ТОП 10:

Energy Use, Carbon Emissions Continue Worldwide Rise



Total world energy consumption grew about 3 percent in 1999, sug­gesting upward pressures on world energy use. Three countries - the United States, Russia, and China - produced 40 percent and consumed 42 per­cent of the world's energy in 1999. Regionally, between 1987 and 1997, Latin America had the highest annual rate of growth of energy production at 5 percent and Asia had the highest annual rate of energy consumption growth at 5 percent. According to the "International Energy Annual 2000", world CO2 emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels grew by 3 per­cent during 2000. CO2 emission growth rates lag overall energy consump­tion growth rates because of the increasing role of natural gas, growth in demand for oil and gas uses that sequester part of their carbon, and the growth of renewable energy sources.

Other international energy highlights include:

• Five countries (United States, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia and Canada) produced half the world's energy in 2000.

• Five countries (United States, Russia, China, Japan and Ger­many) consumed half the world's energy in 2000.

• Natural gas has grown as apportion3 of total world energy consump­tion rising to 22 percent in 2000.

 

Unit VIII

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Union’s European programme.

EU P supports the progression of improved non-nuclear energy tech­nologies through demonstration and market penetration. The focus of the programme component is on the demonstration and promotion of clean and efficient energy technologies in three broad areas:

- renewable energy sources;

- rational use of energy in buildings, industry and transport;

- cleaner and more efficient use of fossil fuels and more effective exploration, distribution and transportation of hydrocarbons.

At the core of the aims of the European Union as a whole, are three central objectives. First, to help promote economic growth and create employment. Second, to improve the competitiveness of our indus­tries. Third, to protect our environment and contribute towards sus­tainable development. New energy technologies can make an impor­tant contribution towards achievement of these objectives. A more efficient use of resources, such as fuels and electricity, helps to im­prove the relative cost-effectiveness of our industries and hence the goods and services they make and sell. As the recent economic cri­ses in the Far East has shown, the world is truly a global village. Like­wise, our industries across the EU are intrinsically connected to the ebbs and flows of international markets. The technologies supported under programme like THERM1E have contributed to a more efficient use of resources, thus reducing costs and making the companies more com­petitive. The indicator commonly used to measure the "efficiency of energy use" in the industrial sector is that of energy consumption per unit of output, known as "energy intensity".

Investment in new technologies can also have an impact in another area, namely that of employment creation. Many of the technologies supported by initiatives such as THERMIE are more labour intensive than their conventional competitors, either in manufacturing and installation, or in operation and maintenance. Thus, investing in these applications, and the firms that produce them, allows for a contribu­tion towards employment creation. Moreover, many of the jobs creat­ed are highly skilled, or are located in priority areas.

Investing in technology to stimulate economic growth is not sufficient, in itself, to meet our objectives. We must also work towards promoting sustainable development and protection of our environments. The emphasis on clean and efficient technologies can make a substantial contribution towards achievement of these aims. All of the technologies ,and applications supported under THERMIE offer access to zero or low emissions of gases such as CO2, the main greenhouse gas. In the Solid Fuel sector, for example, the advanced coal technologies supported with­in THERMIE offer access to substantial reductions in emissions of green­house gases and those responsible for acid deposition. A recent analysis by the European Commission sought to quantify these savings.

 

Vocabulary.

in support- поддерживать

penetration- проникновение

at the core-в центре

objective- цель

employment- занятость, рабочие места

ebbs and flows- приливы и отливы

creation- создание

to promote- способствовать, содействовать

substantial- важный, значительный

to sight (sought)- увидеть, рассмотреть

vehicle- средство

impact- влияние

exchange- обмен

experience- опыт

 

2.Выполните упражнения:

1)К существительным из а подберите прилагательное из б:

a) b)

1. penetration 1. economic

2. component 2. efficient

3. source 3. fossil

4. fuels 4. low

5. objective 5. energy

6. crises 6. greenhouse

7. use 7. market

8. emissions 8. project

9. gas 9. central

10. partner 10. programme

2)Найдите в тексте предложения с данными словосочетаниями и поставьте к ним вопросы:

1. improved non-nuclear energy technologies

2. clean and efficient energy technologies

3. renewable energy sources

4. energy intensity

5. employment creation

6. acid deposition

7. market deployment







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