Words; use dictionary if necessary



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Words; use dictionary if necessary



 

a) существительные (nouns) difficulty, anatomy, remedy, body, biopsy, autopsy, registry, expiry

b) прилагательные (adjectives) watery, sleepy, wintry, sunny, windy, hairy, funny

c) глаголы (verbs) [ai] occupy, multiply, supply, deny, rely

 

! Remember

Конверсия – это совпадение форм многих слов, относящихся к разным частям речи:

to help – помочь, помогать

help– помощь

 

Form verbs by means of conversion:

The study, a form, a group, an end, a part, a cut, a head, a work, a plan, a register, a name, an act

! Remember

Существительное, стоящее перед другими существительными может выполнять роль определения и переводится на русский язык прилагательным и существительным в родительном падеже:

winter session -зимняя сессия; human anatomy - анатомия человека

Read and give Russian equivalents:

coffee break, spring day; body temperature; square inch; rehabilitation period;

Anatomy atlas; university laboratory; laboratory analyses; world standards; minimum qualification; instrument table

 

III. Memorize the following words:

1. head [hed] – n. голова

2. neck [nek] – n. шея

3. trunk [trʌŋk]- n. туловище, syn. torso

4. upper [ ′Λpә] extremity [ iks′tremiti ] – верхняя конечность

lower [ louә] extremity [iks′tremiti ] – нижняя конечность

5. average [‘ævəridʒ] – adj. средний

verb. в среднем составить

on an average – в среднем

6. adult [ədʌlt] – n. взрослый (человек)

– adj. взрослый

7. cell [sel] – n. клетка

8. bone [bɔun] – n. кость

9. muscle [mʌsl] – n. мышца

10. skin [skin] – n. кожа

11. thigh [θai] – n. бедро

syn. hip

12. tiny [taini] – adj. крошечный

13. chest [tʃest] – n. грудная клетка, syn. thorax

14. abdomen [æbdoumən] – n. живот, брюшная полость

15. lung [lʌŋ] – n. лёгкое

16. heart [ha:t] – n. сердце

17. gullet [gʌlit] – n. пищевод, syn. esophagus [i:’sɔfəgəs ]

iv. Read the text

The Human Body

Part I

Human anatomy is the study of the biological systems. The principal parts of the human body are head, neck, trunk, two arms (upper extremities) and two legs (lower extremities). There are 11 systems in the human body. The upper part of the trunk is the chest and the lower part is the abdomen. The principal organs in the chest are the lungs, the heart and the gullet (esophagus). Our body has different special organs such as the eyes, the ears and the nose. Our largest bone is the thigh bone. Our smallest bone is a tiny bone inside the ear. The adult body has: 100 trillion cells, 206 bones, 600 muscles and 22 internal organs. The average height of an adult human is about 5 to 6 feet tall.

Every square inch of the human body has about 19 million skin cells.

 

V. Find the word-combinations in the text and translate them into Russian:

a) adjectives (ending in –al) + noun

b) noun (as an attribute) + noun

VI. Form the adjective ending in –y and give their Russian equivalents:

heart , bone , skin , leg

VII. Match the words close in meaning:

1. tiny 2. hip 3. chest 4. esophagus 5. arm 6. torso 7. leg a. thigh b. gullet c. lower extremity d. very small e. trunk f. thorax g. upper extremity

 

VIII. Render from Russian English:

tiny: крошечная клетка, крошечная голова, очень маленькое туловище; крошечное сердце, крошечный нос; очень маленькая косточка

average:средний (нормальный) взрослый; средний рост; средний вес (weight) сердца, в среднем; средний размер головы

 

IX. Label the body parts in the picture:


X. Make the sentences complete:

1. The upper part of the trunk is …

2. The lower part of the trunk is …

3. The principal organs in the chest are…

4. The human body has 22…

5. The largest bone is…

6. The smallest bone in the human body is…

 

XI. Among the following numbers choose a correct

one to answer the questions:

22, 11, 19, 206, 100, 600, 2, 5-6

 

1. How many muscles has an adult body?

2. How many skin cells has a square inch of the human body?

3. How many internal organs are there in the body?

4. What is the average height of an adult human?

5. How many eyes has an average human?

6. How many systems are there in the human body?

7. How many bones has the adult body?

8. How many cells has the adult human body?

Part I. Anatomy. The Human Body.

Lesson 2

I. Read the words according to the type of syllable

I II III
vital phase renal distinct rest function transport then back from kidney part organ portal portion nerve

II. It is essential to know that:

Ударение в многосложных словах часто падает на третий от конца слова слог. Гласная в ударном слоге читается как в закрытом слоге, даже если этот слог открытый: anatomy [ә′nætәmi]

Ударение всегда ставится перед ударным слогом

 

Read the following words

digestive, extremity, regimen, skeleton, medical, chemistry, intestine

 

! Remember

Словосложение является одним из способов образования новых слов:

head [hed] - голова + ache [eik] - боль = headache - головная боль. В составных существительных ударение обычно падает на первое слово: ′schoolboy

 

Read and translate the following (use dictionary if necessary):

· heartache; heartbeat; heartburn, heart-disease

· headache; headquarters, head-nurse

· cell-phone; chestnut; lungwort

 

! Remember

a)Суффикс -ly образует наречия в английском языке: hour [auә], час – hourly [′auәli] – ежечасно

 

Read and translate the following adverbs:

really; formally; badly; daily; monthly; yearly; normally; specially; weekly; partly; practically;

b)суффиксы –ary (-ery, -ory) [әri] образуют прилагательные : pulmonary [′pΛlmәnәri] – легочный

 

Read and translate the following adjectives:

elementary; ordinary; respiratory; primary; secondary; circulatory; coronary;

c) суффикс –ar является суффиксом прилагательного: cellular [′seljulә] – клеточный

Read and translate the following adjectives:

regular; muscular; vascular; alveolar;

d) суффикс -ic является суффиксом прилагательного образованного от основы существительного: diuretic [daijuә′retik] мочегонное средство

Read and translate the following adjectives:

plastic; basic; antibiotic; acidic; alcoholic; electric; dynamic; dystrophic; cosmetic; hypnotic; hygienic, glyceric; atmospheric; lymphatic; systemic; prophylactic; organic; inorganic

III. Master the pronunciation of the words. Guess their meaning:

cardiovascular [ֽka:di: әu′væskju:lә]

musculoskeletal [ֽmΛskjulәu′skelitәl]

immune [i′mju:n]

endocrine [′endәukri:n]

nervous [′nә:vәs]

reproductive [ֽri:prә′dΛktiv]

component [kәm′pәunәnt]

function [fΛnk ∫(ә)n]

mineral [′minәrәl]

liter [′li:tә]

phase [′feiz]

portion [′pɔ:∫(ә)n]

to circulate [′sә:kju:leit]

to transport [træns′pɔ:t]

IV. Memorize new words:

1. blood [blΛd] – n. кровь

2. vessel [′vesl] – n. сосуд

3. tissue [′tisju] – n. ткань

4. oxygen [′ɔksidƷәn] – n.кислород

5. vital [′vaitl] – adj. жизненный, жизнеспособный, витальный

6. by means of smth – при помощи чего-либо

7. distinct [dis′tiηkt] – adj. легко отличимый, ясный, отличный, определенный

8. rest [rest] – n. 1) отдых, покой, сон

2) остаток, остальные, другие

v. отдыхать

9. back [bæk] – n. спина, хребет, тыл

adv. назад, обратно

backbone – n. позвоночник, позвоночный столб

10. major [′meidƷә] ] – adj. большой, старший, мед. серьезный

11. to pass [pa:s] – v. проходить, передаваться

12. supply [sә′plai] – v. питать, снабжать

n. питание, запас, снабжение

13. digestive [di′dƷәstiv] – пищеварительный, способствующий пищеварению

14. integumentary [inֽtegju′mentәri] – покровный, кожный

15. urinary [′juәrinәri] –мочевой

16. through [θru:] – через, сквозь, по

V. Give Russian equivalents the following word-combinations:

· tissue culture; tissue juice; tissue reaction; tissue respiration; tissue change; tissue therapy

· oxygen mask; oxygen therapy; oxygen exchange;

· rest-home; to have a good rest; bed rest; at rest; rest oxygen; the rest of oxygen; the rest blood; day of rest; the rest of us

· blood vessels; tiny vessels; heart vessels; vessel wall

· vital minerals; vital organs; vital activity; vital function;

· digestive system; digestive tract; digestive juice

· urinary system; urinary organs; urinary pigment; urinary tract; urinary difficulty

· through the blood; through the heart; through the tiny vessels; through the integumentary system, to supply through the digestive organs

VI. Read and translate one-rooted words:

· to circulate, circulatory, circulation

· vessel, vascular

· system, systemic

· lymph, lymphatic

· nerve, nervous

· urine, urinary

· to reproduce, reproductive

 

VII. Render from Russian into English:

главные компоненты; жизненно-важные минералы; отчетливые части; в среднем; при помощи циркуляторной системы; переносить кровь; проходить через сердце; снабжать легкие; назад к сердцу.

VIII. Read the text . Write out English equivalents to the following word-combinations:

работает самостоятельно; общая циркуляторная система; кровообращение в системе воротной вены; почечная циркуляция; через тонкий кишечник; через почки; по определению.

Human body systems

The organ systems of the human body are the cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, digestive system, endocrine system, Integumentary system, urinary system, lymphatic system, immune system, respiratory system, nervous system and reproductive system.

Cardiovascular system

The main components of the human cardiovascular system are the heart and the blood vessels. The primary function of the heart is to circulate the blood and through the blood, oxygen and vital minerals to the tissues and organs of the body. On an average, the human body has about 5 liters of blood that is traveling through it by means of the circulatory system. The body’s circulatory system really has three distinct parts: pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation and coronary circulation or the lungs (pulmonary), the heart (coronary) and the rest of the system (systemic). Each part is working independently.

The function of the pulmonary circulation is to transport blood away from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. The function of the systemic circulation is to transport blood away from the heart to the rest of the body and then back to the heart. Systemic circulation is a major part of the overall circulatory system. During systemic circulation, blood is passing through the kidneys. This phase of systemic circulation is renal circulation.

Blood is also passing through the small intestine during systemic circulation. This phase is portal circulation.

The function of the coronary system is to supply blood to the heart. This portion of the cardiovascular system is, by definition, a part of the systemic circulatory system.

 

IX. Find the word-combinations in the text and translate them into Russian:

a) noun (as an attribute) + noun

b) adjective (ending in –al) + noun

c) adjective (ending in –ic) + noun

d) adjective (ending in –ary/ory) + noun

 

X. Make the sentences complete:

1. The main components of the cardiovascular system are h… and bv….

2. Three distinct parts of the circulatory system are p… circulation, c… circulation and s… circulation.

3. The human body has 5 liters of blood traveling through the c… system.

4. The major part of the overall circulatory system is s… circulation.

 

XI. Make the spidergram complete:

 



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