PAEOTA C f.JIArOJIOM (15): fall

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PAEOTA C f.JIArOJIOM (15): fall

PaHee B TeKcTe Bbl BCTIJeqarrM Bblp(l)K:eHMe: "Almost the whole flower of the Scottish Highlands fell at Culloden". BOT eII1e rrpMMepb1 rrpMMeHeHM5£ rnaroJia fall:

The little boy was running and felt down; I think he fell over

a stone.

In this office most of the work seems to fall on (= has to be done by) me.

The question to be answered falls into (= can be divided into) four parts.

Jan fell in love with Frieda.

Mary and Ellen have fallen out (= are no longer friends with each other).

He had great plans for his business but they felt through

(= came to nothing).

We hadn't any bread in the house and the shops were closed so we had to fall back on (= use instead) biscuits.



Under is similar in meaning to below, e.g.

Children under the age of twelve are not admitted. His in­ come is under £1,000 a year.

But there are differences in usage. If the meaning is "lower than and covered by" we use under (not below), e. g.

He put the letter under a book that was lying on the desk.

On the other hand if the distance lower is mentioned we generally use below, e.g.

The submarine travelled 100 feet below the surface of the water.

Under meaning "less than" is used to express time, e.g. We went from our house to Cambridge in under an hour. Under means also "governed by", "protected by", e.g.

In 1890 that country was under British rule and its soldiers served under the British flag.

It is also used to express certain states of being, e.g.

He is under treatment for rheumatism. The prisoner is un­ der guard. That farm has 200 acres under (= sown with) wheat. He is under sentence of death. The soldier showed great bra­ very under fire.

Under is used to express cover or disguise, e.g.

Samuel Clemens wrote under the name of Mark Twain.

Under is used as a prefix with the meaning "below", "not enough", "too small", e.g.

Unde1ground ; underdone meat; an undersized boy.

Under is an adverb in such sentences as:

The people were kept under by the tyrant. A huge wave struck the ship and it went under (= sank).

Until (till)

Until (more usually till) can be a preposition, e.g.

We won't be home till morning. He stayed till (until) long after midnight.

or a conjunction, e.g.

I will wait till (until) you come.


In most cases up expresses the opposite of down, e.g. He walked up the hill. They put up a flag.

It is very often used as an adverb with a variety of meanings, e.g.

The sun is up. Look up. The house is up at last. Plants come up in the spring. Wake up. Hurry up. Speak up. What time did you get up? I was up all night. The car is not far behind us, it will soon catch us up. Prices are going up. My time is up. You will have to pay up. The room is dirty; help me to clean it up.

With (TOJibKO npeMor)

With suggests (1) Accompaniment, e.g.

He came with all his family. Don't wear brown shoes with

a blue suit.

(2) Agreement (or disagreement), e.g.

I agree/disagree with him on most matters. I don't want to quarrel with you.

(3) An instrument, e.g.

Cut the bread with this knife. He hit the dog with a stick.

(4) Cause, e.g.

The old man was bent with age and dying with hunger.

(5) Manner, e.g.

He fought with bravery. He stood with his hands in his po- ckets.

(6) Possession (= "who (which) has"), e.g.

A girl with golden hair. A house with a large garden.

(7) Contents, e.g.

His pockets were filled with money.


Within has the meaning "inside", e.g. "Is anybody within?"

but in formal rather than colloquial English.

Within as a preposition is used to refer to time, e.g. I'll be there within (= in less than) an hour.

and in such expressions as:

to live within one's income; to be within hearing; within

sight of home; within the law.


Without in modern English does not mean "outside" (e.g.

Who is without?). Without means "not having", e.g.

Hob travelled without a ticket because he left home without


It is used with a gerund to give a negative meaning, e.g. He left without saying (= and did not say) good-bye.

Hob travelled without buying (= and did not buy) a ticket.


I. Ilplf,!Q'MaiiTe mecTh npeAJio:iKeuuu, ucnoJIL3YB <l>pa3eoJiorll'lecKHe o6opOThIc rnaroJIOM fall.

II. Ilplf,!Q'MaiiTe npeAJIO:iKeuus, ucnoJIL3YB ,11,auuL1e CJIOBa KaK a) npe,11,­ Jior, b) uapeque:

on, in, up, about, after, before, behind, over, round, since, off, through.

III. BcTaBLTe npeAJioru HJIH uapequs:

1. The man who spoke was standing - me. 2. There are others - me who believe that. 3. Put the two books side - side. 4. Everyone was listening - Richard. 5. He lived here - the years 1940 and 1941. 6. Their plans have completely bro­ ken -. 7. The soldiers came in two - two. 8. That book was written - Dickens. 9. That is a book - Russia and the Russian people. 10. I ran -thief but couldn't catch him. 11. He who is not for us is -us. 12. He has written ten books and there is not a single good one -them. 13. The mother divided the apple - two boys. 14. Who is looking - you? 15. Jan is very good - English. 16. He did that - my wishes. 17. I bought that - the butcher's. 18. He put his hands - his back. 19. That ought to cost sixpence or - the very most ninepence. 20. I hoped it would be fine but it poured - all afternoon. 21. My shoes are made - leather; the box is made - iron. 22. I can't get this ring - my finger. 23. He put the book - the table and sat - a chair. 24. He has 10,000 men working - him. 25. What country do you come - ? 26. He walked - the room and sat

- his desk. 27. I shan't be away long; I'll be back - a year.

28. The ship rocked - side to side. 29. I don't like to be - debt; that is to be - danger. 30. It is cold - this room now that the fire has gone.-. 31. You must make the best - it.

32. The petrol is all running -; tum the tap -. 33. There are houses - both sides - the street. 34. I bought a bicycle - £4.

35. He tried to look at it - my point of view. 36. I shouldn't be - such a hurry if I were -your place. 37. A friend - mine went with me to the Tower - London. 38. Help me - my coat. 39. I went there -business; I have to work - my living. 40.-reply - your letter - the 15th of November, we wish to state that we are - need - a traveller - the London district. Ifyou will come here - Saturday the 12th -April we can give you our ideas - the subject and it will then depend - you whether you accept and try to make a success - it or whether

- the contrary the whole matter must be considered as defi-

nitely -. 41. Someone left a box - the garden and I fell - it - the dark. 42. 1 stood - the comer - the road and hun­ dreds - cars went -. 43. Walk -the town - me and then we will come home and sit - the fire. 44. I have been - Lon­ don - the 25th - July. 45. We went - France - our way - Spain. 46. This coat is wet. Hold it -the fire - a few minutes.

47. That is the first step - getting the matter cleared -.

48. I can't use my office - business - present; it is - repair.

49. I had never had a lesson - English until I came - Lon­ don. 50. That stream never dries - even - the middle - summer. 51. Come and stay - us - a few days - Christmas and bring your wife - you. 52. I did not approve - his action and what he did was done - my consent. 53. You don't need to pay - the money you borrowed all - once. The repayment can be spread - a number - years. 54. Drake sailed-the world - the reign - Queen Elizabeth I. 55. I have been - England - six months but have had lessons only - April.

56. The motor boat cut -the water -a terrific speed. 57. I live quite close - the church; in fact next door - it. 58. It was somewhere - five o'clock - the afternoon when he called - me. 59.- the circumstances, I will not give you any extra work. 60. You could see - a glance there was someone - home; the house was all lit -. 61. I like beef - done rather - done. 62. They walked - the new road, then - the hill - my house. 63. Orders - the new car came - - a rush. 64. He walked - his hat - the back - his head. 65. - regard - that business, I don't want to do anything more -it, but I'll keep - touch - you.



F ri e d a: A short time ago I had a very pleasant week-end at my friend Phyllis Cooper's house. Young Roger, that's Phyllis and Frank Cooper's little boy, had just had his fifth birthday. It was a rather special birthday for him, since as soon as an Eng­ lish child reaches the age of five he must start attending school. I was very interested to hear Frank and Phyllis discussing his education and I thought you might like to hear about it.

M r. P r i e st 1e y: I'm sure we shall. I think you will all like to get a little sidelight on English education. Please go on, Frieda.

F r i e d a: Well, it was only after a good deal of thoughtful discussion between Phyllis and Frank Cooper that they had finally decided that Roger should go to his local Primary School. Phyllis, to begin with, would have preferred Roger to go to one of the small "private" schools in the district.

"The fees aren't very high", she had said to her husband, "and he'll mix with much nicer children than he'll meet at the ordinary State Primary School". "I know the fees aren't high", had been Frank's answer, "but don't forget we have to pay for State schools through our rates and taxes. I don't hold with the idea of paying for the upkeep of a school and then not making use of it. Besides, when you talk about the "nicer" children at the private school don't you merely mean that their parents have got more money than most people?" "Perhaps I do, but some of the children at the Primary School don't come from very good homes, do they? I don't want Roger to pick up any bad habits of speech or a lot of bad manners".

Frank laughed. "Let's risk it. You mothers do so want your boys to be nice, clean, well-spoken little creatures, don't you? Personally, I think that if you and I give him an example of good speech and good manners, what he happens to see and hear at school won't really harm him very much".

"I'm afraid that argument doesn't hold water", answered Phyllis with a smile. "The things you said this morning when you couldn't find a fresh pair of socks in your drawer weren't exactly examples of polite speech, were they?"

"That's a very unfair remark, my dear", said Frank with a laugh; "but I didn't feel quite as fresh as a daisy first thing this morning".

"Besides", said Phyllis, "there's another thing about these State schools: the classes are so large. Mrs.Robinson says they have over forty in a class. Classes are much smaller at the private schools. Isn't that very much better for the children?" "I'm afraid", replied Frank, "that children of all ages do find themselves in larger classes in State schools than if they went to private schools; but I do know this, that nowadays Infant Teachers in State Primary Schools are very good. I do think they know their job and I believe they work wonders some­ times - even if they do have classes of over thirty. Look here, why don't you go to the Primary School and have a look round? They'll be quite glad to let you see the school".

So Phyllis and I called to see the Head Teacher of the Infants' Department and came away quite charmed. We both liked the Head Teacher's enthusiasm and quiet efficiency and above all we liked the teacher who was in charge of the five­ year-olds' class. The thirty children in the room were seated in small chairs around a number of low tables. They were all of them very busy and very interested in what they were doing. Some were cutting out small pictures with scissors (special blunt scissors, for hands and fingers that were not yet expert); some were solemnly colouring-in outline pictures with chalks; others were working with modelling clay. But when the teacher told them to stop what they were doing they did so with what seemed to me quite unusual rapidity - after all, I thought, there are thirty of them and there aren't any of them a day over five. The friendly but not over-excited conversation that took place as the scissors and other things were collected and put away gave us both the impression that here was a happy school which Roger would enjoy and in which any habits he learned would certainly be good ones.

The Head Teacher told us that in the Infants' Department the object was to introduce the children to the art of living together and to develop not only the skill of reading and writ­ ing and counting but also to train the hands, the body and the imagination. Drawing with coloured chalks and painting, dan­ cing in time to the music of the piano, the handling of scissors and modelling materials, the acting of little plays - in all these ways it seemed that Roger's days at school would be filled both usefully and happily. After that Phyllis talked no more of pay­ ing fees to a private school.

"Will you want Roger to stay to school dinner?" the Head Teacher asked Phyllis.

"What do you advise?"

"I think it's best if they start stay­ ing to school dinner right from the beginning", the Head Teacher said, "even though it does make the day seem rather long to them at first. As you know, the cost is very little and we take particular care that the infants, above all, get a really satisfying meal".

\ "Yes, I see", said Phyllis, a little ' doubtfully, "but Roger is rather fussy about his food. I'm afraid I've always

"THINGS THEY'RE tried to give him just the things I know

NOT USED TO" he particularly likes".

The Head Teacher smiled. She had heard remarks such as this hundred times before.

"Don't worry, Mrs.Cooper. We don't force the food down their throats, you know, I think it does them good sometimes to eat things they're not used to. Of course, he's bound to grumble - children always do grumble about school dinners. But after all, if Roger came home every day and said he liked school dinners better than your dinners I think you'd be quite upset, wouldn't you?" Phyllis laughed.

"They have milk in the morning, too, don't they?" she asked.

"Yes. A third of a pint - that's free, of course. By the way (it's a small point, I know, but then children's lives are made up of small points), you might give him a little practice before­ hand in the art of drinking through a straw. That's how we drink our milk in school. It's said to be the cleanest and healthiest way of doing it".

The great day arrived. Roger, having become an expert at the art of drinking cold milk through a straw and now looking as clean as a new pin - far cleaner and neater than he will ever look again for the rest of his schooldays -is about to begin the great adventure. It will never be known which of the two was the more nervous, Roger or his mother.

"I do hope he'll like it, Frank", she had said several times to her husband. And Frank had said cheerfully, "He'll just have to like it, my dear. After all, he's got to go to school on most days of the year for another ten or twelve years!"

"Yes, but some people have such trouble. Peter next door was very difficult about going to school when he first started".

"Only for a little while. They say he's as keen as mustard on school now and can hold his own with any of the boys. Stop worrying, my dear, and remember he'll be in the hands of people who are probably much better at handling children than you or I will ever be".

Phyllis recalled to mind the teacher she had seen on her visit to the school and felt happier for a while. But even though she told herself she was being silly, she was still as anxious as ever. So, holding his mother's hand very tightly, Roger walked with Phyllis and me along the road to Greenfields County Primary School. On the way to the school we were joined by a friend on a similar job. Mrs.Jenkins was taking her little girl Susan to school for her first day. The two mothers spend the rest of the ten-minutes journey assuring Roger and Susan in bright, cheerful voices that nothing in the world was nicer for

them than that they should be going to school together.

"You can play with Susan at playtime", Phyllis told Roger.

And Susan's mother said to Susan, "You can sit next to Roger at dinner-time, can't you? That'll be nice for you, won't it?" Both children dutifully agreed that it would indeed be very nice, but what views they really held about it nobody would know.

In a fairly large room at the school the Head Teacher was receiving the newcomers. As each child's name was called the mother was told to slip quietly away. Susan was as quiet as a mouse but one small boy was protesting against the whole ed­ ucational system by roaring at the top of his voice.

"Take him away", said the Head Teacher quietly to one of her assistants. The small boy was led off to a distant class­ room, his roars getting gradually fainter, and the remaining mothers eyed their own children, each secretly hoping that her child would not "make a scene".

Roger's name was called. He, too, passed into the class­ room and into the charge of the pleasant young woman whom we had seen on our first visit, and Phyllis went home to a house that seemed, after five years of Roger's daily presence in it, strangely quiet.

Phyllis and I were at the school gate well in time to meet Roger when his day ended at half past three. She was bursting with impatience to see him, and even began to worry when he was not one of the first five children to come through the school door. He came at last and, thank goodness, all smiles. His teacher, who come to see him across the road, said he had

been as good as gold. He had had, he said, a lovely time and a lovely dinner and teacher had told them all a lovely story. And they were to bring some flowers to school to decorate the class-room and could he please pick some from the garden as soon as he got home... And so ended Roger's first day at school. H o b: Do you know the story of the little boy who went to school for the first time? When he got there, there were three entrances: on one it said GIRLS, on the second BOYS and on the third MIXED INFANTS (because small boys and girls worked together in that department). When he got home he said, "Mother, I'm not a little boy now; I'm a mixed infant".


Comparisons (Cpa6nenll1l)

Bo3MO)KJIO, B ypoKe 18 Bb1 3aMenuu1 cJie)Jyl0111Me M,IJ,MO­ MaTWiecKMe cpaBHemrn:

Roger was as clean as a new pin. Peter is as keen as mustard.

Susan was as quiet as a mouse. Roger had been asgood as gold.

TaKMX cpaBHeHMM oqeHb MHoro. BoT JIMIIIb qacTb HaM6o­ Jiee yrroTpe6MTeJibHbIX M3 HMX:

as black as coal, as black as ink; as bold as brass; as brave as a lion; as brown as a berry (usually said of a person who is very sunburnt); as busy as a bee; as clear as a bell (for a sound, e.g., a person's voice); as clear as crystal, as clear as day (for things seen or understood); as cold as ice; as cool as a cucumber (for a person who doesn't lose his head); dead as a door-nail; deaf as a post; dry as a bone, dry as dust (usually said of a book, a talk, a lesson); drunk as a lord; as easy as A.B.C.; as firm as a rock; as green as grass; as happy as the day is long; as hard as iron; as heavy as lead; as hot as fire; as hungry as a hunter; as light as a feather; as like as two peas; as mad as a hatter; as old as the hills; as quick as lightning; as regular as clockwork; as sharp as a needle; as strong as a horse (for work), as strong as a lion (for fighting); as weak as water; as wet as a drowned rat; as white as snow, as white as a sheet (for a person who is ill or badly frightened).


PABOTA C f JIAf OJIOM (16): hold

B ypoKe 18 BaM BCTpeTMJIMCb rrpe)l,JI02Kemrn:

Holding his mother's hand tightly Roger walked ... to school. But what views they really held (= what they really thought)

about it nobody would never know.

I don 't hold with the idea of (= I don't believe in, am not in favour of) paying for the upkeep of a school and then not making use of it.

Peter can hold his own with (=compete with, is as good as) any of the boys.

I'm afraid that argument doesn't hold water (=is not a good one; will not bear close examination).

OcHOBHhre 3Haqemrn rnaroJia hold cJie.lJYIOI.IJ;Me:

1. "to keep in the hand" («aepJ1Camb e py1<e>>); "to grip"


The child held a pair of scissors in her hand. The man held a pipe between his teeth.

2. "to contain" («coaepJ1Camb e ce6e», «6Mew,amb»):

These shelves hold all my books.

We can't tell what joys or sorrows the future will hold for us.

I held my breath as the car turned the corner at 60 miles an hour.

3. "to support" («noaaepJ1Cueamb»):

The walls of the house hold up the roof.

4. "to keep in position or condition" («aepJ1Camb e no­ JlOJ1Ce1tuu, COCmOflltUU U ap.»):

Hold your head up and keep your back straight.

You must hold yourself ready to go to South America at a day's notice.


I. CJIOBapmUI paooTa.Ilpll):Q'Mame npero:to1KeHirn co cJie,!Q'IOJIU1MH CJio­ BocoqeTaHHJIMH:

week-end, birthday (what do you say to a person on his or her birthday?), attend (note its use in Lesson 18), sidelight, local, primary, fee, taxes (compare taxis; how do taxes differ from rates?), daisy, scissors (note this word is a plural), blunt (what is the opposite?), chalk (note the pronunciation), clay, habits, skill, satisfy (also satisfaction, satisfactory ), fussy, (use also fuss, noun and verb), throat, grumble, practice (use also practise), pin (what's the difference between a pin and needle?), neat, mustard, roar, eye (as a verb), infant.

II. Haii,!UITe npero:to1KeHHJI B TeKcTe ypoKa 18:

Some of the children at Primary Schools don't come from very good homes.

Some were cutting out small pictures...some were colouring pictures.

IlepenumUTe 3TH npero:to1KeHmt, BCTaBJIJIJI some (someone, something, somewhere) HJIH any (anyone, anything, anywhere) BMeCTO 3HaKa «Tupe»:

1. I should like to hear - about English education.

2. So should I. I don't know - about it.

3. Is there - here who does know - about it?

4. Have your friends - children?

5. Are - of the children over five? Yes,- of them are six.

6. I can't find my book - Look again; it must be - in this room.

7. Have you -cigarettes? No, I haven't; I must go and buy -

8. I want - cigarrettes, please. Have you - Turkish ones?

9. - is wrong with my car, it won't go. Perhaps it needs - more petrol; look and see if you have -.

10. Can t you give us -more difficult exercises?- can answer these easy ones.

III. 06'MtCHHTe 11.1111: 3aMeHuTe cxo)J,Hh MH no 3HaqeHuro CJIOBaMu CJIO­ BocoqeTaHHH 11:3 ypoKa 18:

1. he'll mix with nicer children. 2. I don't want him to pick up bad habits. 3. first thing this morning. 4. they work wonders sometimes. 5. the five-year-olds ' class. 6. they were colouring­ in outline pictures. 7. they did so with quite unusual rapidity.

8. he's bound to grumble. 9. I think you'd be quite upset. 10. Phyl­ lis recalled to mind the teacher. 11. both children dutifully agreed.

12. receiving the newcomers. 13. one small boy was protesting against the whole educational system. 14. he roared at the top of his voice. 15. her child would not make a scene. 16. Phyllis was at the school gate well on time. 17. she was bursting with impa­ tience to see him.

IV. OTBeThTe Ha Bonpoch1:

1. Why is five an important age to an English boy or girl?

2. At which schools in England do you generally pay fees?

3. At which schools do you generally not pay fees?

4. Why did Phyllis want Roger to go to a "private school"?

5. What arguments did Frank use for sending Roger to a State school?

6. When Phyllis and Frieda went to visit a class-room what were the children doing?

7. What did the Head Teacher say were the objects of the Infants' Department?

8. In what way was Roger's time at school going to be "filled both usefully and happily"?

9. What reasons did the Head Teacher give why Roger should have his dinner at school?

10. How did she answer Phyllis's doubts?

11. How much milk did Roger get at schcol, what did he pay for it and how did he drink it?

V. 3aKoHqnTe cJie,!Q'IOw,ne H,ZJ,HOMaTuqecKHe cpaoHemm:

(a) as black as-. as hard as-. as green as-. as brown as -. as white as -. as cold as -. as clear as -. as cool as -. as firm as -. as easy as -. as dead as -. as strong as -.

(b) - as a sheet. - as a needle.

- as water. - as the hills.

- as a lion. - as a drowned rat.

- as lightning. - as a hatter.

- as two peas. - as clockwork.

- as the day is long. - as a post.

VI. IIplf,LQ'MaiiTe npeAJIO:lKemm co cJiooocoqeTaHHHMn:

1. hold the view. 2. hold with. 3. hold one's own. 4. hold water. 5. hold one's breath. 6. hold up. 7. hold oneself ready.

8. shareholder. 9. hold a person back. 10. hold out hope. 11. hold in respect.

Composition Exercises

I.Describe (in about 150 words) Phyllis's and Frieda's first visit to the Greenfields Infants' School.

2. Describe (in about 250 words) what happened on Roger's first day at school.

3. Write a short essay on one of the following:

1. Your first day at school.

2. The true aim of education.

3. The educational system in your country.

VIII. CocTaBhTe paccKa3 no KapTHHKe.







Subject Verb Object Adverbial 1
Mr.Brown answers his letters promptly.
She sees him every day.
The students I meet like Mr.Priestley wine in his study. very much.


Subject Verb Indirect Direct Adverbial Object Object

The boy gives the dog a bone

I bought him some sweet Mary cooked John a good dinner.

every day. at the shop.

They paid me the money this morning.

3. B p51,[I;e rrpe,z:vIO)KeHMH IIOCJieJior MO)KeT CTOHTb KaK rrepe,n;

,n;orronHeHMeM, TaK M rrocne Hero. HarrpMMep:

Turn off ( adverbial) the gas ( object), OR: Turn the gas off. Put on your coat, 0R: Put your coat on.

I have locked up the house, OR: I have locked the house


Ring up John, OR: Ring John up.

The firemen put out the fire, OR: The firemen put the fire


BHHMauue: IIOCJieJior He MO)KeT CTOHTb rrepe,n; ,ll;OIIOJIHeHM- eM, ecJIM MM JIBJIHeTcJI MecTOMMeHMe. Mo)KHO CKa3aTh:

"Ring up John", HO HE: "Ring up him".

The pronoun construction would be Ring him up.

4. qacTOTHbie HapeqMJI (always, often, never, sometimes M ,n;p.) o6hPIHO CTOHT rrepe,ll, rnaronoM. HarrpMMep:

Subject Adverb Verb Object Other of Frequency Adverbials



He never sometimes etc.


sees people

in his office.

in the evening. before lunch.


1TepMmr adverbial o6o3HaqaeT Hapeqllil, HapeqHhre o6opoTh ,rrpll,ll;aToq­ Hhre rrpe)J,JlolKeHlli! o6pa3a ,[(eficTBlli!.

5. Ho eCJIM CKa3yeMoe COCTOMT M3 ,r:i;Byx rnaroJIOB, HapeqMe 3aHMMaeT MecTo rrocne rrepBoro rnarona. HarrpMMep:



He has seen people



in his office } in the evening before lunch



0,r:i;HaKo ecTb PM cnyqaeB, Kor,r:i;a 061>PIH1>1:ti: rrop5I,ll;OK cnoB MeHHeTC5I M rnaroJI CTaBMTC5I rrepe,r:i; IIO,ll;Jle)KaIIIMM:

1. Kor,r:i;a rro,ll;Jle)KaII1ee BBO,ll;MTCH o6opoTOM there is/are, was, were. CpaBHMTe:

A burglar ( Subject) is ( Verb) in the house;

and: There is ( Verb) a burglar ( Subject) in the house. AHanor Ho:

There was a good play on television last night.

There are fifteen students in the class. There will be six people for dinner tonight. Are there any cakes on the plate?

There were ten cakes when Hob came in, now there is only one.

There is (was) MCIIOJib3YeTC5I c CYIIIeCTBMTeJibHbIMM B e,r:i;MH­ CTBeHHOM qMcne; there are (were) -BO MHO)KecrneHHoM qMcJie.

2. Kor,r:i;a rrpe,ll;JIO)KeHMe HaqMHaeTcH c orrpe,r:i;eneHHhIX CJIOB MJIM Bblpa)KeHM:ti::

(a) CJIOB MJIM Q:>pa3, rrpe,r:i;rronaraIOIIIMX OTPmi;ami:e. HarrpM­ Mep:

Never have I heard such a silly story.

At no time did he ever say that he was not satisfied with my work.

Nowhere in the world will you find a higher standard of living.

Seldom has such a thing been done before.

(6) co CJIOB no sooner, hardly, scarcely. HarrpMMep:

No sooner had they been given one increase in pay than 1

they asked for another.

Hardly (Scarcely) had we begun the climb when the snow began to come down.


1 11Meil:Te B BH,!JY, 'ITO rrocne no sooner (cpaBmrreJibHOil: CTerremi:) FIC­ rronb3yeTCH than; rrocne scarcely, hardly H)')KHO FICIIOJib30BaTb when.

(B) rrpM coqeTaHMM only c HapeqMeM BpeMeHM RJIM MeCTa. HarrpMMep:

Only noware we beginning to realise how great a man he was.

Only thendid they fully understand what he meant.

Only by the end of the yearshall we know whether the busi­ ness has made a profit.

Only in north-west Scotlandhave I seen such scenery as that.

EcnM rrpM,IJ;aToqHoe rrpe;::vro)KeHMe Haq11HaeTCH c only when,

MHBepcMH rrpo11cxo,r:i;MT B rnaBHOM rrpe;::vro)KeHMM. CpaBHMTe:

Only whenIhad the man's story, didIrealise that you were in danger.

(r) rrpM coqeTaHMM so c rrpIDiaraTeJibHhIM IDIM Hapeq11eM. HarrpMMep:

So importantwas the news that the messenger was taken instantly to the King.

So deafeningwas the noise that Icould hardly hear myself speak.

So seriouslywas he injured that he was taken to hospital at once.

3. IlpM KpaTKOM oTBeTe, Haq11HaIOII1eMcH c Neither (Nor). HarrpMMep:

Pedro can't speak Russian, neither (nor)can Olaf

Frieda didn't go to the dance, neither (nor)did Jan.

4. IlpM pa3phrne rrpHMOH peq11, IDIM Kor,r:i;a rnaBHoe rrpe,r:i;­ JIO)KeHMe CTOMT rrocne rrpM,D;aToqHoro c rrpHMOH peqbIO. Ha­ rrpMMep:

"That reminds me", said Hob, "of a good story". "What shall we do?" said Jan.

5. BBOCKJIMIIaTeJibHhIX rrpe;::vro)KeHMHX, BBO,ll;MMhIX there, here. HarrpMMep:

There goes our train! Here comes the bride!

6. BTOM cnyqae, Kor,r:i;a rrpe;::vro)KeHMe Haq11HaeTcH Hape- q11eM, BhIIIOJIHHIOIIIMM <l>YHKllMIO ycRJieHMH. HarrpMMep:

Nowcomes my great news.

Over the hillscame the Camerons.

Oftenhave I heard it said that he is not to be trusted.

Near the churchwas an old cottage.

By his sidesat his faithful dog.

Suchwas the story he told me.

7. c HeKOTOpbIMM ycrnpeBIIIMMM <PopMaMM COCJiaraTeJib­ HOfO HaKJioHeHMH. HarrpMMep:

May you be very happy. Come what may.

11.rrM B ,r:i;pyroll: KOHCTIJ)'Kll,MM c had (= if ...had), e.g.

Had I know that you were coming, I would have stayed at home to welcome you.

Had the news reached me earlier I could have done something about it.

06paTMTe BHMMaHMe, KaK M3MeHeHMe rrop5I,D;Ka CJIOB MO­

)KeT rroJIHOCThIO M3MeHMTh 3HaqeHMe rrpe,ll;JIO)Kemrn. HarrpM­ Mep: a garden flower is not the same as a flower-garden; a racehorse as a horse-race; a glass eye as an eyeglass, or a foot long as a long foot.

EcT1> 6on1>11rne OTJIMqIDJ: Me)l(,ll;y:

"He doesn't like wine very much", 11 "He doesn't like very much wine".



I. 06'hHCnme 3uaqeuue CJieiJ,YIOrn,HX coqeTanuii, Y'fHTh BaH nopH,11,0K CJIOB, a 3aTeM, UOMeHHB CJIOBa MeCTaMH, 3uaqenuH HOBbIX coqeTanuii.

,ll;JIH HJIJIIOCTpa11uu 3uaqeuuii npH,IQ'MaiiTe npeM01KenuH:

I. playing card. 2. grammar school. 3. flower garden. 4. eye­ glass. 5. village green. 6. house dog. 7. bicycle pedal. 8. pocket­ book. 9. oil-lamp. 10. bus-station. 11. tobacco-pipe. 12. lawn tennis.

II. ffaqnuTe npeM01K.euue co cJioea B cKo6KaX; C)J;eJiaiiTe ueo6xo)J;H­ Mbie H3MenenuH:

1. That has been said before. (Never.)

2. We had reached home when it began to rain. (Hardly.)

3. You will get better cakes than these. (Nowhere.)

4. I said that you were dishonest. (Neither yesterday nor at any other time.)

5. We knew how badly hurt he was. (Only after the doctor had seen him.)

III. IlocTaBbTe B IfYlKHOM nopH,11,Ke cJioBa B npeM01KenuHx:

1. The ball hit him on his head, which was made of solid rubber.

2. ADVERTISEMENT: Bed-sitting-room to let, suit single gentleman, twelve feet square.

3. The boys said that the school meals were bad and would not obey their masters.

4. LOST: Dark green lady's handbag.

5. During the struggle the burgler dropped his gun near the door which Bill kicked under the table.


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