Определите в каких предложениях используются Complex subject, а в каких Complex object?



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Определите в каких предложениях используются Complex subject, а в каких Complex object?



1. In some countries, the nuclear power plants are believed to produce about 80 percent of the whole amount of energy.

2. The capacity of generating units was said to have been doubled.

3. What two conditions are necessary to cause an electric current to flow?

4. Ebonite, rubber, and glass are considered to be good insulators.

5. Nuclear plants are expected to be located away from urban areas.

6. The use of underground transmission lines is known to have been in­creased.

7. By 1959, maximum transmission voltages were proclaimed to have been increased to 345,000 volts.

8. The most important problems in atomic power generation are known to be concerned with the reactor. The light-water reactor types seem to be most promising.

Определите и временную форму глаголов и дайте отрицательную форму

Model: was removed - Past Indefinite Passive

is discharged -______________________________________

was being discharged -______________________________________

has discharged -______________________________________

had not been attached -______________________________________

is circulating -______________________________________

will not be heated -______________________________________

extends -______________________________________

does not maintain -______________________________________

is not maintained -______________________________________

will be linked -______________________________________

will release -______________________________________

will have been removed -______________________________________

 

Control text.

Прочтите текст и определите, о какой энергии идет речь? Предложите свой вариант названия текста, обоснуйте

The End of Nuclear Industry?

The European nuclear industry, which - through its 812 billion kWh of output - accounted for 36% of the Continent's energy supply in 1997, still expresses confidence that the anti-nuclear tide will subside. Nuclear industry representatives claim that Europe needs "clean" nu­clear power to meet E.U. greenhouse gas reduction targets, and that the economic costs of reactor closures are likely to sour public opin­ion on nuclear phase out plans. The French nuclear industry also has high hopes for the new standardized European pressurized-water re­actor or EPR-design. The French hope that the new EPR may help nuclear power compete economically with new gas- and coal-fired plants and lead to a revival of nuclear plant development.

But the industry also faces major problems beyond the relative cost of nuclear power, including a string of public relations gaffes and an aging managerial class that has depended too much on cozy relation­ships with governments and regulators.

In the end, it turned out the European nuclear industry had been routinely ignoring strict standards on train radiation levels for years because - claim industry representatives - they pose no real health danger, and following the rules to the letter is virtually impossi­ble.

Looming above the usual fights over German nuclear safety and en­vironmental issues, however, is the feeling that all European electrici­ty sectors will be put through major changes by E. U.-mandated mar­ket liberalization that was scheduled to begin in February. A report by Chicago-based Andersen Consulting issued in November predicts that over the next two decades, the European market will come to favour gas-fired local generation over large, remote base-load plants - nuclear or otherwise.

Unit X

Fossil Fuels

Solid Fuels

Inthis field, technical improvements in terms of thermal efficiency play a vital role in fostering market penetration of new systems. In the solid fuel sector much attention has been paid to the so-called "clean coal technologies". This is due to a recognition of the continuing importance of this fuel, especially in developing countries, but cou­pled with the need to improve the environmental and thermal perfor­mance of the combustion process.

Most large scale conventional power plants have net thermal effi­ciencies in the order of 38% for hard coal and 35% for brown coal. New systems are being developed which are aimed at increasing this,

over the medium-term, to at least 50%. This will result in a reduction of 0.21 kg of CO2per kWh generated per hard coal, and 0.34 kg/kWh generated for brown coal. In the EU countries alone, this equates to a CO2 reduction of 180 million tons per year; in line with targets set in the context of the climate change debate. This increased efficiency leads to lower fuel costs per unit of output, thought to equate to a reduction of some 2.5 EU/MWh in generating costs. For a 1 Gwe plant operat­ing for 7,000 hours a year, this means a theoretical annual cost cutting potential of about ECU 18 million for consumers.

Oil and Gas

The key priorities in this sector are to improve the efficiency of explo­ration and production of hydrocarbons and to reduce the environmental impact of the same. Some of the most important new technologies that have contributed to the objectives are related to: new drilling and com­pletion techniques, new seismic methods such as multi-component and multi-dimension seismic, offshore production structures and facilities. New techniques for deep water storage; and new technologies for natu­ral gas exploration and production. Demonstration and market deploy­ment of such technology will allow not only a better exploitation of Eu­ropean indigenous resources but also an increased competitiveness of European service and supply companies.



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