Work in groups of four or fire. You are people of different age and social standing. Express your attitude to sport and sportsmen in general.



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Work in groups of four or fire. You are people of different age and social standing. Express your attitude to sport and sportsmen in general.



XVIII. Describe these pictures in suds a way as if you have seen the event with your own eyes. Use some details, try to sound as convincing as possible. Use some words and phrases given below:

the stadium with a seating capacity of ...; a pole-jumper; in good form; a referee; a starter; a cross-bar;

wave a start; rushing towards; like lightning;

race past; carrying the pole; puzzled;

plant the pole; up in the air; with a smile on his face; awestricken;

pretty-looking; embarrassed; with her eyes downcast; with his hands pressed; land onto; break the record; the record of his life; candidate master of sports of Russia.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

VI

The plot is a very important aspect of written works. But there is something even more important, that is, the main idea or the message.

Messageis the main idea that a writer wants to commu­nicate in his work through the characters and their behaviour, the physical and emotional background or sometimes through his own generalizing statements. To make it clear and understandable you have to learn how to write the gist.

Gistis commonly understood as the essence or main point (of an article, paragraph or argument), also as the essential part of a story, novel, or play that helps to understand the main idea.

Summary deals with the plot of complete written works, such as a story, novel or play. Gist deals with the main idea of any thoughtful writing, no matter whether it is a paragraph or a novel. It is expected to be very short and clear.

In order to write the gist of a story ("A Day's Wait", for example) you have to do the following:

1. Read the story carefully, paying attention to the charac­ters, general atmosphere and the author's remarks or state­ments (е.g. a bright cold day, a pale-faced and shivering boy, the growing strain), the atmosphere of suspense.

2. Jot down the main points and see how they are linked (е.g. the boy is ill but he won't go to bed; he is still worried and keeps staring at the foot of the bed; he can hardly believe that he has no reason to worry about his health).

3. Point out the author's remarks (the boy was looking at the foot of the bed strangely; that's a silly way to talk; he had been waiting to die all day; relaxation was very slow).

4. Go over these points, reconsider them carefully and formulate the main idea, е.g. It is a story telling us how fear and self-pity through ignorance or misleading information may cause worry and suffering or how remarkably patient the child's endurance may be.

Assignments:

1. Give your own version of the gist of "A Day's Wait" and "How We Kept Mother's Day".

2. Write the gist of "A Friend in Need". When writing analyse the title of the story.

Write the gist of two letters written by Judy and compare them. What is their message?

LABORATORY EXERCISES (П)

1. Listen to the dialogue "Sports and Games Popular in England". Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the text following the model.

2. Listen to the text "The Football Match", mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the model.

Write a spelling-translation test Check it with a dictionary.

Task I: Translate the English sentences into Russian (in writing) and check them with the key.

Task П: Translate your sentences hack into English (orally) and check them with the key.

5. Listen to the text "Sport in Great Britain".

Task I: Write down the Russian equivalents given in the exercise. Task II: Listen to the text again and write down the English equiva­lents of the Russian phrases.

Task Ш: Write 10 questions on the text Be ready to discuss it in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

1. Say in what countries the following sports and games are popular:

cricket, surfing, karate, reindeer racing, rugby, baseball, judo (jujitsu), lacrosse, lasso-throwing, soccer, croquet

II. Which is better — to be a specialist or a generalist?

Divide your class into 2 teams. Match each specific term in column I. with the generic term in column II. The team which is the first to match the terms correctly wins the score.

I II

barbell basket-ball

racket cricket

wicket golf

alpenstock fencing

knockout figure-skating

bishop tennis

catcher ice-hockey

gauntlet mountaineering

puck baseball

tee boxing

spin chess-playing

spike weight lifting

III. Read one of the short stories by W. S. Maugham and speak about it in class. Speak not only on the contents, but also give analyses of the charac­ters, the author's mastership, methods of characterization, style and lan­guage. See Notes on Style, p. 52.


UNIT SEVEN

I SPEECH PATTERNS

1.There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found.

There is hardly a book by this author which he has not read.

There was hardly a football match which he missed.

There is hardly another team with better opportunities to win.

2. That would make you think you were in Holland.

The teacher made Jack rub out all the ink marks in his textbook.

They couldn't make William Tell bow before the tyrant's cap.

The slightest noise would make him start.

Make him repeat the rule. (Bur: He was made to repeat the rule.)

EXERCISES

I. Change the following sentences to as to use the patterns:

Pattern 1: 1. Idon't think there is another hockey-team of equal popularity. 2. There was not a single world championship he missed. 3. I'm not sure we have a vacancy on our staff. 4. We've no more time, butyou can finish the composition off at home. 5. There was scarcely a living soul at the stadium. 6. I don't think there is any reason for their losing the game.

Pattern 2:1. The coach forced the athletes to post­pone their training. 2. The strangers wanted Roger to drive up to the back yard, and he obeyed. 3. They will never force Andrew to break his promise. 4. During the conversation she felt uneasy. 5. He will not break with his bad habits, no mat­ter what you are saying.

II. Complete tee following, using Pattern 2:

1. What events made you ...? 2. Who could make your friend ...? 3. Which of the experiments made the scientist...? 4. What kind of lesson makes you .,.? 5. What made Leo Tol­stoy ...? 6. The new coach made us ... .

III. Translate the following sentences into English, using the patterns:

1. Едва ли найдется страна, в которой не побывал бы старый моряк. 2. Едва ли есть другой город с таким населением, как То­кио. 3. Едва ли у них была другая возможность освободить Овода. 4. Едва ли найдется человек, который не любит представлений ку­кольного театра. 5. Ужас! Пожалуй нет другого слова, чтобы опи­сать мое состояние в тот момент. 6. Пожалуй не было ни одного соревнования по шахматам, которое бы он пропустил. 7. Едва ли найдется другой тренер, такой внимательный и терпеливый. 8. Что заставило вашего брата бросить бокс? 9. Двое воришек заставили Оливера лезть через окно. 10. Дориан думал, что ничто не заставит его нарушить обещание, данное Сибилле Вейн. 11. Игра актера за­ставляла зрителя не только чувствовать, но и думать, 12. Что заста­вило Байрона сражаться на стороне греческого народа? 13. Что за­ставило Лэнни вернуться в Стилвелд? 14. Этот эпизод рассмешил мою сестру, а меня опечалил.

IV. Respond to the following statements and questions, using the patterns. (Make use of the conversational formulas given in the Reminder.)

1. I believe the Tower of London comes first among the historic buildings of London. 2. I think Vasily Blazheny Cathedral is quite unique. 3. The City of London is over­crowded in the daytime. 4. Christopher Wren was the most talented British architect of the XVII century. 5. Since 1927 up to 1946 A. Alekhin was the most outstanding chess-play­er. 6. Most schools in Britain have adopted the core curricu­lum. 7. Can you lend me a rouble? 8. All of them are staring at the advertisement. I wonder, why? 9. When I mentioned his name Mary buried her face in her hands and would never answer my question.

Reminder. You don't say sol Just [only) fancy! Indeed? Why! Is that sol Dear me! Who'd have thought it? I am sur­prised. I am shocked. It's amazing! It's incredible] Certainly! Of course. Naturally! Yes indeed! Looks like that. Well, I think.

TEXT. THE BRITISH ISLES

The British Isles consist of two main islands: Great Brit­ain and Ireland. These and over five hundred small islands are known collectively as the United Kingdom of Great Brit­ain and Northern Ireland. Their total area is some 94, 250 square miles.[57] Great Britain proper comprises Eng­land, Wales and Scotland. The southern part of the isle of Ireland is the Irish Republic (or Eire).

Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a coun­try in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found in so small a compass. There are wild desolate moun­tains in the northern Highlands of Scotland — the home of the deer and the eagle — that are as lonely as any in Norway. There are flat tulip fields round the Fens[58] — a blaze of colour in spring, that would make you think you were in Hol­land. Within a few miles of Manchester and Sheffield you can be in glorious heather-covered moors.[59]

Once the. British Isles were part of the mainland of Eu­rope — the nearest point is across the Strait of Dover, where the chalk cliffs of Britain are only twenty-two miles from those of France.[60]

The seas round the British Isles are shallow. The North Sea is nowhere more than 600 feet deep, so that if St. Paul's Cathedral were put down in any part of it some of the ca­thedral would still be above water. This shallowness is in some ways an advantage. Shallow water is warmer than deep water and helps to keep the shores from extreme cold. It is, too, the home of millions of fish, and more than a million tons are caught every year.

You have noticed on the map how deeply indented the coast line is. This indentation gives a good supply of splen­did harbours for ships; and you will note, too, that owing to the shape of the country there is no point in it that is more than seventy miles from the sea — a fact that has greatly fa­cilitated the export of manufactures and has made the En­glish race a sea-loving one.

On the north-west the coasts are broken by high rocky cliffs. This is especially noticeable in north-west Scotland, where you have long winding inlets (called "lochs") and a great many islands. Western Scotland is fringed by the large island chain known as the Hebrides, and to the north east of the Scottish mainland are the Orkney and Shetland Islands.

In Scotland you have three distinct regions. There is, firstly, the Highlands, then there is the central plain or Low­lands. Finally there are the southern uplands, "the Scott country,"[61] with their gently rounded hills where the sheep wander. Here there are more sheep to the square mile than anywhere in the British Isles.

In England and Wales all the high land is in the west and north-west. The south-eastern plain reaches the west coast only at one or two places — at the Bristol Channel and by the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey.

In the north you find the Cheviots[62] separating England from Scotland, the Pennines going down England like a backbone and the Cumbrian mountains оf thе Lake District,[63] one of the loveliest (and the wettest) parts of England. In the west are the Cambrian mountains which occupy the greater part of Wales.

The south-eastern part of England is a low-lying land with gentle hills and a coast which is regular in outline, sandy or muddy, with occasional chalk cliffs, and inland a lovely pat­tern of green and gold — for most of England's wheat is grown here — and brown plough-land with pleasant farms and cottages in their midst. Its rich brown soil is deeply culti­vated — much of it is under wheat; fruit-growing is exten­sively carried on. A quarter of the sugar used in the country comes from sugar-beet grown there, but the most important crop is potatoes.

The position of the mountains naturally determined the direction and length of the rivers, and the longest rivers, ex­cept the Severn and Clyde, flow into the North Sea, and even the Severn flows eastward or south-east for the greater part of its length.

The rivers of Britain are of no great value as water-ways — the longest, the Thames, is a little over 200 miles— andfew of them are navigable except near the mouth for anything but the smaller vessels.

In the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne, Clyde, Tay, Forth and Bristol Avon[64] are some of the greatest ports.

(From "Essential English for Foreign Students" by C. E. Eckersley, Book 3, Lnd., 1997. Adapted)

Memory Work

The sea is calm to-night,

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the Straits; — on the French coast, the light

Gleams, and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night air!

Only, from the long tine of spray

Where the ebb meets the moon-blanch'd sand,

Listen! you hear the grating roar

Of pebbles which the waves suck back, and fling,

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.

(From "Dover Beach" by Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. varyυt/i 1. менять(ся); изменять(ся); разнообразить, е.g. Market prices often vary. I try to vary my diet.

Syn. change

2. разниться, расходиться, е.g. Our opinions vary.

Syn. differ

Note: varyis to change or differ partially.

variant n вариант, е.g. This word has two spelling vari­ants.

various adj (a noun in the singular is never used after it)

1. различный, разный, е.g. There are various reasons for my refusal.

2. разнообразный, е.g. I'll give you various exercises on that rule.

Syn. different, е.g. They are quite different people.

varied adj разнообразный (used with nouns both sing, and pi.), е.g. varied climate, scenery, surface, temperature, opinions, sports, etc., е.g. The novel describes the varied ca­reer of an adventurer.

variety n 1. разнообразие, е.g. You must have more va­riety in your food.

2. разновидность; вид, е.g. I've got some rare varieties of such stamps. There are some rare varieties of leaf-bearing trees in the park.

variety-showварьете, эстрадный концерт

2. scene n 1. сцена, явление (в пьесе), е.g. The duel scene in "Hamlet" impressed us greatly. Her acting was wonderful in the last scene.

2. место действия (в пьесе, в книге, в жизни), е.g. In the first act the scene is laid in France. Trafalgar was the scene of a famous battle between the British fleet and the combined French and Spanish fleets.

3. пейзаж, картина, зрелище, е.g. I like the way this writer describes rural scenes. You could see awful scenes after the earthquake.

scenery n (uncountable) 1. декорация, е.g. The scenery was impressive in the last act. They have almost no scenery in that play.; 2. пейзаж, ландшафт, е.g. I prefer plains to mountain scenery. I looked out of the window enjoying the scenery.

3. shallowadj 1. мелкий, as shallow water, a shallow dish

Ant. deep

2. поверхностный, пустой; несерьезный, as a shallow mind, argument; shallow interests; a shallow man, person

Ant. serious (about a person, book, argument), deep (love, feelings)

Note:the Russian word мелкий has different meanings which are rendered in English by means of different words: 1) fine — состоящий из мелких частей, as fine sand, buckwheat, 2) small — некрупный (о достоин­стве монет), as small change (uncountable)', 3) flat — неглубокий, почти плоский, as a flat pan (plate).

4. extreme adj 1. крайний (at or near the end or edge), as the extreme end (edge, border, etc.), in the extreme North

2. чрезвычайный; чрезмерный, as extreme patience (love, kindness, interest)

extremelyadv чрезвычайно, as to be extremely interest­ed in smth., to be extremely sorry for smb., smth., etc.

5. supplyυt снабжать, е.g. In our hall the students are supplied with all the necessary furniture and bedding. Who will supply the expedition with all the necessary equipment?

supplyn (often pl) запас(ы), е.g. This shop has alarge supply of winter coats.

to give a good supply of,е.g. These forests give a good supply of timber.

6. shapen форма, очертание, е.g. I don't like the shape of his nose. This sculpture hasn't got much shape, I should say.

Syn. form, outline

in the shape of, е.g. I want to get a brooch in the shape of a horseshoe.

shapeless adj бесформенный, е.g. He had a ragged coat and a shapeless hat on.

shapelyadj красивой формы; стройный, хорошо сло­женный, as a shapely figure

7. channeln канал, a stretch of water wider than a strait, joining two seas or separating two bodies of land, as the English Channel, the Bristol Channel

Syn. 1. ca'nalканал — a channel for water made by man, not by nature, used for ships or for carrying water to places that need it, as the Suez Canal, the Panama Canal, the Vol­ga-Don Canal, the Fergana Canal; 2. straitпролив — a nar­row channel of water connecting two large bodies of water, as the Magellan Strait, the Strait of Dover

8. valuen ценность, значение, е.g. The literary value of that book is not great. I don't believe you realize the value of his advice.

to be of great (little, some, no) value to smb.,е.g. In some years his pictures will be of great value. This book will be of no value in your studies.

value υt 1. ценить, дорожить, е.g. I greatly value his friendship.

Syn. appreciate(о)ценить высоко, по заслугам, е.g. We all appreciate aholiday after a year of hard work. I greatly appreciate your kindness.

2. оценивать, е.g. He valued the house for me at £ 800.

valuableadj ценный, е.g. It's a valuable picture.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

advantage n flow υ shapely adj

canal n harbour n soil n

channel n lonely adj strait n

cliff nmanufacture n supply υ

comparatively adv plain n valuable adj

crop n plough υ value υ, n

cultivate υ rocky adj varied adj

deer n scene n variety n

distinct adj scenery n various adj

eagle n shallow adj vary v

extreme adj shape n wander υ

extremely adv shapeless adj wheat n

Word Combinations

to the west (east, north; south) of in the north (south, east, west)

within a few miles (metres, etc.) of to separate smth. from smth.

to keep smth. from (cold, regular in outline

heat, bad influence, etc.) under wheat (rye,etc.)

on the map to flow into (the sea, lake, river)

to givea good supply of owing to the shape (rain, etc.)

to flow (from, out of) to be of great (little, some, no) value

EXERCISES

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation):

A. 1. Pick out all proper names and arrange them into two groups — nouns with the definite article and without it; explain the use of the article. 2. Search the text for sentenc­es with inversion. Transform them into regular sentences and compare them with the original ones. Specify what kind of inversion it is. 3. What tense group is predominant in the text and why?

B. 1. Pick out all the adjectives that go together with the following nouns: sea, lake, river; mountains, hills, cliffs; area, land, field, moors, upland, lowland. 2. Mark all the cases when nouns are defined by two adjectives; comment on the word order; is it possible to change it? 3. Pick out all the nouns defined by the adjective small; is it possible to use lit­tle instead? 4. Search the text for the combinations of Adv +Adj ending in -ed, translate them into Russian and use them in sentences of your own.

C. 1. Pick out all the derivatives and classify them ac­cording to the suffix. 2. Search the text for compounds and comment on their structure. 3. Pick out from the text all the words that have homonyms. Spell, transcribe and classify them.

II. Write English equivalents of the following:

более миллиона тонн, миллионы людей, двести озер, глубиной 600 футов, сотни миль, длина Темзы немногим больше 200 миль, сотни островков, общая площадь Великобритании около 94 250 кв. миль или 244 000 кв. километров, население — 56 миллионов чело­век.

III. a) Make up a list of geographical names used in the text (mind the articles) and transcribe them.

b) Transcribe and translate the following words:

advantage, canal, channel, comparatively, desolate, deter­mine, estuary, extremely, glorious, heather, indentation, manufacture, moor, navigable, occasionally, plough, scenery, strait, total, vague, value, vary, wander, wheat, wind.

 

с) Translate the following verbs into English. Give their four forms:



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