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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (2)
B ypoKe 29 HaM BCTpenrnach <t>opMa rnarona B HacToHm:eM 3aBeprneHHOM BpeMeHM. 3Ta <t>opMa 06pa3yeTC5I rrpM IIOMO m:11 rnarona have 11 rrpwrncTM51 rrporne,D,rnero BpeMeH111:
He has lived in England for fifty years. 1 1 1111 1 111 11111 1111111111
People have laughed at his plays. 11 11 11 111 1 1 1 11 1111 11 1 1 111
He has read all the books. J.iltill. ' - WJlill
Ihave heard of those writers. lWill llillli Ihave seen that picture at the cinema. lililll 1.i.illl He has written plays. .1il1.W. .ill..!.! He has said that time and time again. -· h d ll
Ihave left my book at home. He as rea a
You have done this exercise well. the books.
,[(ml o6pa30BaHM51 OTpMIJ;aTeJibHOH <t>opMbl MCIIOJih3yeTbC51 OTpMU:aTeJihHM qacTMU:a not.
He has noi2 lived in Englan for fifty year.
People have not laughed at his plays.
He has not read all the books.
Ihave not heard of those writers. You have not done this exercise
You have not brought your book.
You have not done this
,[(ml o6pa30BaHM51 BOIIPOCMTeJihHOH <t>op Mhl rnaron have (has) CTaBMTC51 rrepe,D, rro,D, Jie)Kam:11M:
Has he lived in England for fifty years?
Have people laughed at his plays?
Has he read all the books?
Have you seen that picture at the cinema?
Has he written plays?
What has he written?
Have you all done your homework?
What has he
1<I>opMa npwrncnrn rrpome)l,lllero BpeMeHM rrpaBIDihHhIX rnaroJIOB coBrra
,!l;aeT c cpopMoli rrpocTOro rrpome,!l;mero BpeMemi:: lived, laughed. Ilpwrncnrn rrpome,!l;mero BpeMeHM «HerrpaBMJihHh X» rJiaroJioB, BCTpeTMBIIIMecH B KHM re 1, ,!l;aHhlB rrpMJIO)J(eHJi!Ji!.
2 B pa3roBope cjiopMhl has not, have not coK[)aII1aIOTCH ,!l;O hasn 't, haven 't.
rl 3To BpeM51 MCIIOJih3yeTC51
,IJ;JIH Bh pa)KeHMH ,z:i;eil:cTBMH B
CTBMH He YKa3aHo. EcJIM BpeMH
I rrpoIIIJioM, Kor,z:i;a BpeMH ,z:i;eil:-
Ididit ast night
,z:i;elicTBMH B rrpoIIIJIOM YKa3aHo, yrroTpe6JI51eTcH rrpocToe rrpo rne,z:i;rnee BpeMH. CpaBHMTe:
(a) Have you seen any of
Shaw's plays? (Indefinite fine -
present peifect tense.)
(b) Yes, Isaw onelast week.
(Definite time - simple past tense.)
(a) He has written theletter. (Indefinite time.)
(b) He wroteit this morn ng. (Definite time.)
(a) Ihave done the homework. (Indefinite time.)
(b) Ididitlast night. (Definite time.)
NOT, EVER, NEVER
06paTMTe BHMMaHMe Ha IIOJIO)KeHMe 3TMX CJIOB, a TaK)Ke
cnoB always (Bcer,z:i;a), sometimes (MHor,z:i;a), often (qacTO) B rrpe,z:i; JIO)Kemrnx c HaCTOHIIIMM 3aBeprneHHh M BpeMeHeM, o6bJqHO OHM CTOHT rrepe,z:i; rrplfqaCTMeM rrporne,z:i;rnero BpeMeHM. CpaB
I have not done my work.
He has read every book that Ihave ever heard of.
Ihave never heard of that book.
Jan has always liked studying Engl sh.
I have sometimes gone to Dublin by aeroplane. Hob has often left his book at home.
PA3.Ii:EJHITEJihHhIE BOIIPOChl (I)
11Hor,z:i;a, oco6eHHO B pa3roBope, BOIIpoc COCTOMT M3 yrnep
)J;MTeJibHOro rrpe)J;JIO)KeHMH M CJie)J;y!OIIIero 3a HMM KpaTKOro o6IIIero Borrpoca c oTpm.i;aHMeM. HarrpMMep:
Ym8epJ1CiJeuue KpamKuii oow,uii 80npoc
(c ompuu,auueM )
Mr. Priestley has a lot of books in his study hasn't he? You were talking about Christmas presents weren't you? She's got a book hasn't she?
It is a nice morning isn't it?
This is a pretty little town isn't it?
You are coming with us aren't you?
Jan and Frieda are coming with us That was a good dinner
Frieda is a pretty girl
You have some sheep on your farm He has done his homework
You had a lesson this morning You can speak English
He could tell the difference between
aren't they? wasn't it? isn't she? haven't you? hasn't he? hadn't you? can't you?
good and bad coffee couldn't he?
Hob must work harder mustn't he?
He ought to do his homework oughtn't he?
They will come tomorrow won't they?
You will see me next Friday won't you?
Jan play football doesn't he?
Mr.Priestley often works late doesn't he?
The students see him every day don't they?
Jan did all the homework didn't he?
Hob left his book at home didn't he?
Ecmi: B yrrpa)l(Hemrn: MCIIOJih3yeTc5I «crreu;MaJibHbIM» rna ron, OH 2Ke MCIIOJih3yeTcJI B o6meM Borrpoce.
IlpM yrroTpe6neHMM B <<yrnep)l()l;eHMM» mo6oro .n:pyroro rnarona B KpaTKOM Borrpoce yrroTpe6Jl5IeTC5I do, does, did.
• E cp OHET H 4 E CK A SI T PE HHP OB K A
(n O BT O P E HHE)
live, alive, marmalade, minute, Monday, morning, move museum, new, once, parliament, people, poem, saucer, strength sugar, talk, walk, wash, was, watch.
Y nP A >K HE HHSI
I. 06pll3yi1Te Bonpoc1ue.JihffYIO <f>opM)':
1. Pedro has read this book.
2. T.S.Eliot has written many poems.
3. The girls have given their friend a clock.
4. Ihave told you the answer to the question.
5. This writer has lived in England for a long time.
6. Pedro has seen some of his plays.
(Eyabme BHUMameJlbHbt, npUMeHHH cJloeo some!)
7. Hob has left his book at home.
8. Lizzie has cooked the dinner.
9. Frieda has written a letter home.
10. Mr. Priestley has corrected Hob's homework.
II. 06pa3yi1Te oTpnu;aTeJlhffYIO <f>opMY npeAJio:>Keuuu B ynpa:>KHeuuu I.
III. 06pa3yii:Te paJ,n;eJinTeJILHhle BonpocL1:
1. It's a fine day ...?
2. You are studying English ...?
3. He is handsome man ...?
4. She is very well-dressed ...?
5. Lucille has a new car ...?
6. My work is right ...?
7. You were in England last year...?
8. He can speak English ...?
9. You could understand me ...?
10. They must do the work ...?
11. Hob ought to come early ...?
12. You will write to me ...?
13. She can come tomorow ...?
14. He gives a lesson every day ...?
15. You read modem writers ...?
16. Shaw wrote St. Joan ...?
17. They gave her a clock ...?
18. You went to the theatre ...?
19. I wrote to you ...?
20. He speaks English ...?
IV. faMeHnTe cliOPMY npocTOro npome,n;rnero BpeMeHu Ha cliOPMY Ha CTOJm1ero 3aBepmeHHoro BpeMeHu:
1. I read the book.
2. He wrote a new book.
3. She gave her friend a clock.
4. He told me the answer to my question.
5. They went away with some friends.
6. Mr.Priestley spoke to me about you.
7. The students wrote some short stories.
8. I understood the work very well.
9. Mr. Priestley told the students about some English writers.
10. Lizzie cooked the dinner for Mr.Priestley.
11. We saw a play by Shaw.
12. Pedro gave us the tickets.
13. He went to the theatre with Frieda.
14. They went to the theatre with Frieda.
15. We spoke about the play before.
16. He spoke about the play before.
17. I spoke about the play before.
18. Hob left his book at home.
19. All the students left their books at home.
20. You did that work well.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE(3)
MORE DIFFICULT EXAMPLES
Scene: Mr. Priestley's Study.
Mr. Priestley, Frieda, Jan, Hob, Pedro, Olaf, Lucille.
M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Good morning! It's a nice morning, isn't it? Fr i e d a: Yes, Mr. Priestley, it is. As I came here this morning everything looked beautiful after the rain last night. I don't think that the trees have ever looked so green, or the flowers so
fresh. I like listening to the rain, too, especially at night.
J a n: I have often heard people at home say that the weath er in England is bad; that it is always foggy or raining or cold.
H o b: Yes. I was speaking to a fellow about English weather a week or two ago. I said, "When is summer coming?" and he answered, "Oh, we have already had summer. We had it last Wednesday afternoon".
0 1a f: Have you ever tried to come here by bus on a wet day? I went on one a day or two ago. The buses are always full on wet days and I have never had a seat on one yet. I'm always sorry for the conductor. His work isn't easy on a wet day.
H o b: I know a story about a bus conductor. Can I tell it, sir? M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Have you finished what you were saying
Olaf?... You have? ... All right, Hob, tell us your story.
H o b: Well, I was on my way here in the bus one wet day, and a woman with a dog got on the bus. It was a big dog - about as big as a young horse - and its feet were very dirty. The woman said, "Oh! Conductor, if I pay for my dog can he have a seat like the other passengers?" The conductor looked at the dog and then he said, "Certainly, madam. He can have a seat like all the other passengers, but, like the other passen gers, he must not put his feet on it".
M r. P r i e s t l e y: Very good, Hob. You have told the story quite well.
H o b: Thank you, sir.
L u c i 11e: Frieda has said she likes rain at night. Well, I don't, not when I'm driving. I drove home last night in the rain. I have driven quite a lot, but have never driven through such rain before. I couldn't see at times where I was going.
P e d r o: How long have you had your car now, Lucille? L u c i 11e: I have had it for about a year.
P e d r o: Have you driven it much in England?
L u c i ll e: Yes, I have used it nearly every day, and have done about nine to ten thousand miles.
F r i e d a: You drive very well. I have often thought that.
I have never learned to drive.
H o b: I have learned to drive. I learned last week in five lessons.
L u c i 11e: I have just come from a driving lesson this morn ing.
HOB. Haven't you finished having lesson yet?
L u c i 11e: Oh, no! I have had lessons for about a year now, and they haven't finished yet. I have had sixty-five so far; there are any thirty-five more to come.
H o b: What! A hundred lessons to learn to drive. I have never heard of anyone needing so many before. You must be a very bad learner, or else you must have been to a very bad teacher.
L u c i 11e: Oh, no, he is a very good teacher and very nice, young and handsome and clever.
H o b: But hasn't he taught 1 you to drive yet?
L u c i 11e: Oh, yes. I learned to drive in the first five lesson. H o b: Then why? ....
L u c i 11e: Yes, it sounds funny. I could explain it, but I have done the same as Hob. I have asked Hob's friend the artist to tell the story in pictures. This is what he has drawn.
I 3To Ji[ BOIIpOCJi!TeJinHasI, Ji[ OTpJi!llaTeJinHasI <lJopMa.
LUCILLE GOES TO ASK ABOUT DRIVING LESSONS
Y nP A >K HE HHSI
I.IlpuBei:.HTe Tpu ycTHhIX HJIH nuchMennhIX Bh CKa3h Bauus o noroi:.e.
II. Pa3h rpaiiTe Cl(eHKY c KOOpOM H 1KeHll(HHOH c cooaKOH, pac CKa3aHHyro XoooM.
III. A Teneph paccKa1KHTe BCIO ucTopuro 11eJIHKOM.
IV. PacCKa1KHTe, KaK JlycHJIJI opaJia ypOKH BOeHHH, HCUOJ1h3YH CJiei:.yro111ue CJIOBa u Bh paBCeuus: a notice; an advertisement 1; a nougth2(=O); he turns the 10into 100.
The driver of a bus works very hard. He is out from early in the morning till late at night. Sometimes he works inbeautiful weather when the sky is blue, the sun is shining, the trees look fresh and green and people feel glad to be alive. At other time it is cold or foggy, or there is such heavy rain that he can't see very well where he is going.
The conductor is on the bus too. He has a tiring day going to the top of the bus and down again a hundred times a day to get passengers' money and give them their tickets.
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