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B TeKCTe HaM BCTPeTIDIOCb rrpe,n;rro)Kemie "He ran the certain

risk of going blind". c rnarOJIOM run eCTb MHO)KeCTBO <l>pa3eO­

JIOrWiec:rrn:x rnaroJibHbIX o6opoToB. BoT HeKoTopbre M3 HMX: The child was run over by a car.

My car was run into by a bus.

To run into debt is to run into danger.

Who(m) do you think I ran into (= met by chance) yester- day? Our friend Jack.

Ifyou run about in the playground you will soon get warm. I ran after the bus, but couldn't catch it.

The clock has run down (= stopped) because you didn't wind it up.

He has been working too hard and eating too little and is

run down (= weak; in poor health).

The careless motorist ran down (= knocked down) a boy on a bicycle.

"Food was running shorf ' (= becoming very scarce).




OcHOBHhre 3Haqemrn rrpe,n;rrora in:

(1) Position or place, e.g.

There are twenty students in this room. I was right in the middle of the crowd. He lives in London.

or, as an adverb,

Has the nine o'clock train come in yet? Go in, don't wait outside.

(2) Circumstances or condition, e,g.

In prison; in the dark; in good health; in debt; in danger; in

bad temper. Jan is in love with Frieda.

As an adverb, "Is the fire in or has it gone out?"

(3) Dress, covering, e.g.

She was dressed in silk. William was in uniform. The book was bound in leather.

(4) Time, e.g.

In the morning/afternoon/evening.

I began work here in January in the year 1940.


Into shows motion, action or change, whereas in shows po- sition or rest, e. g.

He walked into the room in which we were sitting. The tree was sawn into logs.

He is always getting into trouble.

He changed his Swiss francs into English pounds.

Into He cne,eyeT rryraTb c in to. HarrpHMep:

He came into the room with his wife and they went in to

dinner together.


Of expresses:

(1) One of the possessive (genitive) forms, e.g.

The tail o/ the dog; the love of God; the Tower a/ London. and the "double possessive", e.g.

A brother of mine; a friend of John's.

(2) Origin or authorship, e.g.

He was a child of poor parents; the poems of Milton.

(3) Measure; quantity, e.g.

A yard of cloth; a pound of sugar; a packet of cigarettes; some of that cake.


Off expresses the idea "away from", e.g.

She pushed the books off the table. He jumped off the train. Similarly with the adverb off, e.g.

This grass is newly sown. Keep off! Off is contrasted with on, e.g.

Don't take your coat off, keep it on.

H,n;noMaTH'lecKne BbipWKeuua:

He is very well off (= rich; fortunate).

They visit me off and on (= occasionally; now and then).

I can't answer your question off hand (= immediately; without thinking more about it).


On expresses:

(1) Position, e.g.

The book is on the desk. London is on the Thames.

(2) Time, e.g.

He came here on1 May 1st; on Thursday.

He changed his wet clothes on reaching home.


1 On is used for dates and for particular days, e.g. On Christmas day; On

Saturday afternoon. Compare with in and at, e.g. at three o'clock in the afternoon.

(3) The meaning "about", e.g.

He gave a lecture on India. This is a book on Roman coins.

As an adverb it often expresses continuance, e.g.

Go on; don't stop. Keep on working. Don't waken him; let

him sleep on.

It is contrasted with off, e.g;

Is the gas off or on? Tum the water on.

M,n;noMaTnqecKHe Bh pWKeuus c on:

Hob is not a bad fellow on the whole. I don't dislike him at all; on the contrary I am very fond of him. Those passengers came on board at Gibraltar. He damaged the picture on pur­ pose. The house is on fire. We are here on holiday. The goods will be on sale tomorrow. A policeman is not allowed to smoke on duty.


I. C;meapmUI pa6oTa. IIpH,JJ.yMailTe npeM01KeHHH co CJIOBaMu:

despise, learning ( noun; note the pronunciation of learned ['b:md] as an adjective, e.g. "a learned man"), devoted (use also devotion), architecture (use also architect), perfect ( verb; note the stress [p3:'fekt]), abroad, fulfil, "the press", burden, treasure ( noun and verb), argue (use also argument), price (use also prize), desert [di'z3:t] (use also desertion), cure ( noun and verb; use also curable, incurable), disaster, boundless, revolt ( noun and verb), revenge ( noun and verb), serpent, lofty, tri­ umph ( noun and verb; use also triumphant, triumphantly), eye­ less (what does the -less mean? give two similar examples).


1. a dislike of the beautiful. 2. they knew nothing of the work of philosophers. 3. he is characteristic of the age in which he lived. 4. he is not limited by it. 5. he belongs not to an age but to all time. 6. he perfected his knowledge of French. 7. in­ cluding Galileo. 8. the coming struggle. 9. he wrote practically no poetry. 10. they have lost their interest for us now. 11. the cause of Puritanism gained the day. 12. the work that he knew he was to write. 13. in the face of blindness. 14. he brings about his own death.

III. OTBeTbTe na eonpocbl:

1. How did Milton differ from the majority of Puritans?

2. What do you know of Milton's father?

3. What did Milton know "from his early youth and with complete certainty"?

4. What did he do, whom did he meet in his travels abroad?

5. Why did he suddenly return?

6. What work did he do for the Puritan cause?

7. Why is it "as good almost to kill a man as kill a good book"?

8. What liberty did Milton want "above all liberties"?

9. What did his work as Foreign Secretary consist of?

10. Why didn't Milton cease work when the doctors warned him what would happen if he didn't?

11. What happened to the Puritan leaders when Charles II was brought back to the throne?

12. What is Milton's greatest poem?

13. What is the subject of this poem?

14. In what way was Milton like his figure of Samson?

15. Where was Milton born? Where is he buried?

IV. Ilepe;:i;aiiTe 3ua11euue CBOHMH cJioBaMn:

1. "It is fine and noble to sing the ways of God; it is finer and nobler to fulfil them".

2. "Agood book is the precious life-blood of master-spirit...".

3. "My resolution was unshaken though the choice was either the loss of my sight or the desertion of my duty".

v. Ilplf,!Q'MaiiTe npe)J;JIO:lKeHlrn co CJIOBOCO'leTaHHHMH:

run down; run after; run over; run into; run out of; run through; in running order; run away with; run short of; on the run; in the long run.

Composition Exercises

1. Write an account of Milton in about 450 words.

2. Write an account of a great poet of your country.



Charles I had been executed in 1649 and Cromwell became the ruler of England, but Charles Stuart (afterwards Charles 11), the eldest son of Charles I, came to England secretly in 1650 and, aided by the Scots, attempted to regain the crown. On September 3rd, 1651, he fought a battle at Worcester; he was completely defeated and fled from the field. This is the background to the play that follows.

Scene: The Coffee-Room of The White Hart, Evesham.

September 10th, 1651.

Robert, a waiter, has just shown in Sir Edgar Harcourt. A confused noise of voices is heard from the next room.

R o b e r t: You'll find it quieter in here, sir.

H a r c o u r t ( by the fireplace ): Quieter! I can hardly hear myself speak. Shut those doors.

R o b e r t: They are shut, sir.

H a r c o u r t: What a mad house! I've tried three times to get a drink, four to get a room...

R o b e r t: I'll see about a room, sir.

H a r c o u r t: Ifthat terrible noise is going on, you can save your breath. Where's the landlord?

R o b e r t: He's serving, sir.

H a r c o u r t: Inform him Sir Edgar Harcourt has arrived. If that doesn't stir him, you can saddle my horses and I'll be off.

R o b e r t ( moving up to doors): Yes, sir. H a r c o u r t: And bring me some wine.

(Robert goes out. The Landlord enters.)

L a n d 1o r d: Sir Edgar, forgive us. We don't know where to turn.

H a r c o u r t: Your inn's a mad-house, man.

L a n d 1o r d: It's the Ironsides. Returning every hour from Worcester. Foot soldiers, cavalry, gunners.

H a r c o u r t: And they call this peace!

L a n d 1o r d: I'll get you a room at the back. H a r c o u r t: You'll get me some dinner.

L a n d l o r d: Yes, Sir Edgar.

H a r c o u r t: Soup, beef, chicken. L a n d 1o r d: Beef, chicken.

H a r c o u r t: Your best Chateau-Latour. L a n d l o r d: Chateau-Latour.

H a r c o u r t: Stilton cheese and white wine.

L a n d 1o r d: At once, sir. And you'll bear with us tonight...

H a r c o u r t: Plague on it, man, I'm a Roundhead. I'll drink with your noisy crowd. To Cromwell and victory!

L a n d 1o r d: Cromwell and victory.

H a r c o u r t: Well, we've waited long enough for it. Ten years to put these scoundrels in their place.

L a n d l o r d: We've seen the last of them now, sir.

H a r c o u r t: We've seen the last of more than them, Hen­ ry. ( In a quieter tone.) We've seen the last of ... Charles Stuart. ( He laughs softly to himself ) Dead on the field of Worcester! There'll never be a King in England again.

L a n d 1o r d: Never a King in England.

(Robert enters with the wine.)

R o b e r t: The gentleman's wine.

L a n d 1o r d: Put it on the table, Robert. And order Sir Edgar's dinner. Soup, beef, chicken and Chateau-Latour.

R o b e r t (putting the wine on the table): Yes, sir. L a n d 1o r d: And keep those doors closed.

R o b e r t: Yes, sir.

(He goes out.)

H a r c o u r t ( moving to the table for his drink): Well, it's good to see you even in this mad-house ...

L a n d l o r d: Sir Edgar... H a r c o u r t: What is it?

(There is a slight pause.)

L a n d 1o r d: There's no question, is there ... about Prince Charles...?

H a r c o u r t: Question?

L a n d 1o r d: I mean, it is quite certain?

H a r c o u r t: What the devil do you mean?

L a n d 1o r d: I'd like to have it from your own lips.

H a r c o u r t ( angrily): Charles Stuart's body was found on the field of Worcester. He was thrown from his horse and cut down.

(There is a pause.)

Does that satisfy you?

L a n d l o r d: Yes, Sir Edgar.

H a r c o u r t: Then why do you ask? ( He goes back to the


L a n d 1o r d: Because in the sitting-room they were betting three sovereigns to one ... that he is alive.

(Philip Maunsell enters.)

M au n s e 11: Is this coffee-room private ...? L a n d l o r d: No, sir. This way, if you please.

M au n s e ll: Your sitting-room's a little noisy. H a r c o u r t: Charles Stuart is alive!

L a n d l o r d: Yes, sir.

H a r c o u r t: Are they out of their senses? M au n s e 11: Why should they be?

H a r c o u r t: I beg your pardon?

M au n s e 11: I said, "Why should they be?"

H a r c o u r t: I haven't the pleasure of knowing you.

M au n s e 11: My name is Philip Maunsell. In Tewkesbury they're betting four to one.

(There is a moment's silence.) H a r c o u r t: Four ... to one! M au n s e 11: Yes.

H a r c o u r t: That Charles Stuart is alive? M au n s e 11: Yes.

H a r c o u r t: It's nonsense. M au n s e ll: No doubt.

H a r c o u r t: Absurd! The body's been found - M a u n s e 11: They say it was his double.

H a r c o u r t: His double...?

M a u n se 11:A special bodyguard. The Prince was seen cros­ sing the Severn the same evening - and two days after in Ludlow.

H a r c o u r t: What's the evidence?

M au n s e 11: Sentries on the river, townsfolk in Ludlow. H a r c o u r t: Why have they kept silent?

M au n s e 11: They haven't. They were ordered to say nothing.

H a r c o u r t: It's a lie! A lie, I tell you, set about by Royalists to keep their cause alive. Charles Stuart's body rots on the field of Worcester.

M a u n s e 11: I'll bet you five to one it does not. H a r c o u r t: Five to one!

M au n s e l l: Here in this room. H a r c o u r t: I don't bet, sir.

M au n s e ll: A pity.

H a r c o u r t: If I did, I'd bet you a hundred sovereigns - that it does.

M au n s e 11: A pretty sum! Couldn't the landlord introduce


H a r c o u r t: I'll trouble you, sir, not to joke on this matter.

If there's one word of truth in the rumour you're spreading, a shadow lies over England. The dawn of peace is being blotted out ....

M au n s e 11: That's a matter of opinion, sir. H a r c o u r t: Opinion, sir!

M au n s e 11: Charles was a gay prince. He should be alive, to keep the Roundheads on their toes.

H a r c o u r t: Treason, I say!

L a n d l o r d: Now, gentlemen - H a r c o u r t: A sword.

L a n d l o r d: Sir Edgar!

M au n s e 11 (putting up his hand): One moment, sir. Ifyou want to do me an injury ... why not rob me of five hundred sovereigns?

H a r c o u r t: Five hundred ...

M a u n s e 11 ( quietly): I'll take your bet ... at the terms I offered.

H a r c o u r t: I've alredv told you -

M a u n s e 11: I am a poor man. I'd feel five hundred more than your sword.

(There is a slight pause.)

H a r c o u r t: You would, sir?

(Harcourt faces Maunsell.)

Very well, then. I'll not rob you of five hundred. I'll rob you of five thousand.

L a n d 1o r d: Five thousand ...

H a r c o u r t: I'll bet you a thousand sovereigns to five ...that Charles Stuart is dead.

L a n d l o r d: Sir Edgar, I beg you...

H a r c o u r t: Keep out of this, -Henry! (He turns to Maun­ sell.) You hear me, sir? One thousand sovereigns to five that Charles Stuart is dead.

M a u n s e 11: I hear you, sir. (After a pause.) There is one small point. How will the bet be decided?

H a r c o u r t: In this way. If Charles Stuart is not proved alive in a fortnight, he will be taken as dead.

M au n s e 11: If Charles is not proved alive in a fortnight, he will be taken as dead.

H a r c o u r t: Is that clear? M au n s e 11: Quite clear.

H a r c o u r t: Is the bet taken?

(There is a slight pause.)

M au n s e ll: Taken.

(There is a moment s silence. The two men stand facing each other.)

H a r c o u r t: My name is Edgar Harcourt. My address is Che-veley Manor, Devizes. I shall return there tomorrow.

M au n s e 11: I am Philip Maunsell. I live at seventeen High Holborn in the City of London. I am at your service.

H a r c o u r t: Landlord, you are witness to this bet. L a n d 1o r d: But, gentlemen, I beg...

V o i c e (from the parlour): In the name of the Parliament of England ... silence for a proclamation from Hampton Court.

H a r c o u r t: What the devil -

V o i c e: Given under the hand of Oliver Cromwell, Com­ mander-in-Chief of the Puritan Forces.

(The sound of voices dies to a murmur.)

H a r c o u r t: Open those doors.

(The Landlord moves up and opens the doors.)

S e r g e a n t T r y o n: "WANTED - MR. STUART". H a r c o u r t: ( below his breath): ... Dear heaven ...

S e r g e a n t: "Although it is commonly accepted that Charles Stuart, Leader of me Royalist Forces, was cut down and left for dead on the field of Worcester, a measure of doubt now exists. Evidence has been received that Mr. Stuart crossed the Severn on the night of September and was seen two days later in the Town of Ludlow. Mr. Stuart may be at large or in hiding in the counties of Worcester, Shropshire, Hereford or Oxford. "For his capture or information leading to it, a reward of one thousand pounds. For hiding his whereabouts or helping

his escape, the penalty of death.

Given under our seal. Hampton Court". September 9th, 1651.

H a r c o u r t (slowly): It isn't possible ... it can't be...

S e r g e a n t: Corporals Britton and Fox, search the inn.

H a r c o u r t: At large or in hiding ...

L a n d 1o r d ( hastily): Excuse me, gentlemen. M a u n s e 11: Close the doors.

(The Landlord goes out, closing the doors. There is a moment's pause.)

One thousand sovereigns....

H a r c o u r t: Nothing is proved, I tell you! M a u n s e 11: Nothing yet.

H a r c o u r t: It's a trick, a Royalist plot... M a u n s e ll: No doubt.

H a r c o u r t: It'll be break down, they'll have no confess. M a u n s e 11: Shall we increase the bet?

H a r c o u r t: We'll increase nothing ....

(Robert enters.)

M a u n s e 11: Ah, waiter, a drink. R o b e r t: Glass of wine, sir?

M a u n s e 11: Two glasses.

H a r c o u r t (to Robert): What's - what's happening in there?

R o b e r t: They're searching the inn, sir. H a r c o u r t: This inn?

R o b e r t: Yes, sir.

H a r c o u r t: Do they imagine he's here?

R o b e r t: They're searching every inn in the country.

H a r c o u r t: Satan, don't they know what the man looks like? He wears a full-bottomed wig, a moustache no gentleman would dare, has black eyes and sunken cheeks - you could pick him out of a thousand. And they're looking for him here?

R o b e r t: Yes, sir.

H a r c o u r t: Well, tell them they're mad! Mad, do you hear me? If they want Charles Stuart, they'll have to dig for him.

R o b e r t: Yes, sir.

M a u n s e 11: And bring two glasses of wine.

(Robert goes out.)

H a r c o u r t: Completely mad ...

M a u n se ll ( after apause): You know, Sir Edgar, it wouldn't be out of the question to shave off that moustache.

H a r c o u r t: Let him shave it!

M a u n s e 11: Or to remove a full-bottomed wig. H a r c o u r t: Remove it!

M au n s e 11: It would make a difference. H a r c o u r t: He can't change his face.

M au n s e 11 ( thoughtfully): I don't know. Wax and plaster have worked wonders. I heard of a Huguenot who lived two years in his own town unrecognized. The Marquis de Charron served as a footman at the Tuileries under sentence of death.

H a r c o u r t: This is England, sir. We've eyes in our heads. M au n s e 11: We shall need them.

(Sergeant Tryon enters.)

S e r g e a n t: Your names, gentlemen....

H a r c o u r t (sharply): Who the devil are you, sir?

S e r g e a n t: Sergeant Tryon of the Oxford Garrison. In the name of the Parliament.

H a r c o u r t: Now, look here -

S e r g e a n t: Names, business and destination.

H a r c o u r t: If you think you've come to any purpose - S e r g e a n t: I must trouble you, sir.

M au n s e 11: Philip Maunsell of High Holbom, London.

Gentleman. Travelling to Shrewsbury. S e r g e a n t: When did you arrive? M a u n s e 11: Five minutes ago.

S e r g e a n t: On horse? M au n s e ll: By coach.

S e r g e a n t: And leaving? M au n s e 11: Tomorrow.

S e r g e a n t ( to Harcourt): Yours, sir?

H a r c o u r t: Edgar Harcourt. Knight. Cheveley Manor, Devizes.

S e r g e a n t: Arrived?

H a r c o u r t: This moment. S e r g e a n t: A guest?

H a r c o u r t: For the night. Now look here -

S e r g e a n t: Have you knowledge of the whereabouts of Charles Stuart?

H a r c o u r t: First hand. S e r g e a n t: What is it?

H a r c o u r t: Feeding the worms of Worcester. S e r g e a n t: Speak to the point, sir.

H a r c o u r t: It is the point, sir.

S e r g e a n t: Then it may interest you to know ... that Charles Stuart was reported last night ... in this town.

(There is a moment's complete silence.)

H a r c o u r t: In this town? S e r g e a n t: You heard me.

M au n s e ll ( after a pause): Has he been seen? S e r g e a n t: No.

M au n s e ll: Then how -

S e r g e a n t: A Royalist gave evidence in Hereford. ( He pau­ ses.) The town is being searched from the top to bottom. No one may enter or leave without permission. If he is here, we shall get him. ( He turns to the door.) That is all, gentlemen. Good night.

(He goes out. The two men stand facing each other.

The Landlord hurries in.)

L a n d 1o r d: Forgive me, gentlemen. I was kept back by Sergeant. Your drinks are coming...

M au n s e 11: You heard, landlord, what he said?

L a n d 1o r d: The Prince reported in Evesham! It sounds like a fairy tale ...

H a r c o u r t ( mechanically): A fairy tale .....

M a u n s e 11: Where do you imagine he could be?

L a n d 1o r d: I don't know, sir. There are some great houses in the neighbourhood, the Trevors, the Mainwarings, the Blak­ eneys. They'll be turned inside out. God help them, if they find him.

M au n s e 11: God help me, landlord ... if they don't! L a n d l o r d: You, sir?

M au n s e 11: I shall lose five thousand pounds. L a n d 1o r d: Five thousand pounds ...

M a u n s e 11: Have you forgotten ... the bet? L a n d l o r d: By our Lady, sir!

M au n s e 11: If Charles is not found alive in a fortnight, I have lost. Those are the terms, Sir Edgar?

H a r c o u r t: Those are the terms.

M au n s e 11: So Godspeed to the arrest of Charles! L a n d l o r d: Godspeed ...

M au n s e 11: And I tell you, he won't make it easy. He's the cleverest man in England and will beat us yet.

L a n d 1o r d: He won't beat me, sir. H a r c o u r t: Nor me.

M au n s e 11: He's beaten us all for a week. Slipped through counties and kept an army guessing....Why? ( He faces them.) I'll tell you. Because they are looking for a ghost. They are looking for a ghost of Charles Stuart. And there is not one

trace of Charles Stuart left. Every detail has been changed: clothes, voice, features, manner of walking, character, every mark and detail of the man we know ... (his voice dropping) except one ... ( He pauses.) The one thing a man may never change, because he does not know he possesses it.

H a r c o u r t: What is that?

(Robert enters with drinks.)

R o b e r t: The gentlemen's drinks ... L a n d 1o r d: On the table, Robert. H a r c o u r t: What is that?

M au n s e ll: A mannerism ...

(There is a pause. He smiles quietly at them.

Robert puts the drinks on the table.)

Some trick of the hand, the slight movement of an eyelid, unknown to each of us and with us all over days.... Charles Stuart has a mannerism.

(Maunsell and Harcourt go to the table for their drink. Robert crosses the room to attend to the fire.)

L a n d l o r d: He has!

H a r c o u r t: What is it?

M a u n s e 11 (smiling): There's a reward ... for the answer. L a n d l o r d: But if you know -

M au n s e 11: I was two years in the Palace of Whitehall, teacher to Prince Henry. I had time to observe... Prince Charles.

H a r c o u r t: It is your duty to the Parliament to speak.

M au n s e 11 (gently): My duty to myself ... for six thousand. H a r c o u r t: Then there's no fear you'll forget it.

M au n s e ll (smiling): No fear. And yet, Sir Edgar, I won- der...

H a r c o u r t: Wonder, sir!

M au n s e 11: Whether future generations would approve. H a r c o u r t: This is a treason.

L a n d l o r d ( between them): Sir Edgar. H a r c o u r t: Explain yourselfl

M au n s e 11: A man who can defy England for a week... has the makings of a King.

H a r c o u r t: I tell you, sir, England is tired of kings.

M au n s e 11: She is tired of tyranny. She will never tire of kings. The people will respect a Parliament - they will die for a King. ( Putting down his empty glass.) Shall we go in to sup­ per?

H a r c o u r t: I think it is high time. (He puts down his glass.)

L a n d l o r d ( moving up): I'll show you to your rooms.

H a r c o u r t ( about tofollow, but stops): And one last word, sir. I thank heaven that the betrayal of a King will save you six thousand sovereigns. It assures me our Parliament is safe.

L a n d l o r d: This way, sir...

(Harcourt goes out, followed by Landlord.

There is a moment's silence.)

M a u n s e 11 (smiling): Sir Edgar underrates me. He values "a dream" at six thousand. Don't you reckon that cheap, Robert?

R o b e r t: I see his point of view, sir.

M a u n s e 11: You see his point of view? Then I am a fool and a madman. Did you read Mr. Shakespeare?

R o b e r t: Mr. Shakespeare, sir?

M a u n s e 11: A playwright who died thirty years ago. R o b e r t: I'm afraid not, sir.

M a u n s e 11: He has a line in "The Prince of Denmark" .

...Ophelia, speaking of Prince Hamlet, says:

"The expectancy and rose of the fair state,

The glass of fashion and the mould of form ... " Could you betray ... such a one?

R o b e r t: I'm afraid I could, sir. M a u n s e ll: You could?

R o b e r t: His father was a traitor. Like father, like son.

M a u n s e 11: Cold reasoning, Robert. May it reap its re­ ward? The way to the supper-room?

R o b e r t ( moving to the door): This way, sir.

(Maunsell goes to the door and turns.)

M a u n s e 11: And by the way, Robert, when you do your evil deed ... perhaps you'll inform the King that there was one man who would not betray him ... for six thousand.

R o b e r t: I will inform him, sir.

M a u n s e 11: Tell me, Robert, do you believe that?

R o b e r t: I'm afraid, sir, you would have to prove it. M a u n s e 11: It has been my privilege.

(He pauses, his hand on the door, facing Robert.)

( To Robert). Good night ... Your Majesty.

The curtain falls.

PABOTA c r.JIArOJIOM (11): call

"And they call this peace".

Here are some other idioms with call:

His son is called (= named) William.

The drowning man called (out) (= cried) for help. The ship calls at (= stops at) Gibraltar.

When you are in the village will you please call at the green­ grocer's and get some oranges?

The play at the theatre starts at 7.30. I will call for you at 7.0.

I want breakfast at 8.0 so will you please call (= waken) me at 7.30?

Mr. Smith is not at home; he was called away (= asked to go somewhere) on business.

Iknow his name but Ican't just call it to mind (= remem­ ber it).

A strike of railway men has been called (= ordered) begin­ ning on November 1st.

Ifyou are near my home any time call in (= come) and see me.




Cne,r:i:y10:rn:He rrpe,r:i:Jio)KeHHH HJIJIIOCTPHPYIOT pa3JIHqHoe yrrOTpe6neHHe rrpeMora over:

There was a mirror over the fireplace. Clouds came over the


There were dust-sheets over the furniture. That picture cost over $10,000.

He couldn't enter for the examination because he was over

age (= more than).

There is a bridge over the river. He jumped over the wall (= above and across).

The King is ruler over the whole nation. A captain is over

a lieutenant.

They sat a long time over their dinner ( while having din- ner). He fell asleep over a book ( while reading).

Over is often used as an adverb expressing:

(1) Distance, e.g.

Here, in Britain, we are having hot weather, but over in America they are having snowstorms.

(2) Movement, the exact meaning depending on the verb used with over, e.g.

to fall over; to knock over; bend over; hand over; tum over;

the milk boiled over, etc.

(3) "finished", e.g.

The war is over.All your troubles are now over.

(4) "remaining", e.g.

Ipaid the bill and have three pounds over.

(5) "too much", "more than is proper", e.g.

The meat is over-cooked.Iwas over-charged for these goods.

He is over-worked.


Past (preposition) has the meaning "beyond", e.g.

It is past six o'clock; half past three. The old horse is past

work. She walked past my door (= up to and beyond).

Past (adverb):

The years went past. He saw me but walked past without speaking.

Round Round expresses: (1) position, e.g. There was a rope round the tree.

(2) movement (more or less circular), e.g.

He walked round the house. Drake sailed round the world. Similarly as an adverb:

He went into the garden and walked round. Tum round.

ADVERTISEMENT: Our dresses not only make you look slim, they make men look round.


Since expresses "from a definite point of time in the past until now", e.g.

I have been here since 4 o'clock.

Since is generally used with a perfect tense.

Compare this with for which expresses "a length of time till now", e.g.

Ihave been here for two hours.

Since is also an adverb, e.g.

Isaw him last Christmas; Ihaven't seen him since.


Through (preposition and adverb) expresses:

(1) Position or movement usually from one side to the other, e.g.

He knocked a nail through the wood. The train rushed through the tunnel. Look through the window. Air comes in through the ventilator. We went through France on our way to Switzerland. He has come through a lot of difficulties. He read the book through. Will you please read through my essay?

(2) Time, e.g.

He talked about it all through dinner. The railway line was repaired through the night when the trains were not running.

(3) Agency, e.g.

He bought the property through a house agent. He got the job through (= by the influence of) his uncle.


To expresses:

(1) Direction of movement, e.g.

Ian going to London. Come to me.

(2) A limit, e.g.

Classes are from 9 o'clock to 5 o'clock. He was faithful to

the last/end. He read the paper from beginning to end.

(3) Comparison, e.g.

This car is superior/inferior/equal to that one. What he said

to you is nothing to what he said to me.

To is used:

(a) as a part of the infinitive, e.g.

Iwant to go home. He said that to frighten you.

(b) with an indirect object, e.g.

Give that to me. Ilost a lot of money to him.

To is not much used as an adverb. It is an adverb in:

Pull the door to. The work must be done, so set to (= get to work).

Towards (toward)

Towards expresses (1) "in the direction of ', e.g.

Go towards the window. Their house faces towards the south.

(2) approaching (of time), e.g.

Ihope to arrive towards six o'clock. Shakespeare's best co­ medies were written towards the end of the 16th century.

(3) with regard to, e.g.

Ihave always felt kindly towards him.


I. CJI0Bapmu1pa6oTa. IIplt,!Q'MaiiTe rrpeAJIO)KeHHH co cJie;zymmuMu cJio­ BaMu H BblpeHHHMH:

confused (use also confusion), landlord (what is the femi­ nine form?), inform (use also information), saddle (verb). (Sad-

dle is also a noun. It is part of the harness of a horse. Where does one put the saddle? Find out the meaning of the reins, stirrups, spurs), forgive (what are the principal parts of this verb?), sideboard (name six other articles of furniture), sigh (note the pronunciation), scoundrel, corpse, bet, sovereign (two meanings of this word), private (use also privacy. What is the opposite of a private room in a hotel?), evidence, sentry, fraud, rot, introduce, rumour, dawn (what is the opposite?), toes (use the the idioms "from top to toe"; "to tread on someone's toes"; "to walk on tip-toe"), treason, residence, witness, proc­ lamation, murmur, accept, county (don't confuse with coun­ try. Note the pronunciation of each: ['kauntr], ['kAntrr]), cap­ ture, whereabouts, penalty, trick, increase (What is the opposite?), imagine, moustache (Is this the same as whiskers? How do we describe a man who has neither moustache nor whiskers?), wig, sunken cheeks (this is one form of the past participle of sink, give the other one), exile, destination, a fairy tale, inside out (use also upside down, from top to bottom, back tofront), slip, ghost, mannerism, eyelid (use also eyebrow, eye­ lash, eyeball), generations, approve, defy (note the pronuncia­ tion [dr'far]. Use also defiance, defiantly), tyranny (use also tyrant, tyrannical), underrates (what is the opposite? Use it in a sentence), playwright, mould, reap (what is the opposite?), evil, privilege.

II.II epe11.aiiTe 11.pyruMu CJIOBaMu B&1pIDKeum1H3 TOJI&KO 'ITO rrpo'lnTau­ uoii rr&ec&I:

1. Are they out of their senses? 2. There is no question about Prince Charles being dead. 3. I'd like to have it from your own lips. 4. I beg your pardon. ( This can be used in several situations.) 5. They are betting four to one. 6. No doubt. 7. They say it was his double. 8. Why have they kept silent? 9. They were hushed up. 10. A pity! 11. I'll trouble you not to joke on this matter. 12. That is a matter of opinion. 13. To keep the Roundheads on their toes. 14. Ifhe is not proved alive, he will be taken as dead. 15. A proclamation given under the hand of Oliver Cromwell. 16. It is commonly accepted that Charles Stuart is dead. 17. A measure of doubt now exists. 18. Mr. Stuart may be at large. 19. For helping his escape the penalty of death. 20. You could pick him out of a thousand. 21. It wouldn't be out of the question to shave off that moustache.

22. Under sentence of death. 23. We have eyes in our heads.

24. His voice dropped. 25. There is no fear you'll forget. 26. He has the makings of a King. 27. I think it is high time. 28. Don't

you reckon that cheap? 29. Like father, like son. 30. It has been my privilege.

III. OTBeTbTe no B03M01KHOCTH CBOHMH CJIOBaMn. HcnoJib3yHTe JIHWb MaTepnaJI, CO)J,ep:lKawniiCB B Dbece. 0TBeT )J,OJI:lKeH COCTOBTb H3 0)1,HOfO DOJIHOfO npe)J,JIO:lKeHHB.

1. Who is "Mr. Stuart"?

2. Why did the landlord think there was some doubt about Prince Charles being dead?

3. What was Maunsell's "evidence" that the Prince was alive?

4. What were the terms of the bet that Maunsell made with Harcourt?

5. What were the terms (for reward or for penalty) in Cromwell's proclamation?

6. Give Harcourt's description of Prince Charles.

7. How did Maunsell think that Charles could change his appearance?

8. What was the one thing he thought the Prince could not change? Why couldn't he he change that?

9. Why did Maunsell know that he could recognise the Prince?

10. What was the "dream" that Maunsell thought was worth more than £6,000?

11. Explain Maunsell's final remark.

IV. IlpH,!Q'MaiiTe npeiJ,JIO:lKeHHB c HiJ.HOMaMn:

call out; call at; call in; call off; call for; call away; call up; call on; call a spade a spade.

Composition Exercises

1. Tell,in your own words, the story of the play.

2. Write a short story or play of your own, having as title: "Loyalty".



(A letter from the author of this book to a teacher in Greece)



18th January 19-

Dear Miss -,

I was very pleased to receive your letter and to hear of the work you had been doing with Essential English. And so your students have been asking questions about Hob! They have been asking what is his nationality, why he should be learning English, etc., etc. So, too, have quite a lot of other people.

The problem about Hob was not an easy one. You see, in these Books I could teach all the "favourable" adjectives easily enough. Lucille could be beautiful, gay and well-dressed; Frie­ da could be charming; Olaf could be clean and manly, Pedro could be the handsome, well-travelled man of the world; Jan could be clever and hard-working and attractive; and no Poles or Frenchmen or Swedes would rise up in anger against me. But how could I teach the opposites of these? Who ever knew a Pole, Frenchman, Swiss, Swede, or South American who was lazy, badly-dressed, careless, untidy? What storms I should have brought on my head if a character of any recognisable nationality had all these bad qualities! Itwas then that I thought of Hob. He, like all my "characters", had been a student in one of my classes. I knew his story though I didn't want to tell it just then. However, I can do so now without hurting anyone.

* * *

The story goes back many years now to the Lancashire town of Manchester. In a little house there, in a small street, South­ bank Street, lived the Hobdell family. Itwas a large family, but the only ones I knew were Eliza 1 and Berta2, Ben2and Albert and Irene. Theophilus3, Tom4and Aggie 5 I never met. Albert


1 See Recollections and Adventures.

2 See Essential English, Book I.

3 See Essential English, Book III. 4 See Essential English, Book III. 5 See Essential English, Book II.

(familiar to readers of Essential English as "Uncle Albert") was a fine-looking fellow, six foot two in height, broad-shouldered and strong as a horse. He was no scholar - couldn't even write his own name (he was, as he himself said, "no credit to his teachers"), but he was shrewd and sharp-witted and the merri­ est, liveliest and most warm-hearted companion you could wish for. Many are the Lancashire hot-pots 1 and many the plates of fish and chips I've eaten in Southbank Street, and many are the stories with which Albert kept us all roaring with laughter. But it's not Albert so much as Irene that my story is chiefly concerned with. Irene was the youngest of the family. She was about twenty when I first knew her, gay, laughing, full of life and high spirits (she had Albert's nature), and the prettiest girl in Manchester. She was, I'm afraid, a sore trial to Eliza - the oldest of the family - a sour-faced woman of forty odd. Eliza had always been full of "don'ts" and "mustn'ts" - "Ben, don't eat so much"; "Albert, don't laugh like that". (Albert said that when he was a boy, she used to say, "Albert, go and see what Irene's doing, and tell her she mustn't".) Now, it was, "Irene, you mustn't wear that short dress: it's not proper". Poor Eliza saw impropriety everywhere. She even, so Albert told me, put cotton trousers on the legs of the piano because she thought bare legs were improper. She was about as cheerful as a wet Sunday afternoon in Manchester -which is saying a lot -but her sourness seemed to have no effect on Irene, nor for that matter on Albert and Ben; they just laughed and made a joke of it all. Eliza and Berta, who was even sourer but less talkative than Eliza, thought Irene ought to stay at home in the evenings

sewing or knitting; Irene preferred going out with soldiers (this was during the war) to knitting socks for them and there were always plenty of soldiers coming to Southbank Street to take Irene out.

Amongst them (and her chief favourite) was

SUPPER AT THE HOBDELL'S Ruperto. What his other


1hot-pot -a Lancashire dish made with meat, potatoes and onions cooked slowly.

name was I never knew; everyone called him Ruperto. He had come to England with our allies, the Ruritanian forces. He was a corporal, I think, or perhaps a sergeant, a gay, dashing sort of fellow with dark, romantic-looking eyes and black curly hair. He didn't speak much English, but that seemed to be no obsta­ cle to his popularity with the girls of Manchester, and it was soon quite clear that Irene had eyes for no one except Ruperto. The end of the war came and he went back home to Ruritania. Quite honestly, despite the act that Irene lost a lot of her gai­ ety, most of us hoped that we had seen the last of him. But a month or two later Irene got a letter from Ruritania (in hardly understandable English) asking her to come and marry him.

Albert looked more solemn about it than I have ever seen him look about anything. He had no high opinion of Ruper­ to; neither had I, but it was none of my business, so I said nothing. Eliza, of course, hated the thought of Irene mar­ rying anyone, and was horrified at the thought of her mar­ rying a "foreigner"; but Irene had no doubts. All her old gaiety came back at once; she was overflowing with happi­ ness and laughed and sang about the house all day. She drew all her savings out of the bank, bought herself pretty clothes, bought things for her new home, presents for Ruperto, and set off in high spirits for Ruritania. A month or two later we had a letter from her. She was married to Ruperto and they had a little home about 10 miles from Strelsau -just on the borders of Ruritania and the Urbanian Republic - they were very happy and everything was wonderful.


I left Lancashire soon

* * *

after that


and took a job in Scotland,

and later moved to London. Albert stayed in Lancashire and I lost touch with him. As I told you, he couldn't write and it was no use my writing letters that he couldn't read. Years went by. I married, and had more or less forgotten about the Hob­ dells. Then one day my secretary came to tell me that a visitor, Mr. Hobdell, had called to see me. Hobdell! -Albert! -Irene! I went to the entrance hall and there was Albert, older, fatter, prosperous-looking, but the same old Albert. I think he was as pleased to see me as I was to see him. I had finished work for the day and we went to a quiet little tea-room near by to have a good talk and to get all his news. Yes, Albert had done very well - he was making a fortune. Eliza? Yes, she had a little house of her own. She had softened with the passage of time - but the piano legs still had cotton trousers on them.

"And Irene?" I said.

Albert's face lost all its smiles. It was as if you had turned off a light inside him.

"Irene's dead", he said. "As a matter of fact that's one reason why I've come to see you".

I was shocked to hear it. I remembered her so full of life and laughter and happiness: and all that was gone.

"Yes", he went on, "it was a bad business. You know I never liked that fellow Ruperto that she married. He left her a year or two after her boy was born. Hob, he's called. Irene never told us about Ruperto leaving her. For a time she wrote a letter home fairly often. They were just short letters saying she was getting on all right. Then the letters came less and less often, then it was just a card at Christmas time, and then they stopped altogether. Eliza and Ben wrote to her (you know I'm no schol­ ar), but the letters were returned 'address not known'. We were all very upset about it, for Eliza in spite of her sharp tongue was really fond of Irene, but there seemed to be nothing we could do. Then about six months ago there came a brief note from her saying she was very illand asking me to come and see her if I could. I took a plane to Strelsau the very next day. She was lying in a bed in a poor little room, bare and comfortless. I could have cried to see how thin and pale and old she looked, but when she saw me she tried to smile as she used to in the old days at home. I'd have given all I have if I could have taken her home with me to Lancashire and brought back her rosy checks and smiles; but she knew, and I knew, that it was too late. 'Albert,' she said, 'I wanted to see you about Hob: he'll be all alone when I'm gone.'

" 'You need have no worry about him, my dear,' I inter­ rupted. 'He'll come back to England with me and I' 11 do all I can for him.'

Tears came into her eyes. 'I knew you would, Albert,' she said. Two days later she died.

* * *

"Hob's been living with me for six months now, and I want

some help from you. I want to do the best I can for the lad. He's a bit of a problem; he's lazy, untidy and not too particular about being clean (that's from his father), but he's warm-hearted, good-humoured and loves a joke".

"I know where that's from", I said.

Albert laughed. "I like Hob, he is a fellow after my own heart and I think he'll do all right in the end".

"And what is it you wanted me to do?" I said. "You can count on me to do anything I can".

"Well", said Albert slowly, "you see when Hob came here he spoke English with a sort of horrible Ruritanian accent. He's lived with me for six months and now they say he's speaking it with a terrible Lancashire accent. I must say I don't notice it myself, but then, as you know, I'm not a gentleman. Can you tell me where I can get a good teacher who can teach Hob to speak English as it ought to be spoken? That's why I called to see you today".

"I can certainly help you there", I said, "and nothing would give me more pleasure. I know Mr. Priestley who gives English lessons to foreign students".

"But Hob's not a foreign student exactly; he's only half foreign".

"And that's the half that Mr. Priestley will deal with", I said. "Moreover, Mr. Priestley is quite a good phonetician and he'll soon deal with Hob's Lancashire accent".

"And he's really good?" said Albert. "It's not a matter of money. I'm willing to pay for the best".

"In my opinion", I said, "Charles Priestley is the best teacher in England".

"Fine", said Albert, "the best is good enough for me and for Hob".

And that's how Hob became one of Mr. Priestley's pupils. All good wishes,

Yours sincerely,


P. S. I realise that this story doesn't agree with Hob's own account of his coming to England (Book 111),but what I have told you is the true story. Hob is shrewd like Albert; he doesn't tell you more than he wants you to know. He loves to tell a story - not necessarily true by any means, even when, as in Book II, he tells you it's a true one!

PABOTA C f.JIAl'OJIOM (12):say, tell

3ttaqem1e rnaroJIOB say M tell rrpMMepHO 0,lJ,MHaKOBO,HO CMTYaU:MM, B KOTOpbIX OHM yrroTpe6JIBIOTCJI, Pa3JIHhl, M KaJK­

,lJ,hIM rnaron MMeeT oco61>ie M,lJ,MOMani:qecKMe yrroTpe6nemrn.

BoT MO,lJ,eJI1> yrrOTpe6neHMJI rnarona tell:

1. Tell + rrpJIMoe ,lJ,OIIOJIHeHMe (T.e. tell something) HarrpMMep:

He can tell the time.

Will you tell us the story about the fire of London?

Ho qaw;e rnaroJI tell MO)KHO BCTpeTJUb B KOHCTpYKIJ:Hli:

2. Tell + KocneHHoe ):(OIIOJIHem1e + rrpHMoe ):(OIIOJIHem1e (T.e. tell somebody something). Harrpirnep:

Subject Verb Indirect Object Direct Object

Tell me a story/the truth/your name.

I told Hob what to do.

He told us that he was going away.

I told the gardener to cut the grass.

A BOT o6pa3u;1>1 MCIIOJih30Bamrn rnarona say:

Every night the child says her prayers. He said, "I am very busy" . He said that he was very busy.

2. Say something to somebody, e.g.

He said "Good morning" to me. Isaid to the gardener, "Cut the grass". (Compare with: Itold the gardener to cut the grass.)

When Isee him Ishall say to him, "What have you done with my money?"

BuuMauue: (1) Say Mcrron1>3yeTc5I rrpM rrepe):(aqe rrpHMoli peqM. fnaroJI tell B 3TOM cnyqae HMKOr,[(a He MCIIOJib3yeTC51.

(2) IlpM yrroTpe6neHMM rnarona say yrroMMHaHMe JIMU:a, K KOTOPOMY o6paru;eHa peqb, He o6513aTeJibHO; rrpM MCIIOJib30- BaHMM rnarona tell MhI ,[(OJl)l(Hhl Ha3BaT1> JIMU:O, K KOTOPOMY o6paw;aeMC51. HarrpMMep:

The teacher said, "Do all the exercises".

The teacher told the class to do all the exercises.

(3) B KOCBeHHoli peqM rrocne rnarona say H,[(eT rrpM):(aTOqHoe

):(OIIOJIHIITeJibHOe, rrocne rnarona tell -MH<l>MHllTMB. CpaBH11Te:

Isaid that he must leave the house.

Itold him to leave the house.



B ypoKe 15 HaM BCTpeTMJIMCh n1>1paxeHM5I c rnaronoM go (went, gone). HarrpMMep:

The story goes back many years now. Go and see what Irene's doing. Irene preferred going out with soldiers. He went back to Ruritania. Years went by. "Yes", he went on (= continued), "it was a bad business". He'll be all alone when I'm gone (= dead). BoT ew;e HeCKOJihKO 06w;eyrroTpe6MTeJI1>H1>1x 3HaqeHMli

3Toro rnarona:

My watch kept going slow; now it won't go at all. "How did the concert go?" (= was it successful?). "It went (or went down) very well".

The apples have gone bad. I think it is going to rain. I'm going infor my examination in July. The fire has gone out. "It is love that makes the world go round". (Proverb.)


1. CJioBapmui: pa6oTa. Ilplf,ZQ'MaiiTe npe.1i11mKeuus co CJIOBaMu:

lively (use also liveliness, to liven up), companion (use also company), chips, roar (most English people pronounce this like raw [r::i:]), proper (note also improper, impropriety), talkative, knit, romantic (use also romance), obstacle, solemn, horrified (use also horror, horrible, horribly), overflowing, border, secre­ tary, prosperous ( use also prosperity ), nation (use also nationa­ lity; note the difference in accentuation), recognisable (use also recognise and recognition; note accentuation), good-humoured.

II. 06'hBCHHTe 3uaqeuus CJieizyro"-ux CJIOB u BbipITTKeuuii:

1. a dozen or so. 2. he's a bit of problem. 3, I'm no scholar.

4. I would do my utmost. 5. Pedro was a well-travelled man of the world. 6. no one would rise up in anger. 7. The story goes back many years now. 8. he was sharp-witted. 9. Albert kept us roaring with laughter. 10. Irene was a sore trial to Eliza, a sour­ faced woman of forty odd. 11. Irene had eyesfor no one except Ruperto. 12. we hoped we had seen the last of him. 13. in hardly understandable English. 14. He had no high opinion of Ruperto.

15. Albert stayed in Lancashire and I lost touch with him. 16. it was a bad business. 17. We were all very upset about it. 18. Hob is a fellow after my own heart. 19. You can count on me. 20. It's not a matter of money.

III. B paccKaJe BCTpeTHJIOCh BhipITTKeuue: "Albert was broad-shouldered and warm-hearted". IIcnoJib3yiiTe CJI01K11h1e npnJiaraTeJihHh e MB onu­ cauHB:

(a) persons who have: blue eyes; red cheeks; brown hair; a dark skin; a long nose; big bones; long legs; flat feet; travelled a lot; (b) a person whose spirits are high; whose heart is warm; whose tongue is sharp; whose wits are quick; whose will is strong; whose temper is hot, (c) a man who has neither beard nor moustache; a suit made by a good tailor; a book whose binding is made of leather.

IV.I lplf,ZQ'MaiiTe npe.1i11o:>KeHHB co cJie)zyI0"-8MH CJIOBaMn:

1. go out. 2. go in for, 3. go down. 4. go on. 5. go with. 6. go out with. 7. go by. 8. go about it. 9. on the go. 10. go down.

11. go over. 12. it goes to snow.

v. Ilpll)zyMaHTe npeMO:>KeHIDI co CJIOBOCoqeTaHHHMH:

(a) it goes without saying; that is to say; what do you say to...?; to say one's say; a saying; they say.

(b) tell the truth; tell their own tale; telling; to tell on someone; all told.

VI. IlpH,!Q'MaiiTe npeMo:>Keuua co CJIOBOM tell co 3uaqeuuaMu:

(a) to express or show, (b) to discover, (c) to order, (d) to have an effect.

VII. lhMenuTe npeMO:>KeHIDI, BCTaBJIHH tell BMecTo say:

1. Eliza said to Albert, "Go and see what Irene's doing".

2. Pedro said to Lucille, "You sing very well".

3. I said to him, "Open the door".

4. She said to me, "I am sorry I can' t speak English better".

5. Eliza said, "Albert, don't laugh like that".

6. He said to me that he was very busy.

7. You had better say to George what you have said to me.

8. I said to the gardener that he must cut the grass.

9. He said to me, "I have lost my money".

10. Mr. Priestley said to his students, "There will be a holiday tomorrow".

Composition Exercises

1. Write a composition or short story having for its title one of the following:

(a) Tales our mothers told us.

(b) The boy who couldn't tell a lie.

(c) Some old sayings in your language and what they mean.

2. What qualities would you expect from (a) a good doctor, (b) a business man, (c) a nurse, (d) a lawyer? Write a character sketch of each of these.

3. Tell in about 300 to 400 words the story of Hob.

4. Invent a short story in which the chief character is Uncle Ben, or

Aunt Eliza, or Aunt Aggie, or Uncle Theophilus.

5. Write a short account of some person (real or imaginary) that you have known.



Characters - Mr. Priestley, Lucille, Frieda, Olaf, Pedro, Hob

01a f: I was in Edinburgh in September for the Festival. L u c i 11e: Did you enjoy it?

0 1a f: Oh yes, it was splendid.

P e d r o: Edinburgh's a beautiful city, isn't it?

0 1a f: Lovely both by day and by night. You know the castle, don't you, Pedro; and you too, of course, Mr. Priestley.

M r. P r i e s t l e y: Yes, I know it well, It stands on a huge rock, like a great cliff towering over the city.

01a f: Well, during the Festival it was flood-lit every night. Just as it got dark a gun was fired and at that moment the lights went on. But the flood-lights were only on the castle building; the rock was in the darkness. The effect was magical. The castle looked like a castle in the air, something fairy-like out of the old romances.

P e d r o: And yet the Scots are supposed to be matter-of­ fact unromantic people. That wasn't my impression.

01a f: Nor was it mine. Look at all that romantic feeling they still have for Bonnie Prince Charlie. Why, when I was there there was practically a whole exhibition devoted to him - his portraits, letters that he had written (incidentally with more spelling mistakes to the page than ever Hob made), clothes that he wore, his sword, a piece of his hair. To tell you the truth, I must admit I caught some of the fever myself and made a tour of the country to see the places associated with him - Inver­ ness, Glenfinnan and Culloden. It was really quite fascinating.

H o b: Who was Bonnie Prince Charlie?

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: I think you ought to know the story.

If you don't you won't fully understand a good deal of Scottish (or, for that matter, English) history of literature, for in addition to there being many Scottish songs about him, Sir Walter Scott used his history: in at least two of his novels -and to my mind two of the best 2.

F r i e d a: Will you tell us about him, please?

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: It seems to me Olaf is the most suitable person to tell it. Will you do it, please, Olaf?


1 bonny: a Scottish word for "handsome"; "beautiful". Charlie is a familiar and affectionate form of Charles.

2 Waverley and Redgauntlet.

01a f: Well, sir, I'll try. The story be­ gins, I suppose, in 1688 when James II, the last of the Stuart1 Kings, was driven off the throne of England. James went abroad, and never returned to England. But he had many followers in England who sympathised with him and wanted him back on the throne of England. His son Edward (whom the English called The Old Pretender") made an unsuccessful attempt to get back the throne in 1715, but the most important attempt was made by his grandson Charles Ed­ ward, "Bonnie Prince Charlie" to the Scots, "The Young Pretender" to the English. This was in 1745. Charles was a real prince of romance: young (he was

twenty-five when he landed in Scotland), handsome, tall and fair, brave and adventurous. He was coming, he said, to gain the crown of England and place it at his father's feet. England was at war with France at the time and Louis XV was planning an invasion of England. Charles went to Paris, eager to join the French fleet that was to land him at Dover. Once there, he believed that the Jacobite sympathisers would flock to his side and that the George II, the English King, would be forced to flee to Germany. But disaster overtook the French fleet; a great storm struck them in the Channel and they returned beaten and broken to the shores of France. It was a terrible blow to Charles Edward; but not for long. He was a man of spirit, a born adventurer, burning with ambition and courage. If the French couldn't help him, he would invade England by him­ self - not across the Channel but from Scotland. There he was sure of support; he was not quite so sure of the English Jaco­ bites. England under George II was prosperous, and to the matter-of-fact English, the Stuarts were merely a sentiment, and hard-headed business men don't risk their prosperity for a wild dream. But the Scots, or at least the Highlanders, were different. The Highlands was the wild home of the poor but high-spirited men to whom loyalty to their King was a passion. They were adventurous, romantic men who loved fighting and


1 The Stuart Kings were James I (1603- 1625), Charles I (1625- 1649),

Charles II (1660- 1685), James II (1685- 1688).

danger. The Stuarts had come originally from Scotland, and, to the Highlanders the Stuarts were not just a sentiment -they were a religion for which they were prepared to fight and die. Dusguised as a clergyman Charles went aboard a small French ship, the Doutelle, to sail for Scotland. With him was a French warship, the Elizabeth, of sixty-eight guns, and in the Elizabeth were loaded the stores, guns, swords, powder and shot with which he hoped to defeat the English. In June 1745 they slipped quietly out of harbour and headed for Scotland. On the fourth day they were seen by British warship which opened fire on the Elizabeth. For five hours a battle went on and both ships were damaged. The English ship turned for England and the Elizabeth <

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