Human Musculoskeletal System.



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Human Musculoskeletal System.



Part II.

I. Запомните правило:

В английском языке слова можно образовывать не только с помощью суффиксов (которые служат для образования одной части речи из другой), но и с помощью префиксов. Префиксы стоят в начале слова, они изменяют значение слова, но не меняют его принадлежность к той или иной части речи.

Наиболее употребительными префиксами являются префиксы, выражающие либо отрицание, либо противоположное действие.

 

e.g. logical-логичный

illogical-нелогичный

e.g. to like-любить

to dislike-не любить

 

Изучите следующие префиксы с отрицательным или противоположным значением

a-: asymptomatic, amoral, atypical, asymmetric, asexual

anti-:antimatter, antibiotic, antiseptic, anti-body, anti-histamine, anti-perspirant

contra-: contraceptive, contraindication

dis-:to disconnect, disinfection, to disintegrate, to discover, to disorganize, discomfort

de-: depopulated area, to debone(удалить кости), to devalue

in-:ineffective, indefinite, indifferent

mal-: (bad or badly) a malformed organ; maltreatment, malnutrition

mis-: (bad or badly) to misunderstand; to mistranslate, to miscalculate; misfortune; mistake;

to mislead

non-:nonalcoholic, nonsmoker, nonstick, non-essential, non-stop, non-human

un-:unhappy, unexpected, unfavorable, to unblock, undone, unfortunately

 

 

N.B. Хотя присоединение того или другого отрицательного префикса не подчиняется определённым правилам и зависит от установившегося словоупотребления в языке, добавление префиксов il, ir, imследует правилу: если слово начинается с буквы “l”, то присоединяется префиксil-, если с буквы “r” – префиксir-; если с букв “m” или“p”- префикс im-

 

e.g. legal-illegal

regular-irregular

possible-impossible

mobile-immobile

Read and translate the words with negative prefixes:

unnecessary, indigestion, to disconnect, unprepared, unprotected, irresponsible, inability, to decompose, antimatter, incomplete, to misuse, to detach, unchangeable, immature, to decrease, indelicate, controversial

II. Essential words to know:

1.change [t∫eindʒ] – n. изменение

v. менять(ся)

2. although [ɔ:l΄δəu] – cj.хотя

3. rigid [΄ridʒid] – a.жёсткий, негнущийся, негибкий, неподвижный

4. delicate [΄delikit] – a. 1)хрупкий, слабый(о здоровье); 2)тонкий, острый(о слухе); 3)чувствительный(о приборе)

5. to find (found, found) [faind] – находить, обнаруживать

to find out – узнать, выяснить, понять, раскрыть(тайну, правду)

6. cavity [΄kæviti] – n.полость, впадина

7. starvation [sta:΄vei∫ən] – n.1)голод, голодание; 2)голодная смерть

8. site [sait] – n.место, местонахождение, местоположение

9. to fuse [fju:z] – v.сливаться, объединяться; сплавлять(ся), плавить(ся)

10. maturity [mə΄tjuəriti] – n.зрелость, полная сила; завершённость

11. to be referred to as [ri΄fə:d]- называться

12. namely [΄neimi] – adv.а именно, то есть

 

 

III. Read and translate one-rooted words:

 

· to fuse, fused, fusing, fusible, fusion

· to maturate, maturation, mature, maturity, immature

· to starve, starvation, starving

· rigid, rigidity, rigidly

· to change, changed, changing, change, exchange, changeable, unchangeable

· distinct, distinctive, distinction, distinctly

· cavity, cavitary, cavitation

· delicate, delicately, indlicate

 

 

IV. Read and translate word-combinations incorporating new words:

 

· dying of starvation; to be on a starvation diet; to starve to death; starving population

· to be supported by a rigid framework; to be very rigid in one’s ideas; the rigid discipline; rigid distinctions; rigidly opposed to all new ideas

· cavity formation, cavity of the chest, cavity of the skull, the marrow cavity, cavity wall, a cavity in a tooth

· to change completely, the main changes, a constantly changing tissue, to lead to major changes in smth, to do smth for a change, to change from brown to green, due to sudden change,

· Be careful with those vials([΄vaiəl]-ампула)-they are very delicate; a very delicate child, a delicate situation(subject); This is a delicate instrument that can record very delicate changes in acidity; delicate internal organs; delicate taste; to be in delicate health;

· Lead([led]-свинец) will fuse at quite a low temperature; to fuse together after birth; fusion temperature; fusible metal; fused silver nitrate[΄naitreit]

· a mature person; Maturity is the state or time of being mature; to be very mature for one’s age; between birth and maturity; mature infant; premature infant

 

 

V. Mix and match:

 

1. cavity a. easily made ill; not strong

2. to change b. fully grown and developed

3. delicate c. that is (i.e.)

4. although d. to become different

5. to fuse e. place

6. mature f. but, however

7. site g. suffering or death from great hunger

8. rigid h. hole

9. starvation i. fixed, firm, stiff

10. namely j. to join by melting

 

VI. Fill in the gaps in the sentences using the words in the box:

starvation, rigid, namely, fuse, maturity, changing, find out

1. Only one person can do this job, … you.

2. Nobody could … … how to operate this apparatus.

3. They will either die from the cold or of …

4. These cells reach(достигают) … after a few weeks.

5. Students must keep to the laboratory’s … rules.

6. The egg and sperm … together as one cell.

7. Human organism must have an ability to adapt to … conditions in order to survive.

 

 

VII. Find the words with the same suffixes belonging to one and the same part of speech:

starvation; maturity; namely; changeable; cavitary; lining; various; spongy; controversial; irregular; structure; connective

 

 

urinary; general; similar; rigidity; fatty; delicately; distinction; mixture; protective; responsible; chewing; dangerous; fusion

 

 

VIII. Master the pronunciation of the following words before reading the text:

energy [΄enədʒi]

erythrocyte [i΄riɵrosait]

leukocyte [ ΄lju:kosait]

platelet [΄pleitlet] – кровяная пластинка, тромбоцит

reservoir [΄resərwa:] – резервуар, хранилище, запас, источник

calcium [΄kælsiəm]

phosphorus [΄fɔsfərəs]

balance [΄bæləns]

sesamoid [΄sesəmɔid] bone – сесамовидная косточка

controversial [ˌkɔ:ntrə́΄və:∫əl] – спорный, противоречивый

 

IX. Read the text:

Bones.

Bone, although strong, is a constantly changing tissue that has several functions. Bones serve as rigid structures to the body and as a protection of delicate internal organs. They provide housing for the bone marrow, where the blood cells are formed. There are two distinctions of bone marrow, namely: yellow and red. The yellow marrow has fatty connective tissue and is found in the marrow cavity. During starvation, the body uses the fat in yellow marrow for energy. The red marrow of some bones is an important site for blood cell production. From the red marrow, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets migrate to the blood.

Another function of bones is the storage of certain minerals. Bones maintain the body’s reservoir of calcium and phosphorus. This storage helps regulate mineral balance in the blood-stream.

There are five general classifications of bones. These are Long bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones, and Sesamoid bones. The plates of the skull and the vertebrae are referred to as flat bones. Thighbones and arm bones are called long bones.

The number of bones in the human skeletal system is a controversial topic. Humans are born with about 300 to 350 bones. However, many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. As a result an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones.

 

X. Substitute English words for the Russian ones:

Bone.

Bone is the hard соединительная tissue of which the скелет of most vertebrates формируется. It состоит of matrix of collagen fibres (30%) impregnated with bone salts (70%), mostly фосфат кальция, in which are embedded bone клетки. Bone в основном replaces embryonic хрящ and is of two sorts, а именно: compact bone and губчатая bone. The outer compact bone is formed as concentric слой that окружают small holes. The внутренняя spongy bone is chemically схожа(подобна) and составляет a network of bony bars. The spaces between bars may содержать костный мозг.

 

XI. Listen to the text, retell it in Russian:

 

Vocabulary notes.

dense [΄dens] – плотный

to impregnate [΄impregneit] – пропитывать, внедрять

shell [∫el] – оболочка

solid [΄sɔlid] – твёрдый, прочный, плотный

to arrange [ə΄reindʒ] – располагать, организовывать

 

meshwork [΄me∫wə:k] – петлистая сеть

bar [ba:] – полоса, тяж, перегородка

periosteum [ˌperi΄ɔstiəm] – надкостница

endosteum [en΄dɔstiəm] – внутренняя часть кости

medulrary [΄medələri] – 1)мозговой, 2)срединный

 

 

XII. Study the amazing facts about the bones:

FACTOIDS.

1. You have 206 total bones in your body.

2. 14 bones are in your face.

3. 8 bones are in each wrist.

4. 23 bones are in each foot including the ankle.

5. Your bones consist of 50% water and 50% solid matter.

6. When you were born you had over 300 bones. As you grew, some of these bones began to fuse together and now you have 206 bones.

7. The longest bone in your body is a thigh bone. It is about ¼ of your height.

8. Did you know that humans and giraffes have the same number of bones in their necks? - Giraffe neck vertebrae are just much, much longer.

9. Our bone is six times stronger than steel if both are of the same weight.

10. The size of the smallest bone is equivalent to the size of a rice grain.

11. Your skull, a series of fused bones, acts like a hard protective helmet for your brain.

12. When there s not enough calcium in the bloodstream, the body attempts to pull calcium from the bones, which thins and weakens them. This causes osteoporosis, which leads to breaks and fractures.

13. Osteoporosis affects 10 million Americans, mostly women.

14. An additional 18 million Americans already have low bone mass, osteopenia, which places them at high risk.

15. By the age of 20, the average young person has acquired roughly 98% of his/her skeletal mass.

16. Calcium helps prevent breast and colon cancer, reduces the symptoms of PMS, prevents cavities and strengthens tooth enamel, reduces hypertension and lowers blood pressure, and helps promote weight loss.

17. America is in a Calcium Crisis: 9 out of 10 women, 7 out of 10 men, and 3 out of 4 teenagers do not get enough calcium.

 

LESSON 12



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