V are installed at those substations.

Due to voltage conversion, alternating current is used widely in in­dustry. Direct current for battery charging for trams, trolleybuses and electric locomotives is changed from alternating current by means of rectifiers.


In the electric generating field, as well as in the electric-transmission and storage-technology areas, considerable attention is focused on the use of superconductivity conductors. Cooling an electric conductor to temperatures close to absolute zero (-273°C) results in the conductors' losing their resistance to electric current. Accordingly, their ohmic losses also drop greatly. Current densities of tens of millions amperes per sq cm can be tolerated in such conductors.

Cryogenic technology being now mastered, one can foresee the pos­sibility of supercooling not only generators but also underground transmission lines and storage coils.


1. Where is the current potential difference lowered?

2. Where is the main step-down substation installed?

3. Conductors can never lose their resistance to the flow of electric current?

4. Generators and underground transmission lines can be supercooled?


Unit III

Atomic Power Plant

Atomic power plants are modern installations. They consist of several main units and a great number of auxiliary ones.

In a nuclear reactor uranium is utilized as s fuel. During operation process powerful heat and radioactive radiation are produced. The nuclear reactor is cooled by water circulation. Cooling water circulates through a system of tubes, in which the water is heated to a temperature of 250-300oC. In order to prevent boiling of water, it passes into the reactor at a pressure up to 150 atmospheres.

A steam generator includes a series of heat exchangers comprising tubes. The water heated in the reactor is delivered into the heat exchanger tubes. The water to be converted into steam flows outside these tubes. The steam produced is fed into the turbogenerator.

Besides, an atomic power plant comprises a common turbogenerator, a steam condenser with circulating water and a switchboard.

Atomic power plants have their advantages as well disadvantages. The reactor and steam generators operate in them noiselessly; the atmosphere is not polluted by dust and smoke. As to the fuel consumption, it is of no special importance and there is no problem of fuel transportation.

The disadvantage of power plants utilizing nuclear fuel is their radiation. Radioactive radiation produced in the reactors is dangerous for attending personnel. Therefore, reactors and steam generators are installed underground. They are also shielded by thick (up to 1.5 m) concrete walls. All their controls are operated by means of automatic devices. These measures serve to protect people from radioactive radiation.


Exchanger- теплообменник

steam- пар

tube- труба, лампа

dust- пыль

attending personnel- обслуживающий персонал

to deliver- поставлять

to pollute- загрязнить

to shield- защищать

concrete- бетон

environment- окружающая среда

fission- расщепление

(stainless) steel-(нержавеющая) сталь

vessel- сосуд

waste- отходы

to confine- заключать

to release- выпускать, освобождать

to withstand- противостоять

to dispose- устранять, убирать


2. Выполните упражнения:

1) Подберите русские эквиваленты к словосочетаниям:

nuclear fuel _______________________________________

nuclear fission_________________________________________________

steel vessel____________________________ ________________________

reactor vessel __________________________________________

fission release __________________________________________

sealed tubes __________________________________________

concrete housing_______________________________________________

waste products________________________________________________

nuclear waste_________________________________________________

shielded cylinders ______________________________________________________

2)Употребите глагол в скобках в правильной форме:

1. The experiment (repeat) many times.

2. The power which (radiate) as light is almost three times as great as that radiated as heat.

3. It (know) that iron molecules are magnets at all times.

4. Under ordinary room lightning the resistance of transistors (decrease) millions of times.

5. Ruby crystals about ten centimetres long can (intensify) light ten times.

6. The density of a semiconductor laser radiation (be) hundreds of times as great as that of the ruby laser.

7. The power which (transmit) along a wire is the product of the voltage times the amperage.

3) Завершите предложение, используя правильный вариант:

1. A nuclear reactor is used ina) wind-power plants.

b) atomic power plants.

2. A nuclear reactor is cooled a) water circulating in tubes.

by b) oil circulating in tubes.

3. Water is passed into the re­actor a) at a low pressure.

b) at a high pressure.

4. High pressure a) activates boiling of water.

b) prevents boiling of water.

5. Atomic power plants a) pollute the air with dust and smoke.

b) do not pollute the air with dust and smoke.

6. Circulating water flows a) inside the heat exchangers.

b) outside the heat exchangers.

7. Attending personnel is a) thick concrete walls.

shielded by b) thick metal walls.

4) Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What are the main units of an atomic power plant?

2. By what means is the nuclear reactor cooled?

3. At what pressure does the water pass into the reactor?

5)Ответьте, верны ли следующие утверждения:

a) Atomic power plants do not pollute the air with dust and smoke

б) Circulating water flows inside the heat exchangers.

в) A nuclear power plant releases fission products.

г) The waste products are disposed in a shielded cylinders.

д) The fission products are confined within open tubes.


Control text

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Solar Energy

The Sun radiates to our planet great amounts of energy. This energy input fuels all our biological processes and is the original source for hydropower, wind power, and fossil fuel resources. Environmentally and economically, the Sun is our greatest energy source. Why then is the direct use of solar energy so limited for industrial, domestic, com­mercial, and transportation purposes?

First, solar energy arrives in small quantities - only about one kW per square meter; second, it does not arrive at all during night hours. Third, it is very difficult to transform it into useful energy forms except low-grade heat.



Dynamo is a common device for converting mechanical energy into electric energy. This process depends on the fact that if an electrical conductor moves across a magnetic field, an electric current flows in the conductor.

Usually a dynamo includes an electromagnet, called the field magnet, between the poles of which a suitable conductor, usually in the form of a coil, called the armature, is rotated. The mechanical energy of the rotation, in the form of a current in the armature, is thus converted into electric energy.


1. What device is described in the text?

2. What types of the device do you know?

3. Why is the direct use of solar energy limited nowadays?


Unit IV

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Electric Power.

Electric power is generated by converting heat, light, chemical energy, or mechanical energy to electrical energy. Most electrical energy is produced in large power stations be the conversion of mechanical energy or heart. The mechanical energy of falling water is used to drive turbine generators in hydroelectric stations, and the heat derived by burning coal, oil, or other fossil fuels is used to operate steam turbines or internal-combustion engines that drive electric generator in a nuclear power plant.

Electricity generated by the conversion of light or chemical energy is used mainly for portable power sources. For example, a photoelectric cell converts the energy from light to electrical energy for operating the energy to electrical energy for starting an automobile engine.

Electric power produced in large power stations generally is transmitted by using an alternating current that reverses direction 25, 0, or 60 times per second. The basic unit for measuring electric power is the watt – the rate at which work is being done in an electric circuit in which the current is one ampere and the electromotive force is one volt.

Rating for power plants are expressed in kilowatts (1,000 watts) or megawatts (1 million watts). Electric energy consumption normally is given in kilowatt-hour – that is, the number of kilowatts used times the number of hours of use. Electricity is clean, inexpensive, and easily transmitted over kong distances. Since the 1880’s, electricity has had an ever-increasing role in improving the standard of living. It now is used to operate lights, pumps, elevators, power tools, furnaces, refrigerators, air-conditioners, radios, television sets, industrial machinery, and many other kinds of equipment. It has been counted that in developed countries about 43% of the electric power is generally used for industrial purposes, 32% in homes, and 21% in commercial enterprises.

Electric Power Plants.

The two main types of power plants traditionally have been the fossil-fuel steam-electric plant and the hydroelectric plant. Other types, including internal-combustion-engine plants and nuclear plants also have been built. The selection of a particular type of generating plant and its locations involves consideration of a number of factors such as plant, fuel, and transmission line costs; availability of cooling water; and environmental considerations.

For several reasons, the relative importance of the various types of power plants has been shifting. Good sites for new hydroelectric plants have become scare in many countries. Distribution networks have been extended so that less expensive power from large steam-electric stations has been replacing power from smaller diesel-generator units. Nuclear-electric power plants have been built instead of fossil-fuel steam-electric plants because the cost of coal and oil has been increasing.

In the United States in 1970, fossil-fuel steam-electric plants accounted for 76% of the power generated, hydroelectric plants for 16%, and nuclear plants for 2%.

In 2000 45% of the electric power in the United States is generated from fossil-fuel steam- electric plants, 45% from nuclear plants, and 10% from hydroelectric plants.



to generate- производить вырабатывать

to convert- преобразовывать, превращать

heat- теплота, тепло

heating- нагревание

to drive- приводить в движение

fuel- топливо, заправлять

to derive-происходить

steam- пар

combustion- сжигание

fission- распад

source- источник

to transmit- передавать

to count- считать

arailahility- наличие

consideration- вопрос

lead- свинец

furnance- печь



2. Выполните упражнения:

1) Распределите слова на 4 колонки:

Model: what? what king of? what to do? how?

use useful to use usefully

insulator, failure, fail, addition, additional, overestimate, equal, equalize, equality, equally, different, differ, difference, resist, resistance, resistivity, resistant, commonly, consumer, faulty, impossibility, carelessly, number, numerous, possible, clockwise

2) Поставьте всевозможные вопросы к предложениям, а так же дайте отрицательную форму:

1. Oxygen combines directly with nearly all elements.

2. Plastic materials are relatively new insulating materials.

3. Polythene cables have numerous advantages.

4. The importance of semiconductors for modern science cannot be underestimated.

5. Semiconductors conduct electricity less efficiently than metals.

6. The method proved to be efficient.

7. What resistance materials are in common use today?

3) Используя информацию текста, вставьте пропущенные слова:

а) The …. And energy balance is important for industry.

б) Conductirity increases with…

в) The amount of… used in the world in a year amounts to 12000 million tons of equivalent…

г)The wire and the… form a…

д) After the metal was heated it chamsed its colour to a red…

е) The heat is used to …. generate steam.

ж) Steam… a turbine generator

Перескажите текст.

Control text

Unit V

Nuclear Power Plants.

The energy for operating a nuclear power plant comes from the heat released during the fissioning of uranium or plutonium atoms in a nuclear reactor. This fission heat is used to generate steam, which drives a turbine generator. Thus, there are two main differences between a nuclear power plant and a steam-electric power plant: the nuclear plant uses a nuclear fuel instead of a fossil fuel, and it uses a nuclear reactor instead of a boiler.

The fissioning of uranium-235 or plutonium-239 atoms – the primary nuclear fuels – is caused by the impacts of neutrons on these atoms. The fission process not only produces heat but also several additional neutrons that can cause fissioning of other uranium-235 or plutonium-239 atoms. Thus, by proper arrangement of the atoms of fuel, a sustained chain reaction can be maintained to provide a steady source of heat for operating a power plant. This chain reaction is controlled by regulating the number and energy of the neutrons as they proceed from one fission reaction to another.

There are various types of nuclear reactors. The major differences between them are the form of fuel, the methods for controlling the number and energy of the neutrons, and the type of liquid or gas used to remove the heat from the reactor core.

Windscale Accident.

Throughout the years, accidents causing a release of radioactive material to the environment have occurred. Since World War II all over the world large scale nuclear facilities have been built and operated both for civil and defense purposes. Some of the sites on which these facilities were located are heavily contaminated with radioactive substances.

One of first nuclear reactor accidents of environmental concern was the Windscale accident in October 1957. During the accident the military air-cooled graphite-moderated natural-uranium reactor used for plutonium production caught fire during the liberation of energy in the graphite. Emission from the Windscale lasted for 18 hours. Radioactive material was detectable in many parts of Western Europe but the majority of it deposited in the United Kingdom.

Chernobyl Accident.

The accident, which was of global concern was the accident in Ukraine in the Chernobyl power plant located in Polesye on the River Pripyat.

On 26 April, 1986, Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear plant suffered a major accident. The Chernobyl 4 reactor was a graphite-moderated, light-water-cooled system. The installed electrical generating capacity was 1 GW. The accident follower some engineering tests of a generator.

During the tests, basic operating safely rules were being violated. Most control rods were withdrawn from the core and the safely systems were switched off. Two explosions and a fire that followed them damaged the reactor and the containment building. The graphite started to burn. Explosive energy was released, which resulted in the 1000 ton cover plate of the reactor being lifted up.

A prolonged release of large quantities of radioactive products transported by the cloud from Chernobyl was detected not only in northern and southern Europe but also in Canada, Japan, and the US.

The major part of release took place over the period of about ten days. There were two peaks in release rate (26th April and 5th May). Later on, the release continued for many weeks at a lower rate before the destroyed reactor was finally sealed, which took place some five months later.

Initially the cloud of radioactive materials was carried over the Baltic Sea into Scandinavia. After a few days the wind direction rotated clockwise and the cloud travelled eastwards across the USSR and southwards to Turkey.

The total mass of the radioactive particles released in the accident was about 6000-8000 Kg. More than half of it was deposited near the plant but the rest travelled thousands of kilometres (see Fig. 26).

There is no doubt that the nuclear plant accidents offer a number of lessons to be learnt.

At present, over 200 nuclear power reactors for commercial electricity production operate in Europe.

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant has shown that largescale accidents in nuclear power plants can lead to contamination of the entire continent.



to release- высвобождать

instead of- вместо

boiler- котел

to cause- вызывать, быть причиной


proper- соответствующий

to provide- обеспечивать

steady- постоянный

to maintain- поддерживать

chain- цепь

liquid- жидкость

to remove- удалять

core- ядро, центр

environment- окружающая среда


civil- гражданский

to locate- располагать

to contaminate- удалять, устранять



2. Выполните упражнения:

1) Ответьте на вопросы:

а) How long did the emission from the Windscale reactor last?

б) What did the emission result in?

в) What was the cause of the Chernobyl accident?

г) Were does the energy for operating a nuclear plant come from?

д) What are the differences between various of nuclear reactors?

е) How is a chain reaction maintained?

ж) Why do accidents occur?

з) How many atoms are there in uranium?

2) найдите все формы причастия, укажите их и переведите предложения:

1. The energy lost in the capacitor appears in the from of heat being generated in the dielectric.

2. The problem being discussed is of no great importance for practice.

3. The generators constructed at the plant have no commutators.

4. The code widely used is called Morse code.

5. While passing through the conductor, resistance results in the production of heat.

6. Having been insulated with polythene, the line was tested under unfavorable conditions.

7. Having made a number of tests, the researched got some useful results.

8. Having been tested under different conditions, the motors were put to use.

9. When being rubbed, some substances produce electric charges.

10. Decelerating trains and descending elevators use negative, or braking, torque.

11. In what way is the transmitter controlled in an amplitude-modulated system?

Control text

Переведите текст и ответьте на вопросы:

Unit VI


Steam- пар

to accomplish- завершать, выполнять

to condense-испарять

to cool-охлаждать


to supply-поставлять


to feed-питать

to decrease- уменьшать

service life- срок службы

to generate- вырабатывать

capacity- емкость, объем

to transmit- передавать

consumer- потребитель

laundry- прачечная

dwelling- жилье, жилище

to deliver- доставлять

relative- относительный

scarce- скудный

to replace- заменять

cost- стоимость, затраты


2. Выполните упражнения:

1)Ответьте на вопросы:

    1. In what part of the power plant does condensation of steam take place?
    2. Why is distilled water used for feeding steam boilers?
    3. What kinds of power plants are in use nowadays?
    4. What does the selection of a type of generating plant depend on?
    5. For what reason are nuclear- electric power plants being built instead of fossil-fuel steam-electric plants?
    6. How are plants of large industrial regions called?
    7. Where is the electric power fed to?
    8. Why is the importance of the distilled water for feeding steam boilers so great?

2)Употребите слова, стоящие в скобках в Participle I, Participle II или Gerund, переведите:

1. (Cool) an electric conductor results in its reduced resistance to electric current.

2. What is the name of an (insulate) material (use) to prevent an electric shock?

3. The (apply) technique brought about quite unexpected results.

4. Mica is used as a dielectric due to (have) high voltage strength.

5. The word’s first tidal power station, a plant on the Rance River in France, began (operate) in 1966.

6. Solar energy has been converted to electricity by (use) solar cells, which are semiconductor devices (produce) from thin slices of silicon.

3)Вместо пропусков вставьте предлоги: according to, because of, through, of, at, for, by, during, in, in case of, into, переведите:

1.The power transmitted … a wire is the product… the voltage times the amperage. … resistive losses, it is desirable to transmit power … low amperage and high voltage. … doubling the voltage, the capability … a given circuit can be quadrupled.

2. Devices are classed … the operation they are intended… .

3. This type … aerial is useful and popular … its small size.

4. … a faulty device its readings are not to be relied…

5. Coal and oil contain sulfur … concentrations … a few percent.

6. As these fuels are burned, the sulfur is converted … sulfur-dioxide gas. … the operation … a plant, the sulfur-dioxide and other products are discharged … the air stacks, some … which are about 305 meters high.

4)Подставьте вопросы к данным предложениям:

1. The first central electric power station was installed in 1882.


What station______________________________________________?

2. Radioactive wastes damage man and his generation.


What wastes ______________________________________________?

3. The use of water power and wind power began more than 2,000 years ago.

The use of what kind of power________________________________?


4. The cooling water is drawn from a source and passed through the con­denser.

What kind of water_________________________________________?

What ________________________________________________from?


Кратко перескажите текст.

Control text.

Unit VII

International cooperation.

Since the oil crises of the 1970's international cooperation has be­come an increasingly important factor in energy policy for most coun­tries of the industrial world. It arose from the need to cope effectively with the disruptive impact of oil-price increases on the economy. In­ternational cooperation has contributed substantially to the formulation and application of concerted actions to reduce dependency on oil and respond collectively to emergency situations.

Despite progress, it was soon realized however that energy issues couldn't be solved by industrial countries alone, working in isolation. Nor was it a matter of redistributing energy resources and proceeds from oil-trade between oil producing and consuming countries. Ener­gy policy can no longer be applied without due attention to the realities of an increasingly interdependent world economy, in which long-term issues, like the environment, population growth and the advancement of less developed countries raise serious concerns.

Consequently, international energy cooperation has been included as an integral part of the energy policy of the European Union. The need to strengthen cooperation is further underlined by recent events and developments taking place within as well as outside the Union. In the first place, policy objectives and priorities have con­centrated on the establishment of a Single Market to include the energy sector, as a means towards increasing availability and reducing the cost of energy supplies throughout the Union. Given the energy situation prevailing in most of the Member States, attaining this objective de­pends heavily on the extent to which energy relations with other countries can be promoted and secured. The specific EU Programme con­centrates on the transfer of energy policy know-how and strategies to Third Countries with the following approach:

- the global objective of securing energy supplies at reasonable prices;

- facilitating collaboration between European companies and ma­jor energy producing and consuming industries in third countries;

- protection of the environment from industrial pollution.

Despite recent economic setbacks, many of the newly emerging world economies are being fuelled by massive increases in energy use and this will have significant repercussions on the environment. Some estimates predict that India and China will be responsible for as much as a quarter of the world's total CO2 emissions by the year 2010. The energy/ environment interrelation is subsequently very important and has been reflected in many cooperation activities, particularly in the area of clean coal technologies or renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, solar, photovoltaic, solar thermal and biogas.

Energy co-operation should function in close collaboration with both national administrations and regional organizations. Such coopera­tion not only contributes to economic development but also to peace and stability for the countries.



to cope with-справляться с чем-либо

disruptive impact- разрушительное влияние

to reduce dependency- сократить зависимость

a matter of- дело

interdependent- взаимозависимый

single market- единый рынок

reasonable prices- разумные цены

to facilitate collaboration- способствовать сотрудничеству

industrial pollution- промышленное загрязнение

economic setback- экономический спад

to emerge- появляться

to contribute to economic development- делать вклад в экономическое развитие

lo have repercussions on- иметь влияние на

2.выполните упражнения:

1) найдите в тексте английские определения, соответствующие русским словосочетаниям:

1.Эффективно справляться с

2.Деструктивное влияние на

3.Уменьшить зависимость от

4.Реагировать на экстренные ситуации

5.Обеспечение энергосбережения

6.Вызывать серьезную обеспокоенность

7.По разумным ценам

2) Подтвердите верны ли утверждения:

1. It was soon realized however that energy issues couldn't be solved by industrial countries alone.

2. Energy policy can be applied without due attention to the realities of an increasingly interdependent world economy.

3. International energy cooperation has been included as an inte­gral part of the energy policy of the United Nations.

4. The specific EU Programme concentrates on the transfer of en­ergy policy know-how and strategies to Third Countries.

5. Some estimates predict that India and China will be responsible for as much as a quarter of the world's total CO2 emissions by the year 2010.


3) Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Why has the international cooperation become an increasingly important factor in energy policy for most countries of the industrial world?

2. What is the need to strengthen cooperation further underlined by?

3. Why couldn't energy issues be solve by industrial countries alone?

4.What does the specific EU Programme concentrate on?

5. What do some estimates predict?

6. What was included into general energy policy?

7. What raise serious concerns?

8. Why will there be significant repercussions on the environment?

4) скажите где –ing и -ed окончания являются причастием?

1. Energy issues couldn't be solved by industrial countries alone, working in isolation.

2. The need to strengthen cooperation is further underlined by re­cent events and developments taking place within as well as out­side the Union.

3. Despite recent economic setbacks, many of the newly emerg­ing world economies are being fuelled by massive increases in energy use.

4. Water-turbine plants are called hydroturbines.

5. The transmission system selected for everyday use is based on the com­bined activity of telecommunication and computers.

6. Being a semiconductor, germanium is widely used in transistors.

7. Switch board is an assemblage of controlling and indicating devices mounted upon a frame.

5) Используя информацию текста продолжите предложения:

1. the article deals with ...

2. it is specially noted ...

3. the text gives a valuable information...

4. it draws our attention to...


Control text.

Переведите текст с какими фактами или собвтиями связаны следующие цифры 40%, 1999, 5%, 2000


Union’s European programme.

EU P supports the progression of improved non-nuclear energy tech­nologies through demonstration and market penetration. The focus of the programme component is on the demonstration and promotion of clean and efficient energy technologies in three broad areas:

- renewable energy sources;

- rational use of energy in buildings, industry and transport;

- cleaner and more efficient use of fossil fuels and more effective exploration, distribution and transportation of hydrocarbons.

At the core of the aims of the European Union as a whole, are three central objectives. First, to help promote economic growth and create employment. Second, to improve the competitiveness of our indus­tries. Third, to protect our environment and contribute towards sus­tainable development. New energy technologies can make an impor­tant contribution towards achievement of these objectives. A more efficient use of resources, such as fuels and electricity, helps to im­prove the relative cost-effectiveness of our industries and hence the goods and services they make and sell. As the recent economic cri­ses in the Far East has shown, the world is truly a global village. Like­wise, our industries across the EU are intrinsically connected to the ebbs and flows of international markets. The technologies supported under programme like THERM1E have contributed to a more efficient use of resources, thus reducing costs and making the companies more com­petitive. The indicator commonly used to measure the "efficiency of energy use" in the industrial sector is that of energy consumption per unit of output, known as "energy intensity".

Investment in new technologies can also have an impact in another area, namely that of employment creation. Many of the technologies supported by initiatives such as THERMIE are more labour intensive than their conventional competitors, either in manufacturing and installation, or in operation and maintenance. Thus, investing in these applications, and the firms that produce them, allows for a contribu­tion towards employment creation. Moreover, many of the jobs creat­ed are highly skilled, or are located in priority areas.

Investing in technology to stimulate economic growth is not sufficient, in itself, to meet our objectives. We must also work towards promoting sustainable development and protection of our environments. The emphasis on clean and efficient technologies can make a substantial contribution towards achievement of these aims. All of the technologies ,and applications supported under THERMIE offer access to zero or low emissions of gases such as CO2, the main greenhouse gas. In the Solid Fuel sector, for example, the advanced coal technologies supported with­in THERMIE offer access to substantial reductions in emissions of green­house gases and those responsible for acid deposition. A recent analysis by the European Commission sought to quantify these savings.



in support- поддерживать

penetration- проникновение

at the core-в центре

objective- цель

employment- занятость, рабочие места

ebbs and flows- приливы и отливы

creation- создание

to promote- способствовать, содействовать

substantial- важный, значительный

to sight (sought)- увидеть, рассмотреть

vehicle- средство

impact- влияние

exchange- обмен

experience- опыт


2.Выполните упражнения:

1)К существительным из а подберите прилагательное из б:

a) b)

1. penetration 1. economic

2. component 2. efficient

3. source 3. fossil

4. fuels 4. low

5. objective 5. energy

6. crises 6. greenhouse

7. use 7. market

8. emissions 8. project

9. gas 9. central

10. partner 10. programme

2)Найдите в тексте предложения с данными словосочетаниями и поставьте к ним вопросы:

1. improved non-nuclear energy technologies

2. clean and efficient energy technologies

3. renewable energy sources

4. energy intensity

5. employment creation

6. acid deposition

7. market deployment


Hydropower is clean. It prevents the burning of 22 billion gallons of oil or 120 million tons of coal each year. Hydropower does not produce greenhouse gases or other air pollution. Hydropower leaves behind no waste. Reservoirs formed by hydropower projects in Wisconsin have expanded water-based recreation resources, and they support diverse, healthy, and productive fisheries. In fact, catch rates are substantially higher on hydropower reservoirs than natural lakes.


Hydropower is the most efficient way to generate electricity. Mod­ern hydroturbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The best fossil fuel plants are only about 50% efficient. In the U. S., hydropower is produced for an average of 0.7 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh). This is about one-third the cost of using fossil fuel or nuclear and one-sixth the cost of using natural gas. Hydropow­er does not experience2 rising or unstable fuel costs.


Hydropower is the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more than 97% of all electricity generated by renewable sources. Oth­er sources including solar, geothermal, wind, and biomass account for less than 3% of renewable electricity production.


Reservoirs formed by hydroelectric dams provide many water-based recreational opportunities including fishing, water sports, boating, and water fowl3 hunting. Hydro-operators own a significant amount of land around many reservoirs that is open to the public for uses including hiking, hunting, snowmobiling, and skiing. Hydro-oper­ators provide many recreation facilities at their hydropower projects including boat landings, swimming beaches, restrooms, picnic areas, fishing piers, hiking and nature trails, canoe portages, and park­ing facilities.


Unit IX


favorable consideration- благоприятное мнение

in the wake of- на поводу у кого-либо, под влиянием чего-либо

accident- авария

to resurrect- воскрешать, возрождать

harsh treatment- жесткое отношение

renaissance- Ренессанс, возрождение

impetus- стимул, толчок

performance improvements- улучшение рабочих характеристик

unusual events- чрезвычайные происшествия

challenge- сложная задача, проблема

surveillance testing- проверка наблюдением, надзор

to verify- проверять, контролировать

severity серьезность

in violation of- в нарушение

mishap- несчастный случай

lapse in judgement- ошибка в суждении

to spill- разливать


2. Выполните упражнения:

1)Подберите соответствующие русские эквиваленты из б) к английским из а):

a) b)

1) energy mix 1) ошибка

2) long-term 2) ранить

3) to cancel 3) пожарник

4) mainstream media 4) уступать

5) to stem from 5) основные средства массовой информации

6) premium 6)структура энергетики

7) gains 7) азотная кислота

8) safety indicators 8) происходить от

9) to drop 9) падать

10) to solidify 10) в отличном состоянии

11) to squeeze 11) прибыли

12) design margins 12) отменять

13) in excellent condition 13) более высокая цена

14) to rank second 14) твердеть

15) nitric acid 15) вынуждать

16) to injure 16) предельное значение

17) firefighter 17) показатели безопасности



2) Скажите, верны ли утверждения:

1. The fact that nuclear power is in the position to be favorably con­sidered is a result of the substantial performance improvements achieved at US plants during the past decade.

2. The challenge for individual nuclear stations is to continue this momentum by solidifying competitive gains already achieved and squeezing further improvements from each unit.

3. Extensive monitoring and surveillance testing of plant systems, structures and components such as containment building, reac­tor vessel, reactor cooling system pressure boundary, steam gen­erators, pressurizer, piping, pump casings, and valve bodies are performed yearly to verify the plant is maintained in excellent condition.

4. For the first time in decade, political leaders are proposing nu­clear power as an important, long-term energy solution.

5. Other power producers are canceling new nuclear plants orders.

6. The fact that nuclear power is in the position to be favorably con­sidered is a result of the mainstream media harsh treatment.

7. The number of unusual events reported to the US NRC dropped from 151 in 1990 to just 18 in 2002.

8. A lot of nuclear plant components will require replacement spe­cifically to achieve extended operation for an additional 20 years.

9. As crucial to the scenario as the mishap were the lack of proper safety and emergency expertise and equipment at the site.

3) Дайте определение к следующим фразам по- английски:

1. nuclear industry "renaissance"

2. plant systems, structures and components

3. nuclear power plant fleet

4. the lapse in judgement

5. turn- around stems

6. fuel repro cessing plant

7. power shortages

8. safety indicators

Control text.

Прочтите текст и определите, о какой энергии идет речь? Предложите свой вариант названия текста, обоснуйте

Unit X

Fossil Fuels

Solid Fuels

Inthis field, technical improvements in terms of thermal efficiency play a vital role in fostering market penetration of new systems. In the solid fuel sector much attention has been paid to the so-called "clean coal technologies". This is due to a recognition of the continuing importance of this fuel, especially in developing countries, but cou­pled with the need to improve the environmental and thermal perfor­mance of the combustion process.

Most large scale conventional power plants have net thermal effi­ciencies in the order of 38% for hard coal and 35% for brown coal. New systems are being developed which are aimed at increasing this,

over the medium-term, to at least 50%. This will result in a reduction of 0.21 kg of CO2per kWh generated per hard coal, and 0.34 kg/kWh generated for brown coal. In the EU countries alone, this equates to a CO2 reduction of 180 million tons per year; in line with targets set in the context of the climate change debate. This increased efficiency leads to lower fuel costs per unit of output, thought to equate to a reduction of some 2.5 EU/MWh in generating costs. For a 1 Gwe plant operat­ing for 7,000 hours a year, this means a theoretical annual cost cutting potential of about ECU 18 million for consumers.

Oil and Gas

The key priorities in this sector are to improve the efficiency of explo­ration and production of hydrocarbons and to reduce the environmental impact of the same. Some of the most important new technologies that have contributed to the objectives are related to: new drilling and com­pletion techniques, new seismic methods such as multi-component and multi-dimension seismic, offshore production structures and facilities. New techniques for deep water storage; and new technologies for natu­ral gas exploration and production. Demonstration and market deploy­ment of such technology will allow not only a better exploitation of Eu­ropean indigenous resources but also an increased competitiveness of European service and supply companies.


vital role- жизненная роль

to foster- поощрять, одобрять

to aim- нацеливать, направлять

to equate- равнять, уравнивать

exploration- исследование

deployment- развертывание

to implement- выполнять, осуществлять

benefits- выгоды, экономический эффект

dissemination- распространение


2. Выполните упражнения:

1) В связи с чем употребляются в тексте следующие словосочетания:

- market penetration

- solid fuel sector

- environmental and thermal performance

- large scale conventional power plants

- net thermal efficiencies

- climate change debate

- theoretical annual cost cutting potential

- offshore production structures

- deep water storage

- natural gas exploration

- natural gas technologies

2) Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Why has much attention been paid to the so-called "clean coal technologies"?

2. What thermal efficiencies do most large scale conventional pow­er plants have?

3. What does increased efficiency lead to?

4. What are the most important new technologies in oil and gas sector?

5. What will the project Gate 2020 assess existing and emerging tech­nologies for?

6. What do the technology areas include?

7. What will research encourage to do?

8. What will result in a reduction of some products?

Unit I

Прочтите и переведите текст

Electric Power Consumers and Power Systems

An electric power consumer is an enterprise utilizing electric power. Its operating characteristics vary during the hours of day, days and nights, days of week and seasons.

All electric power consumers are divided into groups with common load characteristics. To the first group belong municipal consumers with a predominant lighting load: dwelling houses, hospitals, theatres, street lighting systems, mines, etc.

To the second group belong industrial consumers with a predominant power load (electric motors): industrial plants, mines, etc.

To the third group belongs transport, for example, electrified railways. The fourth consists of agricultural consumers, for example, electrotractors.

The operating load conditions of each group are determined by the load graph. The load graph shows the consumption of power during different periods of day, month, and year. On the load graph the time of the maximum loads and minimum loads is given.

Large industrial areas with cities are supplied from electric networks fed by electric power plants. These are interconnected for operation in parallel and located in different parts of the given area. They may include some large thermal and hydroelectric power plants.

The sum total of the electric power plants, the networks that interconnect them and the power utilizing devices of the consumers, is called a power system. All the components of a power system are interrelated by the common processes of protection, distribution, and consumption of both electric and heat power.

In a power system, all the parallelly operating plants carry the total load of all the consumers supplied by the given system.

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