THE AMERICAN SCENE (4) THE GREATEST AMERICAN



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THE AMERICAN SCENE (4) THE GREATEST AMERICAN



Characters - Mr. Priestley, Frieda, Olaf, Hob.

M r. P r i e s t l e y : In her letter to us Lucille spoke of Lin­ coln as "the greatest American of them all". I think she was right; so, as I have told you about a number of "Great Brit­ ons", I thought you might like this account of the Greatest American.

 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Abraham Lincoln is the most famous instance of the claim that Americans often make that in their country a man may rise from the lowest to the highest position in their land, "from log­ cabin to White House" - for that is exactly what Lincoln did. He was born in 1809, in a small farm in Kentucky, but while Abraham was quite young, the family moved into the wild forest land of Indiana. Here, his home was what was called a "half-faced camp", that is, a rough shelter oflogs and boughs, enclosed on three sides and with the fourth side protected only by a roaring wood-fire. Though "Abe" was young he was big and strong. At eight years of age an axe was put into his hands and he worked with the rest of his family at their main task - clearing the land of trees. Of education he had hardly any. There was no public education in Indiana then; a few teachers got a living from the smal fees that they charged, and Abraham went to one or two of these from time to time and learned to read and write and do simple arithmetic. "All told", he once

said, "I attended school less than one year".

He grew up tall - six foot four -with huge hands and long arms, but with enormous strength in his leg, arm and chest muscles. He was considered lazy except in his desire to learn. He took a book to read while he was ploughing, and when he had no paper or slate he would lie before the fire at night practising writing and arithmetic on a piece of wood and cleaning it again by shaving the writing off with a hunting-knife.

Among the books that he read were A Life of George Washington, Robinson Crusoe1and The Piligrim -S Progress2, but

1 Daniel Defoe (1661- 1731).

2 John Bunyan (1628- 1688).


the only book that he owned in his youth was the Bible, and its influence is seen in all his speeches and writings.

The first big experience that opened up the world for him occured when he was nineteen. He was given a job on a river boat to go with a cargo down the Mississippi to New Orleans, a busy commercial port and the first town that he had ever seen. It was here, in the famous (or infamous) slave market, that he saw men, women and children being sold to the highest bidder, and, greatly moved, he said, "If ever I get a chance to hit that thing, I'll hit it hard".

In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and went to Spring­ field, Illinois. Here he became a clerk in a store and worked hard to improve his education. He studied English Language and Literature (he developed a lasting fondness for Shake­ speare, learning large portions by heart) and, in 1836, he qua­ lified as a lawyer. A friend of Lincoln's has left an account of him at this period:

"He was very tall, awkward, and badly dressed. He general­ ly wore an old, shabby hat (in the lining of which he often carried letters or law papers); his trousers were too short and his coat and vest too loose. He was never systematic about his papers; they piled up on his desk and work table and over­ flowed on to the floor. On a large envelope was written - in Lincoln's handwriting - 'When you can't find it anywhere, look in this."' (Lincoln had a very lively sense of humour).

Nevertheless, in spite of this untidiness, he was a great law­ yer - not as an expert on legal matters, but as an advocate in court; he was able to present a case simply, powerfully and convincingly - mainly because he himself was completely and fiercely honest.

He had, too, entered politics and in 1832 became a candi­ date for the Legislature 1 of his State, Illinois; but the election was interrupted by an attack by Red Indians led by "Black Hawk". Volunteers were called for to defend the city. Lincoln volunteered and was made captain of his company. At the next election, in 1834, he was elected to the Legislature of Illinois. He soon became a force in political life and in 1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly 2 in Washington. There, close to the beautiful White House where the President lived, he saw -to use his own words - "a sort of negro stable where

 

1 i.e. the Parliament.

2 The National Assembly is the national Parliament.


herds of negroes were collected, temporarily kept and finally taken to Southern markets exactly like herds of horses", and his hatred of slavery hardened.

Slavery was now becoming a burning question in Ame­ rican politics. A great many people in the Northern states of America wanted to abolish it; a great many in the Southern states bitterly opposed abolition. The prosperity of the South was built largely on cotton growing, and the negroes were able to work in the hot steaming cotton-fields where white men could not. Abolition of slavery would, said the South­ erners, mean economic ruin for them and they threatened that unless the North ceased its fight against slavery, the Southern states would leave the Union and form an inde­ pendent "Confederacy". Itwas in 1860, when the storm clouds had blown up dark between North and South and feeling between them was very bitter that Lincoln was elected President of the United States. South Carolina left the Union, followed shortly after by six other states1. They called for "immediate, absolute, eternal separation from the North" and elected their own President, Jefferson Davis.

Lincoln was an unbending foe of slavery; he was even more strongly against the break-up of the Union. Ifthe Union could not be preserved, the struggle for the abolition of slavery was lost. If there was no other way, he would preserve the Union by force. There was no other way. In 1862 the American Civil War between North and South began: four bitter years were to pass before it ended.

At first the war went badly for the North. They had the bigger population, the greater wealth, the more arms factories; but their soldiers were untrained, unready and unwarlike. The Southerners had great skill in riding and shooting; they were brave, gallant and well-led. Their general, Robert E. Lee, was perhaps the greatest soldier alive at the time. He was ably se­ conded by "Stonewall" Jackson2and they won a succession of brilliant victories.

 

1 They were: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas.

They were joined later by Virginia, N. Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.

2 His name was actually Thomas Jonathan Jackson. At the battle of Hull Run in Virginia in 1861, Jackson was Colonel of the Virginia Volunteers, and the Southern forces were almost on the point of retreat, but another officer, General Bee, shouted, "Look, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Stand fast with hinl". Inspired by Jackson's example, the Southern forces remained firm, attacked and won a complete victory. The nickname "Stonewall" rang through Virginia, and for ever after was attached to Jackson's name.


In those early years the North had no soldier to compare with Lee or Jackson. But they had Lincoln. For four years he shouldered an almost unbearable burden of defeats and disasters and of disloyalty in his Cabinet by those he thought were his friends. He was saddened by the terrible slaughter on both sides, and in his personal life, by the death of his elder son and the mental illness of his wife. But he was unshaken by defeats, by sadness or disappointments. Gene­ rals failed; he appointed others. Armies fought badly; he sent them reinforcements. The people's courage was failing; his speeches revived it. He never lost courage or faith in the righteousness of his cause.

Gradually the tide turned. He appointed General Grant to take command - not without considerable opposition from the rest of the Cabinet. Grant was of humble origin, shabby in dress, rough in speech and manners, and there were many stories of his hard drinking. Lincoln knew that these stories were exaggerated and, when a member of the Government demanded that, because of his drinking, Grant should be dis­ missed, Lincoln replied - with a touch of humour that was characteristic of him - "Grant wins battles. If I knew what kind of liquor 1 he drinks I would send a barrel or so to some other of my generals".

Grant proved worthy of Lincoln's trust. Jackson had been killed in 1863, and now the armies of Grant and Sherman, Grant's second in command, were advancing everywhere. In November 1864 Sherman with an army of 60,000 men marched off from Atlanta, southwards into Georgia. For a month nothing was heard of them. Then on Christmas Day Lincoln received a telegram from Sherman:

"I beg to offer you as a Christmas present the city of Savan­ nah".

They had marched 300 miles, from Atlanta to the sea, all the way through enemy country. The enemy forces had been cut in half.

In January Sherman marched northwards again to where Grant was attacking Lee. Final victory could not be far away now; and now that the triumph of his policy was assured, Lin­ coln issued a proclamation setting free every man, woman and child in the U.S.A. Slavery was ended.

On April 9th Lincoln received a message from Grant:

1 liquor ['Irk], here = strong drink.


 

 

LINCOLN


"General Lee surrendered this morn­ ing on terms proposed by myself '. And, though fighting did not cease until May 26th, the Civil War was over. Lincoln's unconquerable spirit, his steadfast faith in his country's true destiny, his reso­ lute leadership had won the day.

He now turned from leadership in war to reconciliation in peace, and he showed as great a nobility of spirit in reconciling former enemies for peace as he had shown in heartening his coun­ try for war. "We must not be enemies", he said. "With malice toward none, with charity for ill, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds, to care


for him who has borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations".

On April 14th, after a very busy day, the President and his wife went to see the performance of a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington.

In an inn near the theatre was a 25-year-old unsuccessful actor named John Wilkes Booth. He was a supporter of the defeated South - though he had not fought for her. As the play was going to start again after the interval, Booth entered the theatre and walked slowly towards the President's box and opened the door. The sound of a shot broke in on the play, and Booth leaped from the box on to the stage and hurried out through an exit door. Smoke was seen coming from the President's box and the theatre was filled with shouting, madly excited people. Soldiers hurried in to clear the building, and Lincoln, shot through the head, was carried unconscious to a house across the road from the theatre, and laid on the bed. He never recovered consciousness and died next morning.

"Now he belongs to the ages" 1

 

1 It was in these words that Stanton (the War Minister in Lincoln's government), who was watching at Lincoln's bed, announced the President's death.


THE COMPLEMENT

HMeuuaa 11acmb CKll3yeMow

F r i e d a: Excuse me, Mr. Priestley, but would you please tell me what the "Complement" of a sentence is.

M r. P r i e st l e y: Certainly, Frieda. There are some verbs that can express an idea quite fully without an object or any­ thing else; for example:

The sun shines. The birds are singing. The crowd cheered. But that is not the case with some verbs; for example: Yesterday was; The trees seem; The boy became; Hob is.

We must add something to these verbs before the sense is complete, e.g.

Yesterday was my birthday. The trees seem dead. The boy became angry. Hob is asleep again.

The words my birthday, dead, angry, asleep again are Com­ plements. They are not objects; all the verbs I have used there are intransitive verbs, and intransitive verbs don't take an ob­ ject. You can see the difference between a complement and an object in the following examples:

The child smelt the flowers (Object). The flowers smell sweet (Complement).

I grow strawberries in my garden (Object).

The boy's face grew pale at the news (Complement).

P e d r o: Can't a verb sometimes have an object and also a complement?

M r. P r i e s t l e y: Yes, Pedro, it can. There are a number of verbs, e. g. make, call, find, that can take both object and complement. Here is the pattern:

Subject and Verb Object Complement

They made him king

They are going to call the baby Susan

He finds this work rather difficult

The boy set the bird free This toothache is nearly driving me mad

Do you all know now what is meant by a Complement?

H o b: (suddenly waking up): One of the nicest compliments I ever heard was paid by my uncle Theophilus - rou remem­ ber him, he's a professor at Camford University . He has a garden round his house in Camford and is very proud of the roses that he grows. One day he took a very pretty girl,who was paying a visit, into the garden to see his roses.

1 Hob told the story of him in Book III, Lesson 19.


"Oh! Professor Hobdell", she said, you have brought your roses to perfection".

"And now", said Uncle Theo, with a smile and an admiring look at her, "now I have brought perfection to my roses".

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Pedro, can you put Hob right? (and that's another example of a verb taking an object and a complement). P e d r o: Yes, I think so. There are two words both pro­ nounced alike, (I) Complement (spelt with an "e") meaning "something that completes", and (2) Compliment (spelt with an "i") meaning "an expression of admiration or praise". You, sir, have been explaining (I), and Hob has given us an example of (2), and, if I may say so, a very good one. I think I must get

a garden and grow roses so that I can make use of it!

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Thank you, Pedro. I couldn't have given a better explanation myself.

Y nP A >K HE HHSI

I. CJ10eapmui pa6oTa. Ilplf,!IJ'MaiiTe npeAJI01KeHirn co CJIOBaMu:

claim (noun and verb), forest (what's the difference be­ tween a wood and a forest? ), bough ( note the pronunciation [bau] ), fee, hire, cargo, infamous (how does this differ from famous ?), store (use as a noun and as a verb), awkward, shab­ by, systematic (use also system), legal (what is the opposite?), advocate, present (verb. Compare pronunciation with present (noun or adjective)), candidate, election (use also elect, elec­ tor), volunteer, abolish (use also abolition), eternal, untrained, unready, unwarlike (here are three words showing a negative by the use of un-. Give six others), gallant, succession (what's the difference between succession and success?), burden, dis­ loyalty (give three other words made negative by dis-), slaugh­ ter (note the pronunciation ['sb:t]), reinforcements, revive, exaggerated, liquor, policy (not police), steadfast, destiny (is this the same as destination? ), resolute, reconciliation, malice, char­ ity, strive (use also strife), orphan, widow (what is the mascu­ line form?), achieve, cherish.

II. IIepecJ>pa3upyiiTe CJie;zyrow:ue Bhipa1KeuIDI, o6paw:as oco6oe euu­ Mauue ua Bhl,!l;eJieuuble cJioea:

1. a half-faced camp. 2. all told. 3. he was considered lazy.

4. the experience that opened up the world for him. 5. the highest bidder. 6. he developed a lasting fondness for Shake­ speare. 7. despite his untidiness. 8. his hatred of slavery hard­ ened. 9. slavery was becoming a burning question. 10. the pros­ perity of the South was built largely on cotton-growing. 11. The


storm clouds had blown up dark between North and South.

12. Lincoln was an unbending foe of slavery. 13. he was ably seconded by Jackson. 14. Lincoln shouldered an almost un­ bearable burden. 15. gradually the tide turned. 16. not without opposition. 17. hard drinking. 18. on terms proposed by my­ self. 19. to care for him who has borne the battle. 20. a just and lasting peace. 21. the sound of a shot broke in on the play.

III. OTBeTbTe ua CJie.IQ'IOmue eonpocb1:

1. What is "the claim that Americans often make"?

2. How did teachers make a living?

3. How did Lincoln practise writing?

4. What impressed him most on his first visit to New Orleans?

5. Describe (as a friend of Lincoln's did) Lincoln's appea­ rance and habits as a young lawyer.

6. Why was Lincoln a good advocate in court?

7. What experience as a soldier had Lincoln before the Civil War?

8. Why were the people of the South opposed to the abolition of slavery?

9. What was the cause of the Civil War in America?

10. What, at first, were the advantages of the South, and what the advantages and disadvantages of the North?

11. What were the "almost unbearable burdens" that Lincoln had to bear? What did he do when faced with his many difficulties?

12. What sort of a man was General Grant?

13. Describe what Sherman did?

14. What did Lincoln say were his aims now when the war was over?

15. Describe the scene of Lincoln's death.

IV. IlepelJ>pa3upyiiTe cJie,!Q'IDmue cJioea AepaaMa JluuKOJihna: "With malice towards none•••all nations" 1•

Bo3MO:lKHO, eaM 3axo11eTCH BhJY'IHTb 3TOT oTpbIBOK.

V. Onpe;:i;eJIHTe HMeuuym 11acTb B npe)J;JlolKeHHHx:

1. Pedro is a student. 2. The milk tastes sour. 3. These roses smell sweet. 4. The room looks clean and tidy. S. That is quite true. 6. The exercise seemed easy but it turned out quite diffi­ cult. 7. He went as white as a sheet. 8. That remark sounds stupid to me. 9. The man grew weaker every day. 10. These shoes have worn thin. 11. They made Cromwell Protector of

 

1 The Speech is known as The Second Inaugural Address.


England. 12. She called him a thief. 13. Lincoln set the slaves free.

VI. IIpll,ZQ'MaiiTe npe;:ia:o)Keumt, r,11;e nMenuoii: qacTbIO HBJUieTcH:

1. a noun 2. a pronoun 3. an adjective

4. an adverb 5. a gerund 6. an infinitive

7. a phrase 8. a clause 9. a participle

Composition Exercises

I.Give an account in about 400-500 words of Lincoln's life. 2.Write a short character study of Lincoln.

3. Give an account in about 400-500 words of your country's "greatest son".

 

SIDELIGHTS ON LESSON 27:

A speech and a poem

One of the most terrible battles of the American Civil War was fought in July 1863 at Gettysburg. In November of that year a portion of the battlefield was dedicated as a final resting­ place for those men of both armies who died there. The chief speech on that occasion was given by Edvard Everett, a cele­ brated orator. Lincoln was asked to "make a few remarks". Everett's speech lasted two hours, Lincoln's for two minutes; it was over almost before the crowd realised that it had begun. But the Gettysburg speech1is now one of the world's immortal pieces of literature. Here it is.

The Gettysburg Address

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedi­ cated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and dedicated, can long endure. "We are met on a great battlefield of that war; we have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final testing-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it for above our poor

power to add or detract.

 

1 Generally called The Gettysburg Address.


"The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.

"It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honoured dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth".

Barbara Frietchie

And here is a poem, by John Greenleaf Whittier (1807- 1892), an American poet who, for the greater part of his life, was engaged in the struggle to put down slavery. He describes an incident during the American Civil War when a "rebel" (i.e. Southern) force, with Lee and Stonewall Jackson, entered the Maryland town Frederick, probably during Jackson's march to Harper's Ferry in 1862 after defeating the Northern army of General McClellan. The house of Barbara Frietchie no longer exists, but a replica 1 of it, and the Bag itself, are in the museum in Frederick.

1. Up from the meadows rich with corn, Clear in the cool September morn,

The clustered spires of Frederick stand, Green-walled by the hills of Maryland.

5. Round about them orchards sweep, Apple and peach tree fruited deep, Fair as the garden of the Lord

To the eyes of the famished rebel horde On that pleasant morn of the early fall

10. When Lee marched over the mountain wall, Over the mountains winding down,

Horse and foot, into Frederick town. Forty flags with their silver stars, Forty flags with their crimson bars,

15. Flapped in the morning wind: the sun Of noon looked down, and saw not one. Up rose Barbara Frietchie then,

Bowed with her fourscore years and ten; Bravest of all in Frederick town,

1 replica ['rephb] = exact copy.


20. She took up the flag the men hauled down; In her attic window the staff she set,

To show that one heart was loyal yet. Up the street came the rebel tread, Stonewall Jackson riding ahead.

25. Under his slouched hat left and right He glanced: the old flag met his sight.

"Halt!" - the dust-brown ranks stood fast. "Fire!" - out blazed the rifle-blast.

It shivered the window, frame and sash;

30. It rent the banner with seam and gash. Quick, as it fell from the broken staff, Dame Barbara snatched the silken scarf; She leaned far out on the window-sill, And shook it forth with a royal will.

35. "Shoot, if you must, this old grey head, But spare your country's flag", she said. A shade of sadness, a blush of shame, Over the face of the leader came;

The nobler nature within him stirred

40. To life at that woman's deed and word. "Who touches a hair of yon grey head, Does like a dog! March on!" he said. All day long through Frederick street Sounded the tread of marching feet:

45. All day long that free flag tossed Over the heads of the rebel host.

And through the hill-gaps, sunset light Shone over it with a warm good-night.

 

Y nP A >K HE HHSI

I. The Gettysburg Adress is not ordinary, matter-of-fact speech; it is emotional, poetic speech. The feeling, the choice of words, the position of the words lift it above everyday speech and give it power and beauty.


This is noble prose; no change of words or of word order that we can make can express the feeling or thought so fully or so well, but to help you to realise the meaning, try to express inordinary speech the following:

1. Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created egual.

2. ...whether that nation can long endure.

3. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

4. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract.

5. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here.

6. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us.

7. ...they gave the last full measure of devotion.

Bo3MO:lKHO, B&1 3axOTHTe BhIY'fHTh uan3yCTh ecro pe11& HJIH ee 11acT&.

II. B&mOJIHHTe 3a,zi,auue:

1. Describe the situation of the town of Frederick or draw a picture of it.

2. Explain: "green-walled by the hills of Maryland".

3. What is meant by "horse and foot"?

4. Why was Barbara Frietchie "bravest of all in Frederick Town"? How old was she?

5. Explain: "it shivered the window".

6. What effect had Barbara Frietchie's word on Jackson?

III. IIepecl>pa3upyiiTe:

(a) Forty flags...

... not one (lines 13, 16).

(b) "Shoot,...

... ", she said (lines 35, 36).

(c) "Who touches...

... " he said (lines 41, 42).

IV. IIepe;:i;aiiTe co;:i;ep)Kauue CTHXOTBopeum1 CBOHMH CJIOBaMn.

V. Bo3MO:lKHO, Bbl 3axoTnTe BhIY'fHTh uan3yCTh ece CTHXOTBopeuue HJIH ero 11acTh.


LESSON 28

GOOD-BYE

Scene: The Priestleys' sitting-room

Characters - Mr. and Mrs. Priestley

M r. P r i e s t l e y: Well, here we are at the end of a year's work and I'm afraid this is where we say good-bye to all our students. Olaf told me this morning that he is starting work very soon with a big business firm, the Weavewell Woollen Company 1.

M r s. P r i e s t 1e y: I feel sure he will do very well in busi­ ness. He's a good steady fellow.

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Yes. I've no doubts about him and I shall watch his progress with great interest. Jan and Pedro and Olaf are all coming here today for our final meeting.

M r s. P r i e st 1e y: Oh, that will be nice. I'll bake some cakes for tea; I don't suppose they get home- made cakes at their colleges.

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: They'll like that I'm sure - and so will Hob. But I hear the students in the study.Let's join them.

Mr. Priestley's Study

M r. P ri e st 1e y: Oh, hello, Jan! It's very nice to see you again, and you, Frieda, and you, Pedro, and you, Olaf.

P e d r o: Thank you, Mr.Priestley, it's very nice to be back here again.

J a n: It certainly is; we all feel as if we had come home again.

01a f: But, of course, there's going to be a new home for you. Frieda tells me you are going to be married soon.

J a n: Yes, in six weeks time.

01a f: That's fine. I'm sure you will be very happy. I'm very glad you've decided to go ahead even if it does mean being hard up for a year or two.

P e d r o: It's a great pity you can't get rid of that white elephant of factory that you own.

J a n: Yes,I wish someone would buy it, or even rent it.

P e d r o: Oh well, you may get a buyer some time. I see Hob isn't here yet. He had some bright idea about it, hadn't he?

 

1 You can meet Olaf as businessman in English Commercial Correspondence and Practice, by C. E. Eckersley and W. Kaufmann (Longmans).


J a n: So he said, but that was quite a long time ago, and I've heard no more about it. In any case, what could he do?

F r i e d a: I wish Lucille could have come too, then when Hob comes we should all be here.

There is a ring at the door.

Mrs. Priestley goes out and comes back with a telegram in her hand.

M r s. P r i e s t 1e y (to her husband): A telegram for you, Charles.

M r. P r i e s t l e y ( opening the telegram): It's from Lucille.

Just listen to this:

 

P e d r o, Fr i e d a, J a n, O l a f (together): Well done, Luci­ lle! Isn't it wonderfull! We must make a party for the London premiere. An Essential English film star!

M r s. P r i e st 1e y: I always knew Lucille would do some­ thing unusual.

(Enters Hob excitedly.)

H o b: Jan, he will buy it for $20,000! He's just told me.

J a n: What on earth are you talking about? Who'll buy what?

H o b: Uncle Albert will buy your factory. I told you I had an idea about it. Well, I talked to him and explained it was just the sort of place he needed. He wasn't sure about it at first but he's just got the contract to supply the whole British Army, Navy and Air Force with sausages. Moreover, every passenger in every dining-car on every train on all the British Railways is going to have the chance at every meal to get Hobdell's sausag­ es. So a new factory, all ready-built, with four square miles of land round it for the pigs is exactly what he needs.


J a n: But I told you there is no railway line near it.

H o b: That doesn't matter. British Railways will build one. J a n: And there isn't a good road there.

H o b: That doesn't matter either. As they are to get the sausages,the British Government will make one. Now, will you sell it to him for $20,000?

J a n: Will I? You bet I will! What do you say, Frieda?

F r i e d a: Hob, you are the fairy godmother that makes all dreams come true.

P e d r o: My congratulations, Hob! You certainly deserve them.

H o b: I've done a bit of good business for myself too. Uncle Albert is going to put me in the new factory to learn the busi­ ness of making and selling Hobdell's sausages.

M r. P r i e st 1e y: Well done, Hob. I'me sure you'll make a success of that. I can see every pound of sausages going out with a joke on the wrapping.

H o b: That's an idea! Well, Jan and Frieda, that's my wed­ ding present to you. You know it's a funny thing that when a fellow hasn't anything in entire world to worry about he goes and gets married. However, I wish you all good wishes, and, as the fairy godmother in the theatre says on these occasions as the curtain falls, "Bless you, my children".

Y nPA >K HE HMSI

1. HanumnTe DHChMO, KOTOpoe MOrJia 61>1 uanucaTh JIIOCHJih BMeCTO TeJierpaMMhI.

2. HannIIIHTe KopoTKHi paccKa3 no.n; ua3eauneM "1heFairy Godmother".

3. HanumnTe co11uueuue ua TeMY "What I would do if I had $20,000".

GOOD-BYE


ENGLISH-RUSSIAN DICTIONARY


A

abolish [o'bobD OTMe"'1Th absolute ['rebsolu:t] a6coJrronn,Ili achieve [o'tJi:v] 11ocmraTb advocate (n.) J'redvokrt/ B,llllOJ<llT

advocate (v.) [ 8'dvokert BhICT)'IlllTb B

33lllKIY

affection ['ofekfn] npHBRJaHHOCTb

agony ['regam] aroHWIahead [o'hed] Bnepe.zo< alike [a'laik] o.QHHaxoBhIH amusement [a'mju:zmant]

Pa.3BJ1e11CHHC

appea!J•'pi:l] o!ipan\eHHe; npl<Th!B applau [o'plo:d] anDOm<POBaTb approach [•'proutn npH6Jm>raTbC1! approval [o'pru:vl] OA06peHHe

arch [a:tn apKa; CBOll

archery ['a:tfon] C1llem>6a H3 l1YKll

area ['eono] ITDOill-

arise [a'ra1z] B03HHKaTD;

RrpOHCX.0,a;HTh

arrive [o'raiv] npH6hIBaTh

article ['a:trkl] npO/IMOT; BOillb;

CTaTbl!

assistant )•'srstnt] acCHCTOHT assure [• Juo] YBOP>ITL attractive [o'triektIV]

npmmeKR'I'CJihHl>IH:

automatically [o:ta'Ill8'trklJ]

ABI'OMa'J.'Hqeciadi

awkward \'o:kwod] HeyxmoJKHil

axe ['8'ks ronop

B

badge [b"'<lll 311aqoK banquet f'biegkwrtj 6aHKOT bark [ba:k) mum.

barracks [ b8'roks] Kll3apMJ.I barrel ['brerol] 6oqJ<ll

base [be1s] OCHOB3.HHCbeneath [bi'ni:0] 11011 bitter ['bito] rophl<HH

bless [bles] 6JiarocnoBlll!Th

blizzard [bhzod] MOTOJTh; BLIOra blossom 'blnsam] qeCT, qaereHHeborder [' o:do] rpaHHIIa

born [bo:n] llpHPO"'lleHHhlli brave [breIV] CMCJTh!ii

breach [bri:tn 6pe= broom ru:m/ MerJiaburial [ benol norpe6eHHe

c

cafeteria [k8'fi'IIorro] KrujlerepHii

caretaker ['keoteiko] cropox


character ['kamkto] xapaKTOp charity ['tJ8'rrlI] MHlIOCep11He cheap [tJi:p] 11emeBhlli

cherish ['tJerrn JIOJie>ITL HaAe><;ey

clay [kle1] r11HHa

coarse [ko:sj rpy6Liii

collapse [ko l8'ps] KOJDJanc; KPOX compliment ['komplnnont]

KOMIIJIHMCHT

complimentary [kompli'mentan]

,D;OIIOJIHHTCJibm.Ilt

conduct (n.) ['kondokt] 110-eHHe conduct (v.) fkon'dAkt] npOBO/IHTb conscience ['knnfans] COBCCTb consent [kan'sent] cor.rrac:e:econtract (n.) ['kontr.,kt] KoHrpaKT;

,D;Ol'OBOp

contract (v.) [kon'triekt] 3llKlllO'IllTb

,a;orooop

corporal ['ko:porol] J<llllPan

couple ['kApl] napa

crack [kr.,k] rpern;mra; I110Jlb

crawl [kro:l] nOJI3llTh creature ['kri:tfo] cymecTBO;

003,llaHHO

credit 'kredrt] KPeAHT

ce krrum] npeccynn:eHHe

cnuse kru:zf KPYH3 crush [krAf] II crust [krASt] Kopn.

cry [kra1] KpHtraTh curl [k:3:l] JIOKOHcmve.\b:v] Hsm6

cynic ['smikl] llID£H'IHh!il

D

darling ['da:hg] 11oporoli

dept [det] 11om

deceive [di'si:v] o6MaHhIBaTh deep [di:pl TJI)'6HHa

delicious [dI'hfos] BKYCHhlii

deliverJdi' bvo] 110CTaBlll!Th deman {d1'ma:ndl TJJC6oBan.democratic [demo'kr.,IIk]

,llCMOI<pa.TH'ICCDJit

desertion [d1'Z3:Jn] yxo11;

,llC3epTHpCTBO

deserve fdI'Z3:v] 38.CJIYlKHllllTh desire [dJ'ZlllOj XCJiaHHe despise [drs'paiz] npe3HpaTh

device [d1'vms] YC1lJOlicTBO; npH6op disaster [di'za:sto] 11elicTBHe

disease [dI'zi:z] 60JI03Hb

disntisa [dis'mrs] yacm,H>ITL

distance ['dIStans] paccromme


dive \daIVl m.rp.RTb

doub e ['&bl] )IBOiiHoii

drain [dremlCTOK; KllHllJill3llll drown [draon] romm.; roeyn. drug [drAQ] JieKapcTBO

dull rdAllcIC}"DIJ>Ili

dumb [dAmJ HeMOH

eagle [ i:gl] open

economy [1'konami] 3KOHOMHKa

edge [el\l] ocrp11e; Iq>aii edition Ji'drfn] H3JlllHHe editor [ edrto] JlCJlaKTOP efficient [1'ftfnt] crroco6Hh!H;

YMCJThlli

elbow ['elbau] JIOKOTb

eldest ['eldISt] caMhllt CTapnmJI electricity [Ilek'trmtr]

JICK.'I'PH'ICCI'BO

emotional [r'moofonl]

3MOIJ;HOHa.JibHlici!

employ [IDl'plm] HaHHMaTh Ha

pa6ary

encourage [m'i<Anl\l] 06oJIPHTb

end.me [1n'djua] rrepeHocBTb;

TCpIICTb

ensure [m'Jua] 3aBep.RTb;

CrpaxoBan.

enterprise ['entaprmz] npep;rrpmrme entertain [enta'te1n] pa.3BJICKaTh enthusiasm [1n'9ju:zuezm]

My3H33M

eternal [r'13:nlJ BC'IHLili exact [1g'zrektJ To'IHLiliexaggerate [19 zrel\lore1t] rrpeyBeJIH<rnBOTh

exchange [1ks'tfeml\l] o6MeH


fuel ['fjool] TOIIJIHao

funeral ['fjonorol] rroxopoHJ.I furious ['fjoonos] gpoCTHLill furnish ['fs:mn cHafuKan.

G

gallant ['grelont] rarnnmrnii genius ['cti:n1as] reH:H:Hglacier ['glreso] JICJIHHK

glimpse [glnnps] 6Mcrphlll B3rmm godmother ['godn!Aao] KPeCTHal!

MaTh

goose rgu:slrych

gradual ['9rredjool] nocreneHHJ.Iii gratitude ['grret1tju:d]

Jia:ro,D;apHOCTb

greedy ['gri:d1] JKlWihlii

grotesque [grou'tesk] rpOTeCKHbllt ground [graund] JeMIDI; II01IBagrumble ['gmnbl] Bop'lllTh

 

hardship ['ha:df1Jl¥JIHrUeHHe;

HYJIIAO

harsh [ha:n pe•KHii; rpy6hlii

harvest ['ha:VISt] ypOJ<llJit

hatch [ha:tn IlblCHJKHBaTb D;bIIIllllT

hedge [hel\l] ""'""" H3TOpOIIb hike [hark] /lllHTCJlbHaJI nporymca hire [haroj HaHHMOTh

hook [hok] KPIOK; KPIO'IOK horisontal [hon'zontl]

RopH3oHTaJThHbrli

host [hoost] X03l!HH

humble ['lwnbl] CKPOMHiilll hurricane ['iwikon] yparaH hut [hAt] xm<HHll


expense!,Ik'spensl pacxoJI

explode 1ks'plaud] B3pbIBaTL


immortal


I

[r'mo:tl] 6eccMepTHblll


explore Jks'pb:j HCCJICJIOBaTh

extraordinary [Iks'tro:dmn]

HCo6hl'iII&lii

extreme [Iks'tri:m] KP-

F

fate [fert] cy,IJ;b6a

favour ['feIVOlJII06e3HOCTh

fee [fi:J rmara; roHopap

fence fens] 3a6op

fever [ fi:vo] xap; JIHXopaJIKO fishing-rod ['fifll)rnd] YJIO'!Kll flatter ['flreto] JlbCTIITh

flee [fli:] y6eran. flow [floo] wn.

r
forthcoming [fo:0'kArrug]


infant f'mfant] pe6eHoK; MJraJJ;eHeu; injury 'md;Jan] noBpeJK;D;eHHe;

rpaBMa

inquire [m'kwa10] BhllfPllIIIHBllTh;

CrrpaBIDITbCl!

inspiration [mspr're1fn]

BJlOXHOBCHHC

inspire [m'sparo] l\llOXHOIWITh installment [m'sto:lmont]

O'qepe.zr;Hoff B3HOC

invalid ['1nvahd/HHBllJlHll involve [m'volv BOBJiexaTL issue ['1sju:] BhIIIYCK

J

journal ['l\lrnl] xypHaJI


npe,!J;CTOBIIJ;HH

fortitude fo:IItju:d] CHJia


 

JIYX0


 

kitchen!'kitfm]


K

JCYXHa


founder [ faunda] ocHoBaTCJIL


knit [mt Bll3llTh


L

labour ['le1bo] TPYll lack [IK:k) He XBaTaTh lad na>d] rrapem. lead [li:d] BOCTH

lean [li:n] X}'lloll; roIUldi lettuce ['let1s] cwmTliberty ['hbot1] cB06011a

licence ['laisans] p83pemem1e

limit ['lnmt] JIHMHT

lining ['lairug] ITQZI;KlilI,ll;Kl lonely ['launb] o.QHHoKHii loose [lu:s] cB06o,lJ;IIhlii:;

rrpocropm.lll

lounge [launcli] roCTHHllJI

1J\1"°Illb
lump [Lunp] KYOOK luxwy ['lAkfon]

mad [ma>d] cyMlIClllemm<li

magic ['ma>cl!Ik] MaIIDI;

llOJlllle6cTBo malice ['ma>hs] 3llo6a

manufacture ['mamju'fa>ktf•]

NpoH.3BO,llCTBO

mean fmi:n] 3Ha1ll1Th

mental ['mental] }'MCTBOHHJ.Ili military ['IIIIhton] BOeHHI.Ili model ['modi] MD,llcm.

moor [muo] TOJMl>mmcTaJI

MCCTHOCTii

motto ['mntau] ,n;eBH3


performance [p•'fo:m•ns]

CneK.TaKJib

picturesque [piktJ•'resk]

XHBOTIHCm.Ilt

pile [pa:d] KY"ll; fPY110

plaster ['pla:st•] nrryxaT)'JlKa

plum [fLun] CJIHBa policy 'pohSI) IIOJIJm!Kll pony [ p•um] IIOHH

post [paust] ,JJ;OJDKHOCTb; IIOCTpoultry ['p•ultnl llOMaIIIHIDI IlTHila poverty ['f>?WtI HHID;CTa

president ['prezidnt] npe3M11eHT private ['praIVItl"8.CTHLiil privilege ['pnvrl1<1l] rrpHBHJJermI problem ['probloml11Po6IIeMa

produce (n.) ['prodju:s] rrp produce (v.) [pro'd1u:s]

IIpOH3BO,lllITJ.

profit ['profit] rrpH6hIJTh; 11oxo11 proportion [pro'po:fn] nponopUIDI prosperous [ prosp•r•s]

npo-nuom;e:ii

protest (n.) ['pr•utest] IIpOTCCT

puncture ['pAIJktf•) IIpOKOll

R

rat [ra>t] Kphlca

r
recent ['ri:sant] Hreception [n'sepfn] IIPHeM reconcile rekansatl] MHpHThreform [n fo:m] pe4JopMa


m=uld1




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