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Capel Curig,

N. Wales.

Dear Mr. Priestley,

Well, here we are in Wales; and what a lovely country it is. I was very excited when we crossed from England into Wales. The map shows a boundary between England and Wales, but there was no "frontier", no Customs officers, no armed guard. But you know you are in Wales all right, you soon hear Welsh being spoken, you see Welsh names on the sign-posts and you see them on the railway stations. One of these is:

Llanfairpwllqwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch 1

I know Hob won't believe this, but it's true, and I will bring him a picture postcard of the station to prove it.

I can't tell you about all our jorney; it would take a book not just a letter, but I should like to tell you of a trip we made yesterday in Mr. Evans' car round some of North Wales. We went through lovely countryside, with great mountains, some of them beautiful and green and wooded, others bare and wild. There were gentle fertile valleys with little farmhouses or cot­ tages sheltering on the slopes of the mountains, and quiet lakes and rivers winding down or, in places, dashing down to the coast, which is only twenty ot thirty miles away; in places the mountains run right down into the sea.

We went to Snowdon, in fact we went up Snowdon, the highest mountain in England and Wales. The mountain is dark and wild-looking: but my home is among the mountains of Switzerland, and though Snowdon is impressive, well, it isn't Mont Blanc or the Jungfrau. We actually went right to the top of Snowdon in a train. (I daren't tell this to my Swiss moun­ taineering friends!) It happened like this. We had just gone through the town of Llanberis at the foot of the mountain, and there was a little station and in it was a little engine and train, just like the toy trains and station that my young brother has at home. So we got in. The carriages held fifteen or sixteen peo­ ple and, with a lot of smoke and steam, the toy train moved out and puffed its way round and round and up the mountain.

1 CTamurn B Anglesey. 11MH 03HaqaeT: u:epKOBb St. Mary B necy cBeTJIO­ Kopn:qHeBbIX )J;epeBbeB OKOJIO 6b CTporo BO)J;OBopoTa n: rreru:ephl St. Tysilio HeIIO)J;aJieKY OT KPaCHOM rreru:epbI. fopo)J;, H3BeCTHhrn KaK "Llanfair P. G."

For a time we had fine, extensive views, and then, all at once we entered a cloud. The whole view was blotted out. A thick grey mist was all around us, in the carriage (for it was quite open without any windows) and in our eyes and throats. And wasn't it cold! I sat close to Jan to try to keep warm. Suddenly, after about half an hour, we came through the cloud and into the sunlight. The train came to a stop in another little station and we were at the top of Snowdon. The clouds were breaking everywhere below us and through the gaps we had a wonderful view for miles, right across the Menai Straits to the Isle of Anglesey. Behind us we could see the enormous shadow of the two peaks of Snowdon, the one on which we stood, the highest one, and the slightly smaller peak beside it. Mr. Evans said something in Welsh. It was poetry and it sounded beautiful though I didn't understand a word of it. I asked him about it. He said it was from the poem The Day of Judgement by the Welsh poet Goronwy Owen. He wrote the lines down for me and I'm sending them so that Lucille and Olaf and the rest will know what Welsh looks like:

"Ail i'r ar ael Eryre, Cyraftal hoewal a hi"

and it means: "(on that day) the head of Snowdon shall be levelled with the ground, and the circling waters shall murmur around it".

But I'm no good at describing things or expressing ideas; I must leave that to Jan; he's much cleverer than I am, as you know. What I like doing is telling a story and Mr. Evans told us two that I want to tell you. He told us the first one as we came into the little town of Beddgelert that lies in a lovely valley about ten or twelve miles from Snowdon. We got out of the car and he took us a short walk along the side of a stream until we came to what looked like a little grave-stone. And this is the story he told us:

In the 13th century, Llewellyn, Prince of North Wales, had a palace here. He had a faithful dog, Gelert, that went with him everywhere and that he was very fond of. But one day the Prince went out hunting, and he told Gelert to stay at home and guard the Prince's baby son.

Gelert obediently lay down by the cradle of the baby, and Llewellyn went away. When he returned in the evening, Gelert came out joyfully to meet him, and the Prince was horrified to see that the baby's cradle was overturned, the bedclothes and floor were covered with blood and there was blood round Ge­ lert's mouth. The baby was nowhere to be seen. The Prince

thought the dog had killed the child and wild with rage and fear he drew his sword and thrust it into Gelert's heart. The dying cry of the dog was followed by a child's cry. Llewellyn looked round hastily, and there, under the torn and bloodstained blan­ kets, was his baby son, quite safe. And beside it was the body of a huge wolf that Gelert had killed in defending his master's son. Llewellyn was so filled with sorrow that it is said he never smiled again. He buried Gelert in this spot; and ever since, the place has been known as Beddgelert, which means "The Grave

of Gelert".

* * *

My other story concerns Caernarvon, where we went on

another day. It's a very interesting town, at least 2,000 years old. To the Romans it was Segontium and they built a great fort there. But what overshadows everything else in Caernar­ von is the castle. When Edward I1, King of England, was frying to conquer Wales he built a great line of castles - the ruins of which you can still see at Harlech, Criccieth, Beaumaris and Conway -but Caernarvon was the greatest. It's the most mag­ nificent thing of its kind, said Mr. Evans, in Great Britain. If you approach it from the sea, or if you stand outside under its walls, it looks exactly as it must have done when Edward built it to keep the Welsh in subjection, but when we went inside we could see the ruin that 600 years have caused. "Look at that little doorway that was the entrance to the dining-hall of the King", said Mr. Evans. "It was so narrow that only one man



1 Ilpamm c 1272 rro 1307.

could enter at a time, so, if the English King was surprised by an attack as he sat at dinner, his archers could kill the attackers one by one, while the King could get away down that little staircase on the other side.

"Now, come up here", he said, "to the top of the Eagle Tower". So we climbed up, and he pointed out stone figures that the builders had cleverly put there. The enemy thought they were soldiers keeping constant watch, but thought they shot many an arrow at those watchers they never killed one of them!" Then, with a smile he said, "How Time brings its changes. Edward's city of Caernarvon, where in his time a Welshman daren't set foot without risking death, is now, I should think, the most Welsh city in Wales".

"Yes", said Jan, looking at the stream of visitors below us paying their shillings to the Welsh doorkeeper to enter the castle, "in Edward's day the Welsh had to pay money to the English; and now the English have to pay money to the Welsh". Mr. Evans thought that was a good joke - and so do I. "Listen", he said, "I'll tell you another story". And this is the

story he told:

"Edward I had conquered Wales. The two great Welsh leaders, Llewellyn and his brother David, had been killed. But the Welsh people, though they were beaten, were rebellious. They had no great leader, but there were a number of chief­ tains - most of whom were jealous of one another - and at last three or four of these chieftains came to see Edward, who, with his wife Eleanor, was staying at Caernarvon Castle, to tell him their complaints and to try to get their wrongs put right.

"They wanted, they said, to be ruled not by an English King, but by a Prince of Wales, born in Wales, of royal blood, and not speaking English or French. They wanted a prince whose life was good, and who had not wronged any man - thought, owing, as I said, to their jealousy of one another, they couldn't agree who this prince should be. Well, they were certain­ ly asking a lot, but Edward, after a little thought, told them to ask all the chiefs and their followers to come to Caernarvon Castle in a week's time and he would give them what they had asked, a Prince of Wales who fulfilled all their conditions.

"So the next week the great square outside the castle was crowded with excited people, all wondering which of their chief­ tains Edward had chosen".

I'll not finish the story here. Jan thought it would make a good little play, so he has written this next piece, which he has called:


Scene: Caernarvon Castle. A crowd of Welshmen, kept back by English soldiers. A group of Welsh chieftains push their way through he crowd and come to the front.

1st W e 1sh m a n: Itwon't be long now; look, the chiefs are all here.

2nd W e 1sh m a n (to English soldier): And you won't be here long now.

E n g 1i sh S o 1d i e r: What do you mean?

2nd W e l sh m a n: When we get our Welsh prince, you English soldiers will all be sent back to England.

E n g l i sh S o l d i e r: There's nothing I'd like better. I'm tired of the sight of your Welsh mountains and your rain and fog. 1st W e 1s h m a n: They are lovely mountains, and it is

a lovely country.

2nd W e 1sh m a n: Itwill be when you English are out of it.

E n g 1i sh S o 1d i e r: All right, all right; but give me good old London every time. Stand back there! Stand back! What are you pushing for? You'll see the show all right from there.

* * *

1st C h i e f t a i n: I wonder who the new ruler is to be? Of

course, you know my mother was a distant relation of Llewellyn. 2nd C h i e f t a i n: Yes, very distant - about as distant as mine to King Arthur. But it's a pity you took all that trouble to learn English. Edward said he would choose a prince who spoke

no English. Welsh was always good enough for me.

3rd C h i e f t a i n: Ifyou think I'd ever agree to having either of you for my prince you are very much mistaken; and I have 2,000 men. Once the English go, there is no one in Wales who would be stronger than I. And of course I don't speak any English - well, not very much.

4th C h i e f t a i n: But Edward said the prince would have wronged no man. I haven't forgotten those fifty sheep of mine that you stole. I'll not have a thief for prince over me.

3rd C h i e f t a i n: Do vou call me a thief? -

2nd C h i e f t a i n: My father's second cousin was descen­ ded from Arthur -

3rd C h i e f t a i n: Two thousand men, I tell you -

E n g 1i sh S o 1d i e r: Stop that noise! Stand back! Stand back! The King!

(Edward steps from a window on to the balcony in front of the castle. Behind him is a knight carefully carrying Edward's shield flat in his hands.

On the shield is a bundle covered with a blanket. The whole crowd is excited but silent, and waiting for Edward to speak.)


E d w a r d: Chieftains and people of Wales, you have asked for a prince and I have promised you one to rule ever you, of royal birth.

W e l sh m e n: Yes, yes.

E d w a r d: Born in Wales. W e l sh m e n: Yes.

E d w a r d: And not able to speak a word of English. W e l sh m e n: Yes, yes.

E d w a r d: And one, moreover, of blameless life, one who has wronged no man by word or deed in all his life. If I give you such a prince to rule over you, will you promise to be ruled by him?

W e l sh m e n: We promise.

E d w a r d: Then here is your prince. (He turns to the knight behind, lifts the blanket, and shows a small baby.) My son, a prince of royal blood, born a week ago in Wales, in Caernar­ von Castle; he speaks no word of English, and he has wronged no man alive. Edward Prince of Wales.

* * *

"Well", said Mr. Evans, "the chiefs were angry and disap­

pointed, but the Welsh people were pleased, and each chief consoled himself with the thought that, at any rate, no rival chief had been chosen. And from that day to this, the eldest son of the King and Queen of England has always been the Prince of Wales".

It's time I brought this long letter to a close. Jan and I send our kind regards and best wishes to you and Mrs. Priestley and all my friends who are with you.

Yours sincerely,



I. IlpH,JzyMaiiTe npe,!Ulo.lKeHHH co CJie)zylOm:HMH CJIOBaMu u CJIOB011eTa­ HHJ1Mu:

1. boundary. 2. bare. 3. in places. 4. blot out. 5. frontier.

7. shelter. 8. actually. 9. enormous. 10. customs. 11. fertile.

12. puff. 13. peak. 14. sign-posts. 15. slopes. 16. fulfil. 17. obe­ diently. 18. trip. 19. im-pressive. 20. extensive. 21. overturn.

22. hastily. 23. ruins. 24. I'm tired of. 25. blameless. 26. quite safe. 27. archers. 28. bundle. 29. console. 30. round and round.

31. from that day to this.

II. OTBeTbTe Ha Bonpocw:

1. How did Frieda know she was in Wales?

2. What sort of countryside did she see in North Wales?

3. Why was Frieda less impressed by Snowdon than, perhaps, a young English girl would have been?

4. What sort of train took Frieda up the mountain?

5. What could they see at the top?

6. Who was Goronwy Owen?

7. Why did Llewellyn kill Gelert?

8. What is the modern name for Seqontium?

9. Why was the doorway to the dining-hall of Caernarvon Castle so narrow?

10. Why did the builders put stone figures at the top of the tower?

11. Which city did Mr. Evans think was the most Welsh?

12. What conditions did the Welsh chieftains want fulfilled by Edward I when he chose a ruler?

13. How did the chiefs like his choice?

14. How did the Welsh people like his choice?

15. What is the title given to the eldest son of the King and Queen of England?

III. IlepenumuTe cJie;zyromue npe,!UIO.lKeHHH, ucnoJib3YH although BMe­ cTo but (HanpuMep, The English tried to conquer the Welsh but they remained free. -Although the English tried to conquer them, the Welsh remained free).

1. The Welsh fought bravely, but they were defeated.

2. Jan had never been to Wales before, but he soon felt at home there.

3. Wales was a beautiful country, but the English soldier preferred London.

4. The Welsh chiefs were disappointed, but they accepted their new prince.

5. Hob likes to read, but he does not like to write.

IV. 06pa3yU:Te CTpa,IJ,aTeJibHb H 3aJior, onycKIDI, r,ll;e MO:lKHO, ucnoJIHH­ TeJIH )J;eiicTBHH (cM. KH:ury II, ypoK 27):

1. Mr. Evans took Frieda and Jan to Snowdon.

2. The valleys shelter the little farmhouses.

3. We could see the enormous shadow of Snowdon.

4. Gelert was guarding the prince's son.

5. Blood covered the floor.

6. The prince buried Gelert at this spot.

7. Edward I built a great line of castles.

8. Mr. Evans is pointing out the stone figures.

9. The English are paying money to the Welsh.

10. Edward I had conquered Wales.

11. He told them to come in a week's time.

12. Olaf has written this little play.

13. The soldiers kept back the Welsh crowd.

14. Edwards chose a baby to be their ruler.

15. I must now bring this letter to a close.

v. 3aMeHHTe CJie)J;ylOIIl,He CJIOBOCO'leTaHHH 0,ll;HHM CJIOBOM H3 3T0f0 ypoKa. B CK06Kax ,ll;aeTCH KOJIH'leCTBO 6YKB B CJIOBe:

1. a short journey (4). 2. to show that a thing is true (5).

3. the edge of a country next the sea (5). 4. mountain top (4).

5. small river (6). 6. to look after (5). 7. very large (8). 8. a baby's bed (6). 9. to go towards (8). 10. to go into (5). 11. shot by archers (6). 12. wanting something which another possesses; fearing that another will take what one has, and therefore hat­ ing him (7). 13. someone who steals (5). 14. not speaking or making a noise (6). 15. sad at not seeing one's hopes come true (12). 16. stretching for a long way; wide (9). 17. producing much; fruitful (17). 18. having no clothes or covering (4).

19. quickly; in a hurry (7). 20. to protect (7).


1. CocTaBbTe paccKa3 o JIJieBeJiuue u ero co6aKe feJiepTe.

2. PaccKIDKHTe, KaK <l>pH,ll;a coBepmaJia BOCXOlK,ll;euue ua Cuoy,ll;OH.

3. A Bb1 XO)J;HJIH B ropb1? ECJiu ,ll;a, TO paccKIDKUTe.


"A mountain summit 1 white with snow Is an attractive sight, I know,

But why not see it from below?"

BblcorJiaCHbl c aBTopoM 3THX cTpoK? qTo Bw )J;yMaeTe 06 aJibnHHH3Me?


1 Peak.



CJie)zyIO:W:HM «crreu:mUihHhIM» rJiaroJioM HBIDieTcH rJiaroJI ought.KaK H B rrpe,[(hmy:rn:Hx c.rryqaHX, norrpocHTeJihHaH <Pop­ Ma c 3THM rJiarOJIOM 06pa3yeTC5l rrpM IIOMO:W:H HHBepCMH, a OTpHU:aTeJibHaH c IIOMO:W:hIO not.


He knows he ought to pay the money.

Ought he to pay the money?

He ought not (oughtn't) to pay the money, ought he? You ought to be ashamed of yourself.

(1) rJiaBHOe 3HaqeHHe 3TOro rnaroJia - H,[(eH 065£3aHHO­ CTH, ,[(OJira. 3To ero e,[(HHCTBeHHaH <l>opMa. y Hero HeT <l>opM HH<l>HHHTHBa, rrpnqacTMH, rrep<l>eKTHhIX <l>opM, a B TpeTbeM JIHU:e OH He rro.rryqaeT OKOttqaHMH s.

,I1;AA BhipIDKeHMH rrporne,[(rnero npeMeHH 3TOT rnaroJI yrroT­ pe6AAeTcH c rrep<l>eKTHOM <l>opMOM CMhICJIOBOro rnaroJia, T.e. ought (oughtn't) to have + past participle. HarrpMMep:

Iought to have written that letter yesterday (with the impli­ cation "but Ididn't write it").

You oughtn't to have gone to the football match, Hob ("... but you did").

You ought to have done your homework last night ("but you didn't").

He ought to have told me that before ("but he didn't").

(2) rJiarOJI ought MO)KeT HMeTh 3HaqeHHe BepOHTHOCTH. HarrpMMep:

If Lucille left home at nine o'clock, she ought to be here any minute now.

There's a fine sunset; it ought to be a fine day tomorrow.

Considering all the work you have done, you oughtn't tofail

your examenation.

(3) ,I1;AA o6pa3oBaHMH 6y,[(y:rn;ero npeMeHH rnarony ought He Tpe6yioTCH rnaroJihI shall HJIH will. IbeH 6y,[(y:rn;HOCTH B rrpe,[(­ JIO)KeHHH BblpIDK:aeTCH CJIOBOM HJIH coqeTaHHeM CJIOB, OTHO­ CH:W:HMCH K 6y,[(y:rn;eMY. HarrpnMep:

Jan's team ought to win the match tomorrow. Your suit ought to be ready next Thursday. You ought to write to her as soon as you can.

(4) rJiarDJihI should H ought B3aHM03aMeHHeMhI rrpaKTH­ qeCKH BO BCex CJiyqaHX H HMeIOT B cy:rn:HOCTH 0,[(HO H TO )Ke 3HaqeHHe.

If you owe the money you (should; ought to) pay it.

Lucille left home at 9 o'clock; she (should; ought to) be here any minute now.

You (shouldn 't; oughtn 't to) have spent all that on a dress. BuuMauue: rrocne rnarona ought Bcer,n;a CTOHT qacT1111,a to;

c rnaronoM should OHa Bcer,n;a orrycKaeTCH.

BoT, rrmIGUiyM, 11 Bee, qTo MO)KHO cKa3aTb o rnarone ought.


I. 3aMenuTe should ua ought.

1. You should work harder.

2. It's six o'clock, she should be here by this time.

3. You should have done the work instead of going to the cinema.

4. He shouldn't have been late for that important meeting.

5. Isuppose Ishould have been more careful.

II. I3MCHHTe npe,!UI01KCHHJI TaK, 'IT06bIOHH OTHOCH.JIHCb K npowe,lJ;we­

MY BpeMenu.

1. You ought to get here by nine o'clock.

2. Isuppose Iought to pay the money.

3. How much time should I spend on this exercise?

4. Mr. Priestley ought to tell you about this before you do the exercise.

5. You shouldn't leave my book out in the rain.

6. He ought not to speak like that.

7. Why should Ido all the work?

8. Ought Ito write out this exercise?

9. How much ought I to give him?

10. The wireless shouldn't make that noise.


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