ТОП 10:


(Extractfrom Frieda's diary)

... I asked Mr. Evans today about King Arthur. His name kept coming up, at Snowdon, in his story about Cnernarvon and when he told us about the great Roman city that had been discovered after months of digging in Monmouthshire 1 at Caer­ leon, "that's Camelot, where King Arthur held his Court" he said.

"Was King Arthur a real person, or is it all a story?" I asked. Mr. E v a n s: Oh, yes; there was a real Arthur, an Arthur who fought the Saxon invaders and won a great battle at Mount Badon in A.D. 500. But around this shadowy human figure, fighting among the mountains of Wales or on the wild cliffs of Cornwall (where you can still see, at Tingatel, the ruins of Arthur's castle), has grown up a great collection of romantic stories that run like a brilliant thread through the pattern of English literature from the early Anglo-Saxon and Norman writers, through Chaucer and Malory to Tennyson. These old stories tell us of Arthur's miraculous coming, of how he be­ came King and gathered together a brave company of knights -

the Knights of the Round Table.

F r i e d a: Why was it round? Had that any special meaning?

Mr. E v a n s: Yes, it was to show that no knight, not even the King himself, was "head of the table"; all were equal and the King was just "first among equals". You can still see the table - a great round piece of wood hanging on one of the inner walls of Winchester Castle. But though 600 places in the British Isles claim some memory of him, he is for ever essen­ tially the hero of Wales, and it's rather significant that the Welshman who became King of England, Henry VII, called his eldest son Arthur. I think Arthur's name is so widespread throughout England, and the Continent, too, because Welsh bards in Norman times and before that, travelled about singing the songs and telling the stories about him. Those stories were gathered together by Sir Thomas Malory2 and it is from his Morte d'Arthur that all the later writers and poets have drawn the materials for their stories and poems.


1 In Arthur's time Monmouthshire was part of Wales.

2 About 1470.

F r i e d a: Could you tell us one of the stories of Arthur and his Knights.

Mr. E v a n s: There's hardly anything that a Welshman likes better than telling a story - unless it's listening to one; and I'm a Welshman. And this is the story he told us:


One day as King Arthur sat in his Court at Caerleon sur­ rounded by the Knights of the Round Table a servant entered and said, "Sir King, I have seen a strange sight. As I walked along the bank of the river 1 saw a great stone, and it floated on the water. There was a sword through the stone and the handle of the sword was thick with precious stones". When they heard this, the King and all the Knights went to see this strange thing. It was just as the servant had said: moreover, when they looked more closely they read the words on the sword: "No one shall draw me out of this stone except the knight at whose side I am to hang. And he must be the best knight in the world". The knights asked Sir Launcelot to draw the sword, for he was known as the best knight in the world. But Sir Launcelot said: "The sword is not for me. I dare not try to take it". Many of the knights tried, but none could draw out the sword. So they re­ turned and took their places again at the Round Table.

No sooner were they seated than the door opened and on old man, dressed in white, entered the hall, followed by a young knight in red armour, by whose side hung an empty sword-sheath. The old man bowed low to the King and said, "Sir, I bring you a young knight, Sir Galahad; through him Britain shall win great glory; and he shall see the Holy Grail". "The Holy Grail!" said the knights, their faces full of awe, for the Holy Grail was the cup from which Christ had drunk at the Last Supper. It had been brought to Wales by Joseph of Arimathea, but because of man's sinfulness it had been taken from human sight. None of the knights had seen it, for it could be seen only

by the pure in heart, and all of them had sinned.

When the feast was over, the King took Sir Galahad to see sword in the stone. "I will try to take the sword", said Sir Galahad, "for, as you see, my sword-sheath is empty". He seized the handle of the sword and drew it easily from the stone and placed it in his sheath. While they were all filled with surprise, a lady came to them, riding on a white horse, and said, "I am sent to bring you word, 0 King, that great honour will be done to you and all your knights. Today the Holy Grail

will appear in your hall". Then she rode away and no one could ask her any further questions.

That evening as each knight sat in his seat round the table there was a noise of thunder, so great that the whole palace seemed to shake, and there came into the hall a great beam of light, brighter than any of them had seen before. The light touched them all, and a sweet scent was in the air. And in the beam was the Holy Grail. But no one could see it except the pure-hearted Sir Galahad. They all sat silent with amazement and awe until Arthur rose and gave thanks to God for the vision that had come to them.

Then Arthur's nephew, Sir Gawain, stood up and said that he would make a vow to go for a year and a day insearch of the Holy Grail. Immediately other knights, a hundred and fifty in all, rose up and swore to do the same; and among them was Sir Galahad. King Arthur was full of sorrow at this. His knights would wander into far-off countries; many of them, he knew, would forget that they were in search of the Holy Grail, and would go on other adventures and never return. Meanwhile, the heathen enemies from whom he had protected his land would come again to conquer him. Turning to Sir Gawain he said, "Nephew, you have done wrong, for by your act I have lost the noblest company of knights that ever brought honour to any countzy in Christendom; for I know that you knights, whom I have loved as my life, will never again all gather together in this hall". The knights, too, were filled

with sorrow, but they could not break their vows.

So the next day, after they had worshipped in the church at Camelot, the knights who had made, the vow rode together out of Camelot, and the people wept as they rode away for they felt they would never return.

F r i e d a: And did they ever return?

Mr. E v a n s: Some of them did; but not Sir Galahad. He wandered for years searching for the Holy Grail. He had many adventures (evezy one of which would be a separate stozy). He rescued maidens who had been imprisoned, he was himself imprisoned for a year by an evil king in Sarras in Babylon where Joseph of Arimathea had lived 300 years before teaching the people the true faith. Finally he was freed and he forgave the king who had imprisoned him, and when that king died, Galahad was made king. But though at times he had seen again the light of the Holy Grail, he never saw it in reality. Evezy morning, early, he used to go into the little church to pray. Then one morning, vezy early, as he knelt, he saw a man in the

dress of a bishop; and the bishop was surrounded by a great band of angels. The bishop said, "Come here, servant of the Lord, and see what you have so long wished to see". And Galahad took the Grail in his trembling hands. "Do you know who I am", said a bishop?" "No", said the knight. "I am Joseph of Arimathea whom God has sent to show you the perfect vision of the Holy Grail". Then Galahad knelt and prayed. As he prayed a hand came from Heaven and took away the Cup. And when, a little later, the people came to the church, they found Sir Galahad dead.

F r i e d a: What a wonderful story! But what happened to King Arthur?

Mr. E v a n s: Well, though some of the knights returned, the great days of the Round Table were over. While Arthur was fighting his enemies in France, the wicked knight Sir Modred, whom Arthur, had left to rule the land while he was away, plotted against the King and gathered together an army to fight against him. Arthur returned and a great battle was fought in the far west of Britain by the sea shore. The traitors were defeated and Modred was killed by Arthur, but only one of Arthur's knights, Sir Bedivere, was left, and Arthur himself was very badly wounded. Then Arthur said to Sir Bedivere, "The end has come. Take my sword Excalibur and throw it into the deep water. Watch what happens and come back and tell me". So Sir Bedivere took the sword and went to the water's edge. But the handle of the sword was thick with precious stones and he couldn't bear to throw it away. So he hid the sword under a tree and came back to the King. "What did you see?" said the King, "and what did you hear?" And Sir Bedivere said, "I saw nothing but the waves and heard nothing but the wind". "That is untrue", said Arthur. I order you, as a faithful knight, to go again and throw the sword into the sea". Again Sir Bedivere went and again he was tempted. "It is a sin and a shameful thing", he thought, "to throw away so noble a sword. It should be kept so that people in all future times can see it and be reminded of this great king". So he left the sword under the tree and returned again to the dying Arthur. "What did you hear; what did you see?" said Arthur slowly. And Bedivere said, "Sir, I saw the water washing on the rocks and heard the wind blowing in the trees". "Traitor", said Arthur, "you have betrayed your knighthood and your name. Go again and do as I command. Ifyou fail this time I will rise and kill you with my hands". Then Sir Bedivere went quickly back to the water's



edge and took the sword from where he had hidden it and closed his eyes for a moment so that he should not see the handle and the precious stones, and then he threw it with all his might out to sea. But before the sword touched the water, an arm rose out of the sea and caught the sword, raised it three times and then drew it under the water. Bedivere hurried back to the King and told him what he had seen. "Help me down to the water's edge", said Arthur, "but hurry. I have waited too long, my wound has taken cold and I may die". So Bedivere raised the King and took him on his shoulders and brought him gently down the rocks to the water's edge. And as they reached the shore they saw a small ship there, and in it were many noble figures and among them three queens dressed in black with crowns of gold on their heads. "Put me in the ship", said Arthur. So Bedivere gently lifted the King into it and laid him down. Then the most beautiful of the queens knelt beside him, took off his helmet, which was cut through with a sword, and, looking at his pale face, wept and said, "Dear brother, why have you waited so long?" Bedivere cried out, "Oh my lord Arthur; what shall I do now you are taken from me, and all my friends of the Round Table are dead? Where shall I go, alone, among new men, strange faces, other minds?"

And Arthur said, "Find comfort in yourself, for I can give you no comfort. My life is ended. The work of the Round

Table is done. The old order has changed, giving place to new; but God's will is done in many ways. Pray for my soul; more things are done by prayer than this world dreams, of. I am going now to the Valley of Avilion where my wound may be healed". As he spoke, the ship slowly moved away, and Bedi­ vere watched it until it could be seen no more.

"So", said Mr. Evans, "Arthur went away, and, though you can see his grave at Glastonbury, where it says:

'Here lies Arthur, once King, and King to be' many people believed that he was not dead but was still living in the happy valley of Avillion until his country needed him, when he would come again to free it from its enemies".


1. lpll):Q'MaiiTe npeM01KeHHJI co CJie;zyrom:nMH CJIOBaMH H CJIOBOCO'le- TaHHJIMH:

1. discover

2. shadowy

3. human

4. cliffs

5. romantic

6. miraculous

7. claim

8. significant

9. material

10. float

11. armour

12. handle

13. glory

14. awe

15. sinfulness

16. sin (verb)

17. feast

18. sheath

19. filled with surprise

20. beam of light

21. scent

22. vision

23. vow

24. go in search of

25. rescue

II.OTBeTLTe Ha Bonpocw:

1. Was King Arthur a real person?

2. What English writers have written about him?

3. Why was the Round Table round?

4. Was Sir Galahad present when news was brought by a servant about the sword?

5. Why did Sir Launcelot not try to take the sword from the stone?

6. What was the Holy Grail?

7. Why had none of the knights seen the Holy Grail?

8. What did Sir Gawain say after the vision? Why was Arthur full of sorrow at it?

9. Why did Sir Bedivere twice disobey his King's command to throw away the sword?

10. What did some people believe about King Arthur?

III. ,It;aiiTe aHTOHHMhIK cJie;zyrom:uM CJIOBaM:

1. wicked 3. edge 5. sorrow

2. dead 4. early 6. float

7. best

8. empty

9. easy

10. appear

11. question

12. remember

13. servant

14. enemy

15. against

16. deep

17. mund

18. true

19. slowly

20. closed

21. valley

22. old

23. under

24. nothing

25. future

IV. BoccTauoBnTe npaBHJihHh H nopR,l1,0K CJIOB B npe,!VIOJKeuuHX:

1. us told stories many Mr. Evans King Arthur about.

2. Arthur person was a real, it is or story a all only?

3. still can at Tintagel ruins your castle his see the of.

4. a story hardly anything than that there's a Welhshman better likes.

5. many knights but the sword of the out draw could none tried.

V. 3aKOll'IHTe npe,!VIOJKeHHB. Bee ouu B3BThIH3 noCJie.!nfHX TPex ypoKoB:

1. I thought you would like ... .

2. Could you tell us ...?

3. There's hardly anything I like better than ... .

4. No sooner had I arrived than ... .

5. It's a pity ... .

6. I'm no good at ... .

7. What I like doing is ... .

8. This story concerns ... .

9. I'm tired of ... .

10. If I ... will you promise ...?


1. PaccKaJKHTe ucTOpum: Sir Bedivere and the death of Arthur.




0,n:Ha H3 Tpy,U:HOCTeit HCIIOJib30Bamrn 3TOro CJIOBa COCTOHT

B TOM, qTo B ,n:eitCTBHTeJibHOCTH eCTb ,n:Ba rnarona need. 0,n:HH H3 HID( CMbICJIOBOM, a ,n:pyroit - «CIIeI1HaJibHbIM».

I. CMhlCJIOBOM rnaron, KaK H Bce CMbICJIOBbie rnaron1>1, HMeeT HeCKOJihKO <PopM: Ineed, he needs, Ineeded, Ihave needed, Iam needinf.. HarrpMMep:

Ineed a new suit ; this one is very old.

Iam glad you have had your hair cut; it needed cutting. You look lired, you need a rest.

You need to work hard to pass this examination.

Need MoxeT HMeT1> 3HaqeHHe want; B JONES & co TA"oR

pa3rOBOPHOM peqn, 110 CYTH, rnaron want CIIJIOIIIh H PMOM 3aMeIDieT need. CpaB­ HHTe:

These windows want cleaning.

Inever saw such a dirty boy; what he

wants is a good wash2.

BorrpocHTeJI 1>HaJI <PopMa o6pa3yeTCJI c rroMOIIIhIO rnarona do, a OTpHI1aTeJI 1>­

HaJI - c IIOMOIIIbIO do not, TaK xe, KaK H

y Bcex ocTanbHhIX cM1>1cnoB1>1x rnaronoB. HarrpMMep: Do I need

a haircut?

Idon 't need a new suit.

My hair didn 't need cutting.

CYIIIeCTByeT TaKXe H CY111eCTBHTeJI 1>Hoe need. HarrpMMep:

Iam in need of a good car.

There's no need to explain this word. There's real need for a book of that sort. "A friend in need is a friend indeed".

lf rrpHJiaraTeJI1>Hoe needless c OTpHI1aTeJI1>H1>1M 3HaqeHHeM. You see, all your worry was quite needless.

06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha cnoBocoqeTaHHe needless to say

H ee rrepeBo,n:. HarrpMMep:

Needless to say, Hob didn't ask for some extra grammar lessons.


I 06paTine BHHMamrn Ha KOHCTp)'Kl(F!H: need + Cyrr(eCTBHTeJinHOe HJIH repyimwil:; need + HHQJHHHTHB.

2 06paTHTe BHHMaHwe Ha ,!J;BYCMhlCJieHHOCTh BnICKa3hlBattIDI. MaJID"IHKa


II. BTopo:U rnaron need HBIDieTcH «crre:o;MaJihHh M rnaro­ JIOM». 3To HeIIOJIHb M rnaroJI, IIOCKOJibr<y y Hero HeT Q:>opM MHQJMHMTMBa, rrpwrncTMH, Q:>opMhIrrporne)l;rnero npeMeHM. Ero 3HaqeHMe - «6h Th Heo6xo)l;MMh M». KaK M y )l;pyrMx «crre:o;M­ aJihHh X» rnarOJIOB, BOIIPOCMTeJihHaH Q:>opMa 3)l;eCh 06pa3yeT­ CH c IIOMOI:o;hIO MHBepCMM, a OTPMU:aTeJihHaH rryTeM rrpM6aB­

JieHMH not (OTPMU:aTeJihHaH Q:>opMa rroqTM ncer)l;a COKPaiu:aeTCH

)l;O needn't), M B TPeTbeM JIMU:e e)l;. qMcna rnaron He rrpMHMMa­ eT OKOHqaHMH s. HarrpMMep:

Need Ianswer that question?

Need he go so soon?

You needn 't answer the question. He needn 't go so soon.

Oco6eHHOCThIO 3Toro rnarona HBIDieTcH To, qTo OH rrpaKTM­ qecKM HMKOr)l;a He yrroTPe6JIHeTcH B yrnep)l;MTeJihHhIX rrpeMo­

)KeHMHX, a JIMIIIh B OTPMU:aTeJihHhIX MJIM norrpocMTeJihHhIX. B Tex pe)l;KMX cnyqaHX, KOr)l;a OH yrroTpe6JIHeTCH B YTBep)[(,ll;eHMHx, eMY COrryTCTByIOT TaKMe CJIOBa KaK hardly, scarcely, KOTOpbie

qacTHo MMeIOT OTPMU:aTeJihHOe 3HaqeHMe. HarrpMMep: Ihardly need say how much Ienjoyed my holiday.

Ilo)l;o6Ho )l;pyrMM «crre:o;MaJihHh M» rnaronaM, need MO)KeT yrroTpe6JIHTbCH B BOIIPOCMTeJibHOM qacTM pa3)l;eJIMTeJibHb X

norrpocon. HarrpMMep:

You needn't go yet, need you?

Ineedn't tell you the answer, need ?

OH MO)KeT TaK)Ke MCIIOJih30BaThCH B KpaTKMX oTpM:o;aTeJih­ HhIX OTBeTax. CpaBHMTe:

Who needn't go before eleven o'clock? I needn't.

Is there anyone who needn't get up for breakfast? Yes,


Ho B yrnep)l;MTeJihHhIX rrpe)l;JIO)KeHMHX tty)KHO MCIIOJih30- BaTh must. HarrpMMep:

Need you go before eleven o'clock? Yes, Imust. (He Yes, I need.)

Ilo)l;06Ho )l;pyrMM «CIIeU:MaJihHb M» rnaroJiaM, OH MO)KeT yrroTPe6JIHThCH B KOHCTPYK:o:MM "neither do I" (TOJihKO B OT­ pM:o;aTeJibHo:U; ero HeJib35I MCIIOJib30BaTb B KOHCTPYK:o;MM and so do I). HarrpMMep:

Jan needn't come here tomorrow; neither need I.

Ilocne Hero TaK)Ke MOryT CTOHTh HapeqMH never, sometimes, often M )l;p. (Ho He rrepe)l; HMM). HarrpMMep:

Ineedn't always get up at seven o'clock.

HIDKe rrpirne,n;eHhl rrpMMep 1>1 MCIIOJih30Bamrn o6oMX rnaro­ JIOB: CMhICJIOBoro M «CIIeI!MaJihHOrO».

FULL VERB: He sent me the money he owed me; so I didn't need to write to him for it. ( You gather from this sentence that I didn't write.)

"SPECIAL": He sent me the money he owed me; soIneedn't have written. ( You gather from this sentence that I did write.)

FULL VERB: We had plenty of bread; so I didn't need to buy a loaf. (J didn't buy one.)

"SPECIAL": We had plenly of bread; so Ineed'n 't have

bought a loaf. (J did buy one.)

FULL VERB: John went to the station with the car to meet Lucille; so she didn't need to walk to the house. ( She didn't walk.)

"SPECIAL": John went to the station with the car to meet Lucille; so she needn't have walked. ( She did walk.)


I. 06pa3yH:Te oTpun:aTeJibffYIO cliOPMY·

1. His hair needs cutting. 2. They need a holiday.

3. Henry needed a new bicycle. 4. I need this book for my


5. You needed the help that Igave you.

II. 3aKOH'IHTe pa3,ll,eJIHTeJihHL1e BorrpocL1.

1. You needn't write to him.---?

2. Ineedn't come tomorrow. ----?

3. He needn't work on Sunday.----?

4. They needn't waken me so early.---?

5. We needn't answer all the questions.- -?

III. OmeTbTe ua Brrpocb1, BCTaBmu1 B rrporrycKu need HJIH must.

1. Who needn't work for his living? 1-

2. Who needn't catch the early train home? George-

3. Need you go so soon? Yes, 1-

4. Needn't George go to London tomorrow? No, he-

5. Need George go to London tomorrow? Yes, he-

6. Need we read all this lesson? Yes, you-

VI. M1cuuTe, 'leM 3Ha'leuue rrperomlKeuuu (a) OTJIH'laeTcB OT 3Ha'le­ uus rrperomlKeuuu (6):

1. (a) Ididn't need to leave the door unlocked; John had a key.

(b)Ineedn't have left the door unlocked; John had a key.

2. (a) She didn't need to tell me the time of the train; I knew it already.

(b) She needn't have told me the time of the train; I knew it already.

3. (a) He didn't need to take a taxi; it is only five minutes walk to the house.

(b) He needn't have taken a taxi; it is only five minutes walk to the house.


1. "Man is the only animal that can blush - or needs to". qTo uMeJI

B eu,zzy MapK Teen, roeops :ny cj>pa3y? Bw cornacuw c HUM?

2. HanumuTe KopoTKHn paccKa3 no)], ua3eauueM "A Friend in Need, is a Friend Indeed".



(Extracts from Jan's Diary)

...What a beautiful country Wales is, and how interesting its people are. We have been here nearly a fortnight now and Mr. Evans has taken us, on foot or in his car, round this country­ side which he knows like the back of his hand and loves more than he can ever love any place outside heaven. In fact I shouldn't be surprised, if, when he gets to heaven, he thinks that wales was practically as good. He and his father and his grandfather, and I don't know how many other generations, have always lived in this little village in North Wales and he knows every man, woman and child for miles around. In fact it almost seems as if everyone in the village is named either Evans or Jones or Hughes, which can lead to some difficulty if you ask for "Mr. Jones's house". Even if you ask, for example, for John Jones, it is almost as bad, for there are probably half a dozen of them. The Welsh people get over this quite well. They don't say just "Mr. Jones", they say "Jones the Milk" (that is the Jones who sells milk) or "Jones the Post (that's Jones the postman) or "Jones the Bank". So our Mr. Evans being the schoolmaster of the village is "Evans the School".

"But you see", said Mr. Evans, "it's quite natural that you have all these Evanses here; we are all related. No one has a deeper love of his home and family than the Welshman, and he doesn't generally go far away from his home. The Englishman has spread his empire to the four corners of the earth; there are probably as many Scotsmen in Canada as there are in Edinburgh; there are more Irishmen in New York than in the whole of Ireland. But the Welshman has never been an empire-builder - in fact, he hasn't been able even to unite his own country. You've probably noticed that until a month or so ago1there was no capital of Wales as London is the capital of England, Edinburgh of Scotland, Paris of France. Thoughout its whole history wales has always preferred to live in small groupings. The Romans built cities in England and Wales; the English built great castles, and towns grew round them. But the Welsh would have nothing to do with Roman city or English town.


1 In 1956 Cardiff was made the capital.

The Welsh are countrymen, not townsmen 1. The family is the centre of Welsh life; this village - like any village here - is just an extended family; and so, as I said, naturally you get a lot of Evanses there.

"You may have heared Welshmen, perhaps in London", he continued "singing Land of my Fathers:

'Till life is past My love shall last

My longing, my "hiraeth" for Wales.'


I can't give you the English for "hiraeth"; there isn't any English word for it. But it expresses the deep, passionate home­ sickness that the Welshman feels for his home. It isn't for "Wales", in spite of all that our "Nationalists" may say; it is for some small part of Wales, a tiny village, a valley, a hillside where his family live. For that he would give his life; that is home and "Wales" to him. The love that he has for that could never be beaten down by Roman or Saxon or Englishman. Until you realise that, I don't think you can understand the character of the Welsh and the spirit of Wales. That was what made us fight against the English; not because we ever wanted to conquer England but because we wanted keep our homes free, our religion free and to keep the Welsh way of life. That is why the story of King Arthur is a living story with us. When the light of Christianity that the Romans had brought to England was put out by the heathen Saxons who invaded the country, it was Arthur who battled against them, and it was the Welsh who kept Christianity alive in these islands. Have you noticed - I am sure you must have done - the number of Welsh place names that begin with "Llan" - Llanberis, Llandudno, Llan­ gollen, Llanfair, there are hundreds of them in Wales? Well, in those dark days of the early Saxon occupation of England, Christianity still lived on among the Welsh, and specially cho­ sen men, the first Celtic saints, went from place to place teach­ ing the Christian faith, preaching, organising little groups of believers, and starting centres of worship. These centres were called llans (the word is generally translated church), and the Hans often took the name of the saint who started them or


1 Mr. Evans is speaking more of North Wales (where he has always lived) than of South Wales. There, the cont and iron industries, and the position of the ports of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, have led to the growth of big cities and towns and mare "mixed" population.

some other holy name; for example, Llandudno was the llan started by St. Tudno, Llandewi was the llan of St. Ddewi (David), Llanfair was the llan of Fair (Mary).

Land of My Fathers JAKESJAMES


land of the free! Thy no-hie de • fend- ers wei-e

J. ; .J


past, My Jove shall last, My long.ing, My hi-raelh for





"Everyone knows the story of how Christianity was brought to England by St. Augustine. (It's quite a good story, as English stories go, though not to be compared with the Welsh ones.) But not so many people realise that there was a cathedral in

Wales, the Cathedral of St. David, that was built in A. D. 550, forty-seven years before St. Augustine came to Canterbury. And the Welsh are still, as they always were, a deeply religious people".

I hardly needed to be told that. Every village seems to have two or three "Chapels" - usually extremely ugly buildings - and on Sunday a great silence falls ever the village. No shops are open, no work is done, no games are played. The men that I had seen during the week in rough working clothes come out now dressed formal black with white collars to go to the chapel. The chapels are crowded and the whole congregation is a choir, for these Welsh people can certainly sing. The sermon, listened to by a deeply interested and highly critical congregation, lasts an hour.

"I know you think our chapels are ugly", said Mr. Evans, voicing my unspoken thoughts, "but for us Welsh a church is above all else a place for worship, not an exercise in beautiful architecture. Besides, the Welsh have always been a poor peo­ ple and could never afford magnificent churches. But it is in those chapels that our religion, our Welsh language and all the things that make us proud to be Welshmen have been kept alive".

Oh yes, they are a great people.



I. IlPMYMaiiTe npe,!VIOJKeuus co cJie;zyrom:uMu CJIOBaMu u CJIOBoco11e- TaHHHMH:

1. like the back of his hand

2. Heaven

3. generations

4. natural

5. empire

6. unite

7. throughout its history

8. have nothing fo do with

9. passionate

10. occupation

II. OTBeT&Te ua Bonpoc:

11. organise

12. holy

13. not to be compared with

14. realise

15. cathedral

16. religious

17. congregation

18. ugly

19. formal

20. critical

1. There are many people with the same name in a Welsh village. How do the Welsh get over this difficulty?

2. Why haven't many Welshmen gone abroad?

3. What is the English for (a) "Han", (b) "hiraeth"?

4. Why are Welsh chapels often ugly?

5. Why was Mr. Evans not worried by the ugliness of some of the chapels?

6. How long does the sermon usually last?

7. How does Mr. Evans earn living? What is he called by his neighbours?

III. B&16epuTe npaBHJI&uoe CJIOBO.

1. We have (be, been, are) here nearly a (fortnight, two weeks).

2. Nearly (all, everyone, every) in the village seems to be (either, neither, both) Evans or Jones or Hughes.

3. There are probably as (much, more, many) Scotsmen in Canada (than, as, also) there are in Edinburgh.

4. All Welshmen have a (good, deep, high) love for (his, their) home.

5. The (town, house, family) is the centre of village (live, life).

6. When the Saxons (fought, invade, invaded) the land, it was the Welsh (who, by whom, whose) kept Christianity alive.

7. Frieda and Jan (can't, hadn't, didn't) know the story (of, to, on) St. Augustine.

8. The Welsh (never, often, still) are deeply religious people.

9. Jan would like to (go, visit, journey) Wales (again, ever).

10. I think he (would, will) like Frieda to go (from, with, of) him also.

IV. llcnoJib3YJI npuBe;:i;euu&ie CJIOBOCO'leTauuJI, a TaK1Ke co6cTBeuu&1e CJIOBa, o6pa3yiiTe 33KOH'leHHbie npe)J;JIOJKeHHJI.

1. Jan found...beautiful country...interesting people.

2. many trips...on foot...the countryside.

3. don't often leave...because ...their homes...everything else.

4. what made us fight...to conquer ...homes free.

5. quite...good story...as English stories...not to be compared.

6. how much...one pound ...tomatoes...window?

7. large crowds...at the stations...the Queen.

8. those sandwiches...restaurant...expensive.

9. Hob...oughtn't...chocolates.

10. run...post office...telegram.


1. Yes, you may. 4. No, I can't.

2. At six o'clock. 5. I hope to go tomorrow.

3. I left it on the table. 6. Only one of your

sentences is right.

7. Yes, he must.

8. It's raining hard.

9. He's a schoolmaster.

10. No sugar, thank you.

11. It costs four and six.

12. No, they don't.

13. Very well, thank you.

14. Very much, thank you.

15. I feel much better today.

16. It's made of nylon.

17. We hope to go to Italy.

18. No, we haven't.

19. But, I have tidied my room.

20. And so have I.


1. PaccKIDKHTe, KaK B Bameii cTpaue noRBH.Jiach peJiumR.

2. JJoqeMY BaJIJIHHUblue C03)J.a.JIH HMnepuu?




M r. P r i e s t 1e y: There are three specials that we haven't already studied and I want to finish two of them off today. The first of them is dare. As you can see from these examples, it can form its interrogative and negative, its "question phrases" and "short answers" like the other specials.

Dare you climb that tree? ""'6"

Dare he go and speak to her?

How dare you say such a thing?

You daren 't climb that tree, dare you? Yes, I dare.

He daren 't go and speak to her.

I have never dared to do that.

But dare can also form its negative like the usual verbs, i.e. with do(did) not.

She didn 't dare to say a word.

He doesn't dare to answer my letter.

We didn't dare to ask if we could have a holiday.

Note that in these cases the to of the infinitive of the verb that follows dare is not omitted.

In all the examples just given, the meaning of dare yore? =

= "have you courage enough?", "are you brave enough?" There is another slightly different meaning, a meaning "to challenge", e.g.

I dared him to ask for a holiday tomorrow.

He dared me to walk down Picadilly in my pyjamas. Do you dare me to swim to that rock and back again?

Here, as you see, dare has a personal object ( him, me, etc.) and is conjugated with do and is followed by an infini­ tive with to.

Just one other expression should be noticed: I daresay which

simply means perhaps, it is probable.

He is not here yet, but I daresay he will come later.

They haven't widened this road yet, but I daresay, they will some day.

Do you think Alice will come and see us today? Oh, I daresay.

The expression is not used with any pronoun except I.


Used uu:st] only just manages to get into the group of spe­ cials. Undoubtedly it is peculiar; for example, there is no other form of it except used, and the usual grammar books will tell you that the interrogative is used you? and the negative usen 't. But we are all rather doubtfull about it. You will hear:

You used to live in London, usen 't you?

He usen 't to smoke as much as he does now.

There used to be old apple tree in the garden. Oh, used there?

Used you to climb the old apple tree in the garden?

You usen 't to make that mistake.

But the tendency is more and more in spoken English to say: You used to live in London, didn't you?

He didn't use to smoke as much as he does now.

There used to be an old apple tree in the garden. Oh, did there?

Did you use to climb the old apple tree in the garden? You didn 't use to make that mistake.

We still feel uneasy about using do and did, and in negative sentences we often try to avoid the difficulty by using never.

You never used to make that mistake. He never used to smoke as much,etc.

In all those sentences used expressed something that was

usual or habitual in the past, e.g.

I used to work in London but I don't work there now, I work

in Manchester.

You will note that the present tense of: "I used to work (in London)" is NOT

"Now I use to work (in Manchester)" but the Simple Present

Tense, "Now I work (in Manchester)".

Don't confuse used with this meaning and used to uu:z tG] meaning "accustomed to", e.g.

Adam the gardener works better than I do in the garden. He's used to doing hard work. I'm not used to hard work,

but I'll get used to it in time.

Your cat, Sally, won't sit on my knee as she does on yours. Well, she's used to me, she's not used to you.

You will see from the above examples how we use the phrase used to (= accustomed to). It is always followed by an object ("hard work", "it", "me", "you") or a gerund, e.g. "working", "doing", etc.

Nor must you confuse used to with the verb: use uu:z], or the past participle of this verb used uu:zd]' e.g.

I use the same shaving brush now that I have used for ten


I think you have used your time well while you have been in England.

And that, I think, is the end for the time-being of the lessons on "The Specials".



I..IJ:aii:Te OTpnu,aTeJibHbIH OTBeT:

1. Dare you speak to her?

2. Dare the children drive the car alone?

3. Will he dare to come?

4. Did he dare to swim across the river?

5. Usen't you to go to school with John?

6. Didn't you use to go to school with John?

7. Usen't he to work in Liverpool?

8. Didn't he use to work in Liverpool?

9. Are you used to getting up early?

10. Used you to get up early when you were at home?

11. Is Lucille used to driving that car?

12. Usen't she to have a smaller car than that?

II. 06'MICHHTe pa3Hnu,y B 3Ha11eHnn npeAJimKeHnii:

(a) He dared to swim across the river.

and (b) He dared me to swim across the river.

(a) She dared to ask the teacher for a holiday

and (b) She dared me to ask the teacher for a holiday

III. .IJ:o6aBbTe uonpocnTeJibHbie itipa3bI:

1. You daren't do that,--?

2. He didn't dare to do that,--?

3. He won't dare to do that,--?

4. He dared you to do that,--?

5. You used to live there,--?

6. He usen't to work in London, --?

7. He never used to spend so much money before he knew Lucille,- -?

8. You used to like dancing, --?

9. He daren't say what he thinks, --?

10. He didn't dare to say what he thought, --?



(Extracts from Jan's diary)

...I think the last two days have been two of the most interesting days I have ever spent. I have seen a Welsh Eisteddfod, a national gathering of an enormous crowd of people devoted to music and poetry. The Welsh are a nation of singers. Wherever you get a crowd of Welshmen, whether they're down the mine, in the factory or waiting on the platform for a train, they just can't help bursting into song. "Anyone", said Mr. Evans, "who has heard a crowd of 50,000 Welshmen before a Rugby match at Cardiff singing 'Land of my Fathers', will never forget it". You could hardly find a town in wales, however small, that hasn't a choir. Its conductor isn't trained musician; he may be only a miner, an agricultural labourer or "Jones the milk"; but the university lecturer or the doctor's daughter will be happy to work under his leadership. The choir will gather in the little chapel almost every night for practice - for they are preparing for the Eisteddfod, and the pieces set for competition (this year they are two difficult works by Bach and Brahms) need a lot of practice to bring them to perfection. I should think the Welsh are the only people in the world whose only national festival is devoted to music and poet. For that is what an Eisteddfod is. Their National Eisteddfod is held every year in the first week in August, one year in the North of Wales, the next year in the South, and competitors come from all parts of Wales to compete in it. For twelve months thousands of Welsh people have been practising music; the shepherd on the hills, the teacher in the grammar school have been working at the poem that they hope will win the prize. A housewife may be a harpist, a parson a poet. During the week of the competition about a hundred thousand people will travel to the Eisteddfod to hear the competitors and listen to the judges' decisions.

The Eisteddfod is one of the oldest of all Welsh customs; the first one of which we have any record was held in the 6th cen­ tury, and as early as A.D. 940 the prize for the winning "bard" (poet) was a chair or throne. And that is still the prize today. In medieval times every chieftain used to keep a bard, and there were other bards who wandered about the country singing songs


1There are lots of local ones held in various towns throughout the year.

and making poems. There must have been quite a lot of poor singing and bad poetry then, for Queen Elizabeth I ordered an Eisteddfod to be held every year with the object or raising the standard of music and getting rid of the lazy, worthless bards. By a stroke of great good fortune for Frieda and me, the Eisteddfod was due to take place this year at Caernarvon at the very time that we were in North Wales. Mr. Evans has a brother who lives in Caernarvon and he invited us to stay at his house the night before the meeting opened, "For", said Mr. Evans, "we must be up early tomorrow morning to see the Gorsedd". "What's a Gorsedd?" I asked. "You'll see, tomorrow", he


So, early next morning we all went to a large grassy field or park just outside Caernarvon. The streets were busy with peo­ ple and in the field there was, a large crowd gathered round a circle of big stones, with an "altar stone" in the middle, like Stonehenge.

Soon I could see a procession coming slowly towards the stone circle. And very colourful it was. First there were four men carrying on their shoulders a kind of platform on wich was an enormous golden horn.

("That's the 'Hirlas Horn', the Horn of Plenty", said Mr. Evans. "It's kept all the year in the museum at Cardiff '). Behind them walked men in white robes.

("The Druids", said Mr. Evans. "Druidism was a culture and a religion that existed in Wales in the very earliest times. Caesar and Tacitus wrote about the Druids against whom the Romans fought in Anglesey. They were white-robed priests and law-givers who held their meeting in the woods where they offered up human sacrifices. One of their ceremonies was the cutting of the mistletoe that grew on the oak-trees in Angle­ sey -a custom that we still remember at Christmas-time. At one


time it was believed that the Druids had built the great stone circles that are still seen at Stonehenge and in other parts of Britain, but those stone circles are much older than that").

By this time the "Druids" had come to the stone circle and now stood in a double row before the altar stone. And then, between the lines of Druids came a man dressed in green and carrying a long two-handed sword. Behind him came a tall, bearded man in white, and wearing a great breastplate. "The Chief Druid", whispered Mr. Evans. A friendly Welshman next to me pointed to one of the "bards". "That's Cadwallo", he said "a great poet". I looked at the man he had pointed to and said to Mr. Evans, "But that's the Rev.J.A.Hughes, our parson at Capel Curig, isn't it?" "Yes", he said, "but all our great poets are known by their 'bardic' names".

Then the ceremony of the Gorsedd began. The sword-bearer drew the great sword from its sheath. One by one the Druids came forward and put their hands on it. Then the Chief Druid called out in a loud voice something in Welsh. "He says, 'Is it peace?"' whispered Mr. Evans. The Chief Druid shouted this three times, and each time the crowd called back, "It is peace". A woman dressed in red and carrying the golden horn came forward to the Chief Druid. He touched it, and she slowly talked back to her place. Then the Chief Druid stepped on to the altar stone and made a long speech in Welsh. I didn't understand a word of it but the audience loved it. Other bards spoke and the crowd enjoyed every minute of it. Then there were players in Welsh and, at the end of this, new bards, men and women dressed in blue robes, were brought before the Chief Druid. These were people who had done some particu­ larly good work in poetry or music. The Chief Druid shook hands with them and gave each of them a bardic name by which he would be called at all future Gorsedds. Then the procession formed again; the great sword was held high above the heads of the people; bards and Druids moved off slowly; the crowds began to fade away; the Eisteddfod was opened.

to the
In the afternoon we went* * *


Eisteddfod. An enormous

tent had been put up. "It holds 10,000 people", said Mr. Evans, "that's as many as the Albert Hall in London holds". There were thousands of people there, going into the Eisteddfod tent or sitting on the grass outside. We took our places inside. The three best competitors in each event had been chosen in "pre­ liminary" trials, and now soloists and choirs came in turn to

sing, to play the harp, to speak their poems, while the judges listened and, at the end of the event, announced the winner and gave reasons for their choice. Though I enjoyed the music I couldn't understand anything else, for at the Eisteddfod eve­ rything is done in Welsh. One of the most interesting competi­ tions (at least for those who understand Welsh) is "pennillion" singing. In this the competitors are accompanied on the harp and have to make up their song as they go along.



But the great event comes at the end. This is the choosing of the "crowned bard", the greatest honour the Eisteddfod can give. For a whole year bards have been working at a poem on a subject that has been set by the judges. These poems have

been sent to the judges before the Eisteddfod starts and have been carefully studied by the Council of the Druids. I looked round the scene. The tent was now crowded, every seat was taken and people were standing in the passageways. There was a tremendous feeling of excitement and expectation. The trum­ pets sounded, and in procession came all the bards that we had seen at the Gorsedd. The Chief Druid took his seat in the centre. Again the trumpets sounded and in a silence you could almost feel the Chief Druid said "The Crown has been won by ... (there was a pause) CADWALLO".

There was a great burst of cheering. The audience were on their feet. Mr. Evans was jumping about with excitement and joy; the crown had been won by Mr. Hughes, the parson of his village. Icould see Mr. Hughes at the back of the tent. Two bards from the platform went towards him and, one at each side of him, brought him to the platform. He was told to sit on a finely-carved chair of Druid's oak that is to be his prize. They put a robe of purple on him with white fur at the edges. The great sword was held over him, and the Chief Druid came forward and put a crown on his head. The Chief Bard read the poem that Cadwallo had written and, though of courseIcouldn't understand it, the crowd clearly agreed completely with the Druids' decision.

So the Eisteddfod ended.

And our holiday in Wales has ended, too; tomorrow we leave for London and work again.

Frieda has bought a little silver Welsh harp to wear as a brooch; you'll see it when she gets back.


I. IlpH,ZJ,YMaiiTe npe,!VlmKeuua co cJie)zyIOm;HMH cJioBaMu u cJiouoco'le­ TauHBMH:

1. devoted to

2. mine(noun)

3. Rugby match

4. agricultural

5. labourer

6. under his leadership

7. competition

8. perfection

9. shepherd

10. parson

11. worthless

12. was due to

13. procession

14. shoulders

15. horn

16. human sacrifices

17. row(noun)

18. every minute of it

19. robe

20. fade away

21. tent

22. trial

23. accompany

24. tremendous

25. trumpet

26. purple

27. fur

28. at the edges

29. at each side of him

30. brooch

II. 0TBeTLTe B roiyx rrpero:m:>KeHnBX, qTo ,ll;eJiaIOT CJie)JJIOIQHe JIIO,ll;H:

1. a miner; 2. a housewife; 3. an agricultural labourer;

4. a parson; 5. a doctor; 6. a schoolmaster; 7. a postman;

8. a milkman; 9. a shepherd; 10. a porter.

III. OTBeTLTe Ha BorrpocL1:

1. Are the conductors of Welsh choirs usually trained musicians?

2. What is an Eisteddfod?

3. What sort of people take part in an Eisteddfod?

4. Where do they come from?

5. When was the first Eisteddfod held?

6. Where and when does the Eisteddfod take place nowadays?

7. Do you think the Druids built Stonehenge?

8. Where is the Hirlas horn usually kept?

9. Why did Queen Elizabeth I order an Eisteddfod to be held?

10. Why didn't Jan understand anything at the Eisteddfod?

11. Who was Cadwallo?

12. What Christmas custom began with the Druids?

13. What do you think is the Welsh national musical instrument? (Frieda might help you.)

14. Why are the poems sent to the judges before the Eisteddfod begins?

15. What happens to the winner of the crown?


1. The Welsh are a nation of (sailors, singers, servants).

2. A choir (sees, accompanies, gathers) in the chapel for (poetry, a Rugby match, practice).

3. Anyone who has (hearing, hear, heard) a crowd of 50,000 singing at Cardiff will never (forgotten, forget, remember) it.

4. The Welsh are the (only, whole, all) people in the world (who, whom, whose) only national festival is devoted (by, from, to) music and poetry.

5. One year it is (in, near, to) the North of Wales, the (first, second, next) year in the South.

6. A housewife (should, may, will) be a harpist.

7. I don't (forget, understand, understood) a word of Welsh, but the (bards, audiences, Chief Druid) love it all.

8. The competitors have to (make, made, take) up their song as they (went, go, sing) along.

9. Jan can (see, saw, seeing) a (row, procession) coming towards him.

10. Frieda is (bought, brought, buying) a small brooch for (her, herself, she).

V.B npe;:u1o:lKeu1UIX u3 ynp1UKHemrn IV U3MeuuTe upeMH ua npowe,!Ullee.

VI. Ilepe,ll, BaMu qacTL )J,ua.rmra Hua u cJ>pH/1,bIBO upeMJI ux BU3UTa B AHcTeMcl>o)J,. 3anoJiuuTe nponYDieuuyro qacTb )J,UaJiora OT JIHi a Hua.

F r i e d a: That was a lovely day, wasn't it?

J a n: --,-- ----,,-----,---,-

F r i e d a: Yes, if we'd been a week later we shouldn't have seen it at all?

J a n:

F r i e d a: I thought it was when Cadwallo won, and everybody cheered. What did you think was the best moment?

J a n:

F r i e d a: Yes, I thought that was good too. I liked the part when the procession came.

J a n: -

F r i e d a: And it was also most impressive.

J a n: -

F r i e d a: I'm glad I didn't live in those days when they had human sacrifices. I say, Jan, what's the time?

J a n: --,--,,..-,.- --,---,----,--

F r i e d a: Oh, good, let's go for a walk along the valley before supper.

J a n: -


1. OnuwuTe, qTo CJIY'IUJIOCL B fopce)J,)J,e.

2. OnuwuTe mo6ou ct>ecTUBaJib M)'3LIKH, KOTOpb H npoBO)J,HJICJI B Ba­ weu CTPaue.

3. HanuwuTe nucLMO c paccKa30M o uarpa:lK)J,euuu JiaypeaTOB MY3LI­ KaJibuoro ct>ecTUBaJIJI, KOTopoe Cl>pH)J,a Moma 6L1 uanucaTh MUCTepy


4. KopoJieua EJiu3aBeTa cKa3aJia: «H xoTeJia OT)J,eJiaTLCJI OT «ulfllero ue CTOJIIIIHX noaTOB». KaK Bw /1,yMaeTe, ffY:lKHhl JIU cero)J,HJI noaTLI,

)J,OCTaBJimOT JIU HX npOU3Be)J,eUHJI y/1,0BOJibCTBUe quTaTeJIJIM? 06ocuyiiTe Bawu OTBeTLI.



0 1a f: If I write: "The castle which was built in the 13th century is one of the finest in Britain", oughtIto put a comma after castle and after century?

M r. P r i e s t l e y: Yes.

H o b: Inever bother about commas. Idon't see that they matter at all.

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Don't you, Hob? Let me tell you a little story.

One day, as a teacher walked into his classroom, he heard Tommy Andrews whisper to the boy next him: "Here's the teacher. I'll bet the silly donkey is going to talk about putting in commas". The teacher didn't say anything but he began to talk about putting in commas, and explained how important they could be. To show what he meant, he wrote on the black­ board the sentence:

"Tommy Andrews says the teacher is a silly donkey".

The class laughed and Tommy Andrews looked very red. "Now", said the teacher, "I will show you how important com­ mas are" He put two commas into the sentence, and it now read:

"Tommy Andrews, says the teacher, is a silly donkey".

P e d r o: Ilike the story about the barber who put a notice outside his shop:

Of course he soon had his shop full of men all expecting to be shaved for nothing and then given a glass of beer. But the barber explained that that wasn't what he meant. A little punc­ tuation made all the difference, for the notice then read:


M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Punctuation can often say quite a lot. There is a story of the great French novelist, Victor Hugo. When his first book was published, he wondered if it had been

a success, so he sent a postcard to his publisher with just a question mark on it (?). The publisher's reply was equally short. It was an exclamation mark (!).

L u c i 11e: My favourite punctuation story is about the wife of a man who had just joined the Navy during the war, and, on Sunday, his wife handed a little note to the parson which read: "Peter Smith having gone to sea his wife would like your

prayers for his safety".

She had forgotten to put in the comma after the word sea,

and the parson, without thinking, read:

"Peter Smith having gone to see his wife would like your prayers for his safety".

M r. P ri e s t l e y: Well, do you still think that commas don't matter?

Ja n: Could you please give us a lesson on the rules of punctuation? There are a lot of things about punctuation that

Iam not sure about.

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: Ithink the following points might be useful.

MHorn:e H3 HaH6onee ynoTpe6HTeJihHhIX 3HaKoB rryHKzya­ U:HH yxe BCTpeqaJIHCh HaM B paHee rrpHBe,n;eHHhIX rrpHMepax. 3To KaBhiqKH Quotation marks(" "), Hcrronh3yeMhie rrpH rre­ pe,n;aqe rrpHMOM peqH; BOCKJIHu;aTeJihHhIM 3HaK Exclamation mark(!)' ynoTpe6JIHeMbIM IIOCJie Me)l(,[I;OMeTHM HJIH )l;JIH Bhl­ proKeHHH CHJihHhIX qYBcTB; BOIIPOCHTeJihHhIM 3HaK Question mark(?)' ynOTpe6JIHeMhIM IIOCJie BOrrpoca B rrpHMOH peqH (HO He B KOCBeHHOH); 3aIIHTaH Comma(,)H TOqKa Full stop(.).ToqKa, ToqKa c 3aIIHTOM Semi-colon(;) H 3aIIHTaH CJI)')[(aT

)l;JIH o6o3HaqeHHH rray3 Me)l()l;y cnoBaMH. ToqKa coorneTcrny­ eT caMOH 60JihIIIOM rray3e, 3aTeM H,n;yT TOqKa c 3aIIHTOM H 3a­ IIHTaH.

To'IKa ynoTpe6m1eTcs:

(1) B KOHu;e BCex rrpe)l;JIO)KeHHM, HCKJIIOqaH BOIIPOCHTeJih- Hhie H BOCKJIHu;aTeJihHhie. HarrpHMep:

He needs your help. ( Statement)

Help him. ( Command)

Will you help me? ( Question)

He cried, "Help! Help!" ( Exclamation )

(2) B a66peBHazypax. HarrpHMep: M.A. (=Master of Arts),

H.M.S. Valiant (=Her M ajesty' s Ship Valiant), U.S.A. (=United States of America), e.g. (=exemplia gratia (Latin) = for example), etc.

,I1;eoeTO'lne Colon (:) ynoTpe6JrneTcu:

(1) ,I1;IBI pa3)l;eJia )l;Byx rrpe)l;JIO:)l(emr:H:, H3 KOTOpbIX BO BTO­ poM 6onee IIO)l;p06Ho )l;aeTCH HmpopMa1IH5I 0 CO)l;ep.x<:aHHH rrepnoro. qacTo )l;BOeToqHe 03HaqaeT «TO eCTh». HarrpHMep:

Richard's work is unsatisfactory: his answers are thougthless, his spelling is careless and writing is bad.

(2) IlpH rrepeqHcneHHH qero-JIH6o. HarrpHMep:

Some commonly used punctuation marks are: full stop, colon, semi-colon and comma.

To'IKa c 3anuToii ynoTpe6JIHeTcu:

(1) )];JUI pa3)l;eJia rrpe)l;JIO)KeHHH, oco6eHHO rrpH OTCYTCTBHH COI03a. HarrpHMep:

"Your appearance pleased my friend; then it delighted me; Ihave watched your behaviour in strange circumtances; Ihave studied how you played and how you bore your losses; lastly,

Ihave asked you to do a most dangerous thing, and you re­ ceived it like an invitation to dinner".


06paTHTe BHHMaHHe B 3TOM rrpHMepe Ha TO, qTo 6onee KOPOTKHe rray3hl Ha IIHChMe rrepe)l;aIOTCH 3aII5IThIMH.

(2) Co cnonaMH so, therefore, however, nevertheless, besides, then, otherwise, coe)l;HHHIOIIIHMH rrpe)l;JIO)KeHHH. BoT HeCKOJihKO rrpHMepon:

Do the work well; then Iwill pay you.

You must take more exercise; otherwise you will get too fat. Richard didn't work hard; so he didn't pass his examination.

3aUHTaH 'lam;e ecero ynoTpe6JIHeTCH ua nucbMe. 06bl'IHO oua ynoTpe6JIHeTCH:

(1) rrpH rrepeqHcJieHHH. HarrpHMep:

At the partY. we had cakes, jellies, ices, biscuits, chocolate and lemonade. 1

(2) CHrHaJIH3HpyeT 0 Haqane H KOHI1e rrpHMOM peqH. Ha- rrpHMep:

"Tell me", he said, "how you know all that." The man replied, "I heard it on the radio".

(3) IIOKa3bIBaeT, r)l;e rrpH qTeHHH tty)l(HO C)l;eJiaTb rray3y; B 60JihIIIeM CTerreHH 3TO OTHOCHTCH K o6CTOHTeJihCTBeHHhIM rrpH)l;aToqHhIM. HarrpHMep:

Although it was foggy, we played the match.


1 3a=asr 06hI'IHO He CTaBliTC5! rrepe,11; COI030M and Ii rrepe,11; IIOCJie,ll;HHM HJ rrepeYIBcJI5!eMbIX rrpe,11;MeToB.

I have explained this work to Richard, but he still doesn't understand it.

If you will help me, I will help you.

John, who is in our class, has won a scholarship.

(4) rrpM o6parn,eHMM. HarrpMMep:

George, tell Richard the answer to the question. I hope, sir, my answer is right.

(5) m;r,n;enemrn CJIOB however, therefore, of course, for instance M ,n;p. HarrpMMep:

You know, of course, what a gerund is; I needn't, therefore, explain it now.

(6) rrpM rrepeqMcJieHMM 3BaHMit, TM'fYJIOB. HarrpMMep: Elizabeth II, Queen of Great Britain was born in 1926. I saw Mr. Smith, your teacher, this morning.

(7) MH BbI,Il;eJiemrn IIpl'[qaCTHbIX o6opOTOB, Kor,n;a rrpM qTe­ HMM H)l)KHO c,n;enaTh rray3y. HarrpMMep:

George, seeing that his brother was hurt, ran to help him.

Remembering how fond you are of fruit, I've brought you some apples from our garden.


Y nP A >K HE HlllSI

I. IlepenumuTe cJie;zyromue paccKa3bI,paccTaBJIIDI 3HaKU nyuK'ryau:uu.


The following was written on the gravestone of an army mule here lies maggie the mule who in her time kicked a general two colonels four majors ten captains twenty-four lieutenants forty ser­ geants two hundred and twenty privates and a bomb.

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