Human musculoskeletal system

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Human musculoskeletal system

A musculoskeletal system(also known as the locomotor system)is an organ system that gives animals (including humans) the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal system provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body.

It is composed of the body's bones (the skeleton), muscles, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other connective tissue that supports and binds tissues and organs together). The musculoskeletal system's primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The skeletal portion of the system serves as the main storage system for calcium and phosphorus and contains critical components of the hematopoietic system.

This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments. The bones provide the stability to a body in analogy to iron rods in concrete construction. Muscles keep bones in place and also play a role in movement of the bones. To allow motion, different bones are connected by joints. Cartilage prevents the bone ends from rubbing directly on to each other. Muscles contract to move the bone attached at the joint.


Урок 7


I. Запомните произношение форм следующих неправильных глаголов:

· to bite, bit, bitten

· to break, broke, broken

· to bind, bound, bound [baund]


II. Прочтите следующие глаголы по правилу чтения окончания –ed:

[d] to supply to maintain to remove to move to perform to transfer to deliver to breath (in) to follow to release to pull to require to join to chew [t] to pass to pump to nourish [id] to waste to eliminate to permit to transport to assist to empty to create to divide to connect to surround  


III. Прочтите, переведите и определите, какие глаголы являются переходными и могут употребляться в страдательном залоге (Passive Voice):

· to rest, to pass, to supply, to transport, to assist, to maintain, to consist, to nourish, to surround, to waste, to enter, to remove, to eliminate, to permit, to move, to empty, to create, to perform, to transfer, to deliver, to breath (in, out), to divide, to connect, to follow, to release, to pump, to pull, to break down, to require, to bind, to contract, to join, to bite, to chew

IV. Прочтите и переведите следующие формы глаголов в страдательном залоге на русский язык с помощью возвратной частицы –ся:

to be supplied to be joined to be transported to be broken to be maintained to be required to be nourished to be bound to be surrounded to be connected to be transferred to be permitted to be removed to be eliminated to be pumped to be created to be released to be performed to be divided to be followed to be breathed out to be emptied to be wasted


V. Read and translate the sentences in Passive:

1. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally measured in millimeters of mercury.

2. Systolic and diastolic pressures are recorded as 120 over 80.

3. All tissues are made of cells.

4. This fluid is called lymph.

5. Tissue within the internal cavities of the bones is called bone marrow.

6. Thymus is situated in the root of the neck, above and in front of the heart.

7. Proteins and bigger particles are absorbed into the blood stream by the blood vessels.

8. When the human body is infected, lymphocytes catch the microbes and micro-organisms in the lymph nodes.

9. Respiration is provided through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm.

10. Trachea is divided into two smaller tubes called the bronchi.

11. Spongy, air-filled sacs are surrounded by capillaries.

12. When the diaphragm contracts, oxygen is pulled into the lungs.

13. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs.

14. In the mouth food is changed mechanically by biting and chewing.

15. Here food is moistened by saliva, a sticky fluid that binds food particles together into soft mass.

16. The bolus is pushed back into the pharynx and is forced through the opening to the esophagus.



Part II


I. Memorize new words:


1)to expand [ıks׳pænd] – v. расширять(ся), увеличиваться в объеме

2)to churn [t∫ə:n] – v. размешивать жидкость, взбалтывать

3)to store [st :] – v. запасать, хранить

4)to prepare [prı׳pεə] – v. готовить(ся), приготовить(ся)

5)to convert [kən׳və:t] – v. превращать, переходить из одного состояния в другое

6)to line [laın] – v. выстилать

lining [׳laınıŋ] – n. выстилка, покров, обкладка

7)to protect [prə׳tekt] – v. защищать от чего-либо

8)due to [dju:] – из-за, вследствие, благодаря

be due to – быть обусловленным

9)failure [feıljə] – n. недостаточность; повреждение; неудача, провал

10)to increase [ın׳kri:s] – v. увеличивать(ся)

increase [׳ınkri:s] – n. увеличение

11)surface [׳sə:fıs] – n. поверхность

12)to supplement [׳s plımənt] – дополнять, добавлять

supplement – n. добавка

13)to accomplish [ə׳k mplı∫] – v. завершать, доводить до

14)to reduce [rı׳dju:s] – v. понижать, уменьшать

15)to occur [ə׳kə:] – v. случаться, происходить, встречаться

16)to account for [ə׳kaunt] – v. объяснять что-либо

17)responsible [rıs׳p nsıbl] – adj. ответственный

to be responsible for – быть ответственным за, содействовать


II. Master the pronunciation of the derivatives and translate them into Russian:


To protect→ protection

To convert→ convertion

To reduce→ reduction

To expand→ expansion

To contract→ contraction

To connect→ connection


III. Read and translate one-rooted words:

v to store, storing, storage

v to expand, expanding, expansion, expansive

v to convert, conversion, convertible

v to protect, protection, protective, protector

v to supplement, supplement, supplementary

v to prepare, preparation, preparatory, preparedness

v to reduce, reduction, reducible

IV. Match the verbs and their definition: finish successfully move about violently change into another form increase in size, number, volume give a satisfactory explanation for make or become larger in number, amount or degree keep safe make less in size, etc. a)to convert b)to increase c)to expand d)to reduce e)to accomplish f)to protect g)to account for h)to churn



V. Match words of opposite meaning: increase 2.single 3.full pull inhale divide 7.dry bind expand receive a)multiple b)moist c)to push d)to eliminate e)to connect f)to contract g)reduction h)to exhale i)empty j)to break down

VI. Match words close in meaning:

1.trunk 2.defense provide take place transport 6.via 7.chest 8.tiny 9.intestine 10.gullet flow to supply through minute to occur protection bowel to carry thorax esophagus torso

VII. Fill in the gaps with the proper words in the box:


supplementary; converted; due; expands; increase


1.Water … when it freezes.

2.Coal can be … to gas.

3.This method will lead to an … in the efficiency of drug production.

4.There is a … water supply.

5.It occurs … to chemical reaction of this substance.


VIII. Read and translate word-combinations incorporating new words:

Storage of fats; to store food; to store energy; to account for a high proportion of failure; a dietary supplement; to reduce the risk of disease

Before reading the text do the following exercises:

1.Master the pronunciation of the given words and guess their meaning:

protein [ ]

pepsin [ ]

pepsinogen [ ]

peptidase [ ]

peptide [ ]

nucleotide [ ]

nuclease [ ]

sucrase [ ]

lactase [ ]

lipase [ ]

trypsin [ ]


2. Master the pronunciation of acid names occurring in the text. Give their corresponding names in Russian:


1. hydrochloric [ ]

2. amino [ ] ACID

3. nucleic [ ]


3. Mix and match:


lactose [ ] HCl холестерин

cholesterol [ ] C H O соляная кислота

hydrochloric [ ] C H OH молочный сахар (лактоза)



4. Find the meanings of the following words in the list below:


mucus [ ] ; ulcer [ ] ; villus [ ] (pl. villi [ ] ;

globule [ ]


шарик, капля, пилюля, глобула ; язва ; ворсинка (ворсинки) ; слизь


5. Read and translate into Russian word-combinations incorporating the following words: bile and pancreas


bile [bail] – желчь

bile acid, bile duct, bile pigments, bile salt, bile tract disease, bile-expelling remedy


pancreas [p nkri s]– поджелудочная железа

enzymes from the pancreas, pancreatic, pancreatic duct, pancreatic tissue, pancreatic juice

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