ТОП 10:

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Y nP A >K HE HHSI

I. HanuwnTe c0Kpaw:euub1e 0603ua11enIDI (a) penny; (b) a shilling;

(c) a pound; (d) a dollar?

II. 06'bHCHnTe CBOHMH CJIOBaMn 3ua11ennH:

(a) Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves.

(b) Don't be penny wise and pound foolish.

(c) Money lent is money spent.

(d)"Neither a borrower nor a lender be: For loan oft loses both itself and friend".

IIepenuwnTe (d), ua11unaH CJIOBaMn: Don't be •••

III. IIepennwnTe npeMOlKeHHH, coxpauHJ1 CMLICJI, no yn0Tpe6JIHJ1 either

... or BMeCTO neither ... nor:

1. He has neither brother nor sister.

2. Ihave seen neither Pedro nor Olaf this morning.

3. That shop sells neither paper nor cigarettes.

4. He gave me neither food nor drink.

5. She came with neither book nor pencil.

( This is rather difficult. What is the negative of "with"?)

1T. e. Be neither a borrower nor a lender mrn: Don't be either a borrower or lender. 06panue BHHMami:e Ha :::irn coI03bI(T. e. cJioBa, coe,1::i;ii:IDIIOIIIH:e cJio­ Ba, CJIOBocoqeTaHlli! IDrn rrpe,1.1,JIO)KeHID!). Either yrroTIJe6JIJieTCH c or, neither yrroTIJe6JIJieTCH c nor.

2 oft = often (rro:::iTrrq.).

3 IJpOll3HOCllTCH KaK LJU:].


LESSON 19

PLURALS OF NOUNS

J a n: In the last lesson, sir, I noticed that you used the words pennies and pence as plurals of penny. Is there a differ­ ence in meaning between the two words?

M r. P r i e st l e y: Yes. The word penny has two plurals: pennies if we refer to the number of coins; pence if we are speaking of the value, e. g.

This pencil cost sixpence.

Can you give me twelve pennies for this shilling?

H o b: I'm glad you told me that. I thought the plural of

penny was twopence.

M r. P r i e s t 1e y: I think this is a good opportunity to men­ tion the points that are essential about grammatical number.

There are, as you know, two grammatical numbers in Eng­ lish: (a) Singular, (b) Plural.

There are several ways of writing the plural. The essential ones are:

1. By adding ''s " to the singular, e. g. boy, boys; school, schools.

2. By adding "es" (a) to most words that end in "o" e. g. negro, negroes; potato, potatoes; hero, heroes; cargo, cargoes.

but note

piano, pianos.

(b) to words that end in the sounds: [s], [f ], [tj"], [ks], [z]

e. g.

kiss, kisses, brush, brushes; church, churches; box, boxes; size, sizes.

3. Words ending in "y" with a consonant immediately be­ fore it, change the "y" to "ies ", e. g.

lady, ladies; fly, flies; story, stories; city, cities; army, ar­

mies.

Words ending in "y" with a vowel immediately before it simply add "s", e. g.

valley, valleys; donkey, donkeys.

4. Words ending in "f' or "fe" generally change this to

''ves." e. g.

leaf, leaves; wife, wives; loaf, loaves, shelf, shelves; thief,

thieves.

but note

roof, roofs; cliff, cliffs; handkerchief, handkerchiefs.


5. Some words form their plural by a change of vowel e.g. man, men; tooth, teeth; foot, feet; mouse, mice; woman, women ['w1mm].

6. Two words form their plural differently from all the oth­ ers. They are child, children; ox, oxen.

7. Some words have the same form for singular or plural,

e. g.

sheep; deer.

With compound nouns, if they are made of two nouns - as they very frequently are - only the last part takes plural form,

e. g.

housemaid, housemaids; shoemaker, shoemakers; classroom, classrooms; armchair, armchairs.

There is one exception to this rule. If the first part of the word is man (or woman), then both words take the plural form,

e. g.

manservant, menservants; woman-teacher, women-teachers.

If the compound noun is made with a preposition, then only the first part takes the plural form, e. g.

father-in-law, fathers-in-law; man-of-war 1, men-of-war.

There are one or two other things that are rather unusual and should be noted.

I. Some words are never used in the plural,e. g:

news, advice, information, knowledge, furniture, luggage. So we say:

The news is (not are) good; the furniture is (not are) new.

 

 

So, too, names of substances, like water, air, bread, wood, things that can't be counted (we can hardly speak of two or three airs, four or five waters), naturally can't have a plural. Sometimes we have plural forms for these "uncountables", but with a different meaning.

 

1 A man-of-war - is a battleship.

 


Compare:

The desk is made of wood (material).

There are some pretty woods in England (collection of trees).

The mountain is maid of rock.

The ship ran on the rocks.

Fire is a good servant but a bad master.

There were several big fires in the city last week. The engine is made of iron.

We have two electric irons to iron the clothes. There is glass in the window.

There are two wine-glasses on the table.

II. Some words, on the other hand, have no singular, e. g.,

people. We must say,

"People are pleased at the news;"

it can never be "people is". Ifyou want a singular you must use some word like "person".

Then there are words like,

trousers, scissors, clothes, goods, thanks, police, which have no singular.

We must say

My trousers are new; the scissors are sharp; his clothes are

good; the police were there, etc.

•E cpOH ETH ECK AH TPEH HPO B K A

[i:] [I] [e] [o] [;,:] [u:]

teeth behave enemy knock call balloon veal pretend flesh honour glorious blew key enormous nephew doll enormous pupil1 obedient separate rob record nephew'

niece sausage

[;)] [A] [3:] [e1] [;JU] [ai]

honour sunset church agent obedient inside balloon bunch furnish behave load knife policeman hurry circle obey tie

glorious courage [U;J] mail [e;J] triangle enormous luggage insurance separate square

t::5 YnPA>K H E H HH

I. Ha30BHTe li>OPMY MHO:>KecTBeuuoro 11ucJia:

house, mouse, potato, piano, dish, baby, valley, knife, thief, roof, cliff, woman, tooth, child, box, ox, sheep, brother-in-law.

 

l IlpOM3HOCHTCH KaK LJU:].


II. Ha30BHTe !l>OPMY e,!l;HHCTBenuoro 'IHCJia:

heroes, kisses, flies, donkeys, loaves, feet, deer, men-of­ war, sisters-in-law.

III. B&16epuTe npaBH.JihH& ii rJiaroJI:

1. The news (is/are) heard on the radio at nine o'clock.

2. Some people (is/are) coming today.

3. Hob's trousers (is/are) tom.

4. The furniture in the room (is/are) of good quality.

5. His information (is/are) not correct.

IV. )J;aiiTe !l>OPMY MH. 11ucJia CJIO)KffbIX CYI11eCTBHTeJI&Hh1x:

toothbrush, railway-carriage, pocket-knife, housemaid, shoe­ marker, workman, manservant [be careful here], classroom, bedroom, inkstand, armchair, table-cloth, windmill, match­ box, woman-teacher [are you sure?], teapot, snowball, book­ shop, watchmaker.

V. OfrM CHHTe pa3uuu;y MelK,IIJ' (1) pennies u pence; (2) a wine-glass u a glass of wine; (3) a matchbox u a box of matches; (4) a teacup u a cup of tea. )J;m1 HJIJIIOCTpa11uu OTBeTOB npuueTe npuMep&1.


LESSON 20







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