Master the pronunciation of the given words, pay special attention to their meaning. Fill in the gaps in the sentences using these words.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Master the pronunciation of the given words, pay special attention to their meaning. Fill in the gaps in the sentences using these words.



 

trypsin [ ] –трипсин

chyme [ ] – пищевая кашица в кишечнике, химус

chymotrypsin [ ] – химотрипсин

sucrose [ ] – сахароза

parietal [ ] – пристеночный, пристенный

lacteal [ ] – молочный, хилезный

 

A) …….. is the semi-fluid mass of partially digested food that passes through the stomach into the small intestine.

B) …….. is usually isolated industrially in crystalline form from sugar cane (тростник).

C) …….. means resembling milk, milky.

D) …….. are contained in pancreatic juice, and hydrolyze protein in the small intestine.

E) …….. is of major importance in protein digestion in the small intestine.

F) …….. means forming part of the wall of a body cavity or similar structure e.g. the hydrochloric-acid-secreting parietal cells of gastric mucosa.

2. Memorize the names of the main parts of the small intestine:

 

The small intestine consists of: duodenum [ ] двенадцатиперстная

кишка

jejunum [ ] – тощая кишка

ileum [ ] – подвздошная кишка

Read the following sentences:

 

Duodenum is the first of the three parts of the small intestine, extending from the stomach to the jejunum.

Jejunum is the part of the small intestine, including about two-fifth of the whole small intestine and connecting the duodenum to the ileum.

Ileum is the lowest of the three portions of the small intestine.

 

 

IX. Read the text:

 

Part II

Stomach

The stomach is an expandable sac located high in the abdominal cavity. Layers of stomach muscle contract and churn the bolus of food with gastric juices to form a liquid called chyme.

The stomach stores food and prepares it for further digestion. In addition, the stomach plays a role in protein digestion. Gastric glands calledchief cells secrete pepsinogen. Pepsinogen is converted to the enzyme pepsin in the presence of hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by parietal cells in the stomach lining. The pepsin then digests large proteins into smaller proteins called peptides. To protect the stomach lining from the acid, a third type of cell secretes mucus that lines the stomach cavity. An overabundance of acid due to mucus failure may lead to an ulcer.

Small intestine

Chyme drains from the stomach through a sphincter into the small intestine. An adult's small intestine is about 23 feet long and is divided into three sections: duodenum;jejunum;ileum. The inner surface of the small intestine contains numerous fingerlike projections called villi. They increase the surface area.

Most chemical digestion takes place in the duodenum. In this region, enzymes digest nutrients into simpler forms that can be absorbed. Enzymes supplement intestinal enzymes from the pancreas. Pancreas is a large, glandular organ lying near the stomach. In addition, bile enters the small intestine from the gall bladder to assist in fat digestion.

The enzymes functioning in carbohydrate digestion include amylase (for starch), maltase (for maltose), sucrase (for sucrose) and lactase (for lactose). For fats, the principal enzyme is lipase. Before this enzyme can act, the large globules of fat must be broken into smaller droplets by bile. Bile is a mixture of salts, pigments, and cholesterol that is produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder, a saclike structure under the liver.

Protein digestion is accomplished by several enzymes, including two pancreatic enzymes: trypsin and chymotrypsin. Peptides are broken into smaller peptides, and peptidases reduce the enzymes to amino acids. Nucleases digest nucleic acids into nucleotides in the small intestine also.

Most absorption in the small intestine occurs in the jejunum. The products of digestion enter cells of the villi, move across the cells, and enter blood vessels called capillaries. Diffusion accounts for the movement of many nutrients, but active transport is responsible for the movement of glucose and amino acids. The products of fat digestion pass as small droplets of fat into lacteals, which are branches of the lymphatic system.

Absorption is completed in the final part of the small intestine, the ileum. Substances that have not been digested or absorbed then pass into the large intestine.

LESSON 9

Digestive System

Part III

I. Выучите новые слова:

1. blind [blaind] – adj. слепой

2. finger [΄fingə] – n. палец, стрелка (часов), указатель (на шкале)

3. process [΄prəuses] – n. процесс, ход развития

v.обрабатывать, подвергать (какому-либо техническому процессу)

n. анат., бот. - отросток

4. chief [t∫i:f] – adj. главный, основной

n. шеф, глава, руководитель

5. residue [΄rezidju:] – n. остаток, хим. осадок, отстой

6. matter [΄mætə] – n. вещество, материал, сущность, дело

What is the matter with you? – Что с Вами?

7. to remain [ri΄mein] – v. оставаться

8. harm [ha:m] – n. вред

v. вредить

to do smb. harm – вредить кому-либо

9. bile [bail] – n. желчь

10. to complete [kəm΄pli:t] – v. заканчивать, завершать

adj. полный

11. excess [ik΄ses] – n. избыток, излишек

12. compound [΄kɔmpaund] – n. смесь, состав, соединение

adj. - составной, сложный

13. to use [ju:z] – v. применять, использовать, употреблять

use [ju:s] – n. применение, использование

 

II. Образуйте прилагательные, используя данные суффиксы, переведите их на русский язык:

- ive: distinct, protect, excess, create, connect, invasion

- al: supplement, intestine, residue, abdomen

 

III. Запомните правило!

В английском языке есть 3 суффикса прилагательных, которые обозначают наличие качества в какой-либо мере:

а) суффикс -ful [ful] образует прилагательные от существительных и реже от глаголов, указывает на наличие качества в полной мере

е.g. beauty - красота

beautiful - красивый

to forget - забывать

forgetful – забывчивый

Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:

helpful, thankful, restful, wonderful, harmful, useful, watchful, wasteful

б) суффикс -ish [i∫] образует прилагательные от существительных и от прилагательных, указывает на наличие качества не в полной мере или на схожесть (подобие в поведении) с кем-то (чем-то)

е.g. foolish = глупый (typical of a fool)

reddish = красноватый

 

Прочтите и переведите следующие слова (use dictionary if necessary):

· childish, snobbish, selfish, feverish, womanish

· yellowish, brownish, greenish, thinnish, thickish, fattish, tallish, longish

 

в) суффикс -less [lis] образует прилагательные от существительных, указывает на отсутствие какого-либо качества или чего-либо

е.g. child - дитя

childless – бездетный

 

Прочтите и переведите следующие слова:

Sleepless, helpless, homeless, lifeless, hopeless, restless, useless, harmless, airless, heartless, bloodless, defenceless, breathless, fingerless, hairless

 



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