ТОП 10:

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD AND THE CONDITIONAL MOOD



(To Units One—Three)

19. Name the oblique moods used in the following sentences and translate the sentences into Russian:

1. If I were young I should have a walking holiday. 2. If I were you I should pay no attention to what she says. 3. The vase is beautiful. You wouldn't find another to match it if you tried. 4. If you hated sick people you wouldn't be a doctor, dear. 5. They say Frank has changed greatly. — Oh, yes. You would hardly know him if you met him. 6. If I had known that, I shouldn't have come. 7. We should never have found the house if a passer-by hadn't helped us. 8. If you had left earlier you would have caught the tram. 9. If you had taken the medicine the doctor prescribed you, you would feel better now. 10. If you had read the article I recommended, you'd know how to answer such questions.

20. Comment on the mood of the verb in the following sentences:

1. I'll help you if I can. 2. Shut the door after you! 3. She did not know where she was and what had happened. 4.1 remember it so clearly as if it had happened only yesterday. 5. She promised she would be calm. 6. She wouldn't be calm if she knew what has happened. 7. She said she didn't know me. 8. Don't look at me as if you didn't know me. 9. The article was not difficult and I could translate it. 10. If I had a dictionary I could translate the article. 11. If I had not told him, he would never have known. 12. She was sure I had not told him the bad news.

21. Complete the following sentences a) using the Conditional Mood;

1. If it were not so late ... . 2. If it were Sunday today ... . 3. If you invited him ... . 4. If I were you ... . 5. If she lived in Moscow ... . 6. If you had waited -a little ... . 7. If I could play the piano.... 8. If you had done as I told you .... 9. If she were my sister.... 10. If the weather were fine ... .

b) using the Subjunctive Mood:

1. We should go to the country if .... 2.1 should help her if.... 3. He would have done it for you, no doubt, if.... 4. They would play tennis now if .... 5.1 should have come yesterday if.... 6. What would you do if... ? 7. It would be very nice if.... 8. I'd have a walking holiday if.... 9. They'd be only very glad if.... 10. Everything would have been all right if....

22. Supply the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:

1. If they (not to help) us we (not to find) the way. 2. If I (to have) enough money I (to buy) this cassette-recorder. 3. You (to be) able to speak English better if you (to study) harder. 4. If she (to be) older she (to understand) you better. 5. If he (to be) in town yesterday he (to call) on us. 6. We (to enjoy) the play better if it (not to be) so long. 7. My uncle (to be) able to help us if he (to be) here. 8.1 (to do) the same if I (to be) there. 9. If I (to know) of your arrival I (to meet) you. 10. If you (to know) what it is all about, you (not to keep on) smiling. 11. If you (to go) to the theatre last night, I'm sure, you (to enjoy) the play. 12. He (to act) differently if he (to realize) the situation. 13. If she (to come) earlier she (to be) able to see them before they went out. 14. Nobody told me about your trouble. I (to help) you if I (to hear) about it. 15.1 (to come) sooner if I (to know) you were here. 16. We (not to know) anything about their plans for the summer holidays if Mario (not to send) us a letter. 17. If you (to come) between two and three yesterday you (to find) him in. 18. If I (to be) you I (to have) a long wall' "s the park. 19. If 1 (can) help you I readily (to do) so, but you know I can't. 20.1 must be off now. If it (not to be) so late I (to stay) a little longer.

23. Change into sentences of unreal condition:

E x a m p l e s: She won't help us as she is not here. — She would help us if she were here.

We did not meet so often because she lived far from my place. — We should have met more often if she had not lived so far from my place.

1. They will do it if they can. 2. It isn't summer now, and we don't go to the country. "3. He doesn't write to me, and I don't write to him. 4. She didn't find the book because she didn't open the bag, 5. It will be better if they don't come. 6.1 didn't give it to you because you were out. 7.1 can't knit another sweater as I have no more wool. 8.1 don't study Italian as I haven't much spare time. 9. She didn't follow the doctor's advice and fell seriously ill. 10. The boy is shivering. He isn't quite well. 11. He refuses my help, and the work won't be finished today. 12.1 have a headache because I had a sleepless night. 13. Anne can't translate this song: she doesn't know French well enough. 14. You are not quite all right now because you didn't take the medicine regularly. 15. They took a taxi and didn't miss the train. 16. He doesn't know her address, or he will write to her, I'm sure. 17. The garden doesn't look beautiful because the trees are bare. 18. He makes so many mistakes because he doesn't know grammar well enough. 19. Will you do it for me if I ask you?

24. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Что бы вы сказали, если бы я пригласил его провести с нами субботу и восхресенье? 2. Какое лекарство вы бы рекомендовали, если у мальчика заболит горло? 3. Если бы я умела хорошо играть на рояле, я бы сыграла для вас. 4. Мальчик не дрожал бы, если бы ему не было холодно. Дайте ему чашку горячего чая. 5. Мы бы с удовольствием посидели еще часок, если бы не было так поздно. 6. Если бы я знала, что ты позвала меня, чтобы упрекать, я бы не пришла. 7. Если бы вы регулярно принимали лекарства, которые прописал врач, вы бы чувствовали себя теперь гораздо лучше. 8. Если бы мы начали работать рано утром, мы бы уже все закончили. 9. На вашем месте я бы с ними не спорила. То, что они говорят, правда. 10. Знай мы это тогда, мы бы приняли меры. И. Если бы все было в порядке, он не выглядел бы таким озабоченным. 12. Я бы давно это сделала, если бы знала, что это так важно. 13. Если бы ты последовал моему совету, все было бы теперь в порядке. 14. Если бы вы не отказались от его предложения, мы бы уехали все вместе, а не сидели бы здесь одни. 15. Я уверен, что вы могли бы сделать это без моей помощи, если бы постарались. Это было вовсе не трудно. 16. Я бы, пожалуй, осталась, если бы мне разрешили. 17. Вы бы сэкономили время, если бы поехали поездом, а не пароходом. 18. Если бы вы знали его так же хорошо, как я, вы бы ему тоже доверяли. 19. Я бы давно ответила на твой вопрос, если бы могла. 20. Если бы вы мне позвонили, я бы зашел вчера. 21. На вашем месте я бы не пошел туда без приглашения.

25. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood and translate the sentences into Russian:

a) 1. You were very kind to that foreigner, Dick. I wish that we could see him. 2. Dora wished she had got her book out of the suitcase before the train started. 3.1 wish I had thought of it before. It's a good idea. 4. He nodded his head to her and turned hastily in the direction of his own room. He wished she had not seen him. He wished she had not been there. 5. He wished heartily that Mildred had not consulted him. 6. It was a beautiful idea. I wished I had thought of it myself. 7.1 wish I could feel sure about it 8. Don't you wish you had come earlier?

b) 1. It seemed as though he wished to speak, but feared to give offence. 2.1 remember now that his colour had gone in a moment and he seemed to breathe as if he had been running. 3. Her eyes had shadows as though she had not slept. 4. Suddenly he smiled and spoke in a changed voice, as if he were confiding a secret. 5. She looked content, as though she had been waiting for this moment all day. 6. Hugh was surprised and annoyed and chilled as if the temperature of the room were sinking steadily. 7. And you behave as if we were two people who were acquainted. 8. You're almost grown-up now, and I'm going to talk to you as if you were grown-up. And you must help me. 9. They stared at each other in the silence of the house, and it was as if they were listening for distant footsteps. 10. There was a curious carefulness about his manner, as though he were concealing some pain.

c) 1. Even if you only thought that I could be of any help to you, I'd be very glad, I'd be very happy to be allowed to stay around. 2. Why say it even if it were true? 3.1 should get there even if I had to walk all the way. 4. Even though you asked him twice he would do it again; he's a stubborn boy. 5. You couldn't have got in touch with him even if you had tried; he wasn't in town. 6. Had we known in time we could have prevented the catastrophe. 7. "You see," said Randall, "I wouldn't go if you didn't want me to." 8.1 think it would be natural if you joined them. 9. "Would everything have been different if mother hadn't died?" she thought 10. No doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadn't been there.

d) 1. If only father were alive! 2. If only it were true! 3. If only I could believe that! 4. If only he had told you the whole story! 5. If only she were with us! 6. If only I hadn't mentioned his name! How foolish of me!

26. Supply the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:

1. I don't know how to address him. I wish I (to know) his name. 2. I feel as if my head (to be) on fire. 3. If only I (to know) earlier, I (to send) you a telegram. 4. My wife says she wishes I (to be) a thousand miles away. 5. He felt as if he (to float) in the air. 6. He stared at me as if I (to ask) him something very odd. 7. At that moment she wished she (not to send) for him. 8. If I (to tell) you you might have thought it was my choice. 9. Even if it (to be) twice as dangerous I (to carry out) my plan. 10.1 wish I never (to see) you. 11. Don't look at me as if you never (to see) me before. 12.1 think it (to be) natural if you (to join) them. 13. Remember her! As if I (can) forget her! 14. Then he suddenly said, "You (to take) me to Grayhallock if I (to ask)?" 15. Don't you think it (to be) rather nice if we (to ask) her to stay on for a week as our guest? 16. "How I wish I (to be) there with you," I said with deep regret. 17. "Don't be sorry," she said. "I (to be) relieved if you (to go), if it (to be) settled somehow." 18. Well, at any rate, the weather isn't going to present difficulties. It looks as though it (to set in) fine. 19.1 (to be) sure of it if I (to be) you.

27. Comment on the use of the Conditional Mood and translate the sentences into Russian:

1. I shouldn't worry now in your place. Everything will clear up very soon, I'm sure. 2. It wouldn't have astonished me if he had found some reasonable excuse and stayed away. 3. But even if you were right I should prefer to act in my own way. 4. But for my help he would have failed at the final exam. 5. It seems to me that what she refused then she would be glad to get now. 6. Sir Horace asked me one or two questions and it wouldn't have been decent manners not to reply. 7. A few years before he would not have said so of Jago. 8. Come along, Jassie! It would do you more harm to stay by yourself. 9. I'm thinking of good results we've achieved together. We shouldn't have managed them alone. It's a pity to find us divided now. 10. If you break your promise, people will say that Crawford would never have done so in similar circumstances 11. But for the bees we should have no honey. 12. She even didn't want to look in my direction; or else I'd have come up and apologized. 13. He was in a great hurry and had no time to think it over. Otherwise he would have found a better way out. 14. But Mrs. Jago's imitation of Lady Muriel was not exact. Lady Muriel would never have called men by their college titles. 15.1 myself shouldn't agree to that. 16. They would all be only glad to see you. 17.1 should have sent her away, only I thought you wanted her to talk into your machines. 18. You never did anything good to anyone. If you had done you would have more support now.

28. Translate the sentences into English, paying attention to the use of the Conditional Mood:

1. Было бы полезно посоветоваться с врачом. 2. Было бы интересно выяснить, кто из нас прав: ты или я. 3. Было бы приятно искупаться в такую жаркую погоду. 4. Было бы хорошо выпить чашечку кофе. 5. Было бы важно узнать его мнение по этому вопросу. 6. Вам было бы очень полезно заняться спортом. 7. Она бы хорошо училась, да часто болеет и пропускает занятия. 8. Мы бы охотно вам помогли, но мы очень заняты сегодня. 9. Я думаю, она не рассердилась бы,' да уж очень вы шумели. 10. Я поехал бы на юг, но мой врач мне не рекомендует. 11. Я бы пошел с вами в столовую, но врач прописал мне диету. 12. Хорошо, что вы послушались совета врача, иначе вам было бы не избежать воспаления легких. 13. В прошлое воскресенье дождь лил целый день, иначе мы поехали бы за город 14. Он говорит, что у него что-то не в порядке с сердцем, а то он принял бы участие в спортивных состязаниях. 15. Если бы не головная боль, я бы присоединилась к вашей компании. 16. Он бы не поправился так быстро после болезни, если бы не хороший уход в больнице. 17. Если бы не его хорошее здоровье, он не смог бы выдержать всех трудностей этой экспедиции. 18. Если бы не ваши пилюли, доктор, меня бы положили в больницу. Они сотворили чудо. 19. Если бы ты вчера оделась потеплее, ты бы сегодня не кашляла и не чихала. 20. Если бы вы знали симптомы кори, вы бы сразу же поняли, что это была не скарлатина. 21. Он поехал бы с нами, если бы не его внезапная болезнь. 22. Странная женщина! Она не стала бы советоваться с врачом, даже если бы почувствовала себя плохо. 23. Даже если бы ему сделали операцию, это не помогло бы. Ему уже ничем нельзя было помочь. 24. Было поздно, и было бы естественно, если бы больной ребенок уснул, но он не спал и пристально смотрел на спинку кровати. 25. Как бы вы ответили на этот вопрос? 26. Что бы вы сделали на моем месте? 27. Я бы посоветовала вам обратиться к зубному врачу. 28. Я бы этого никогда не сделал без вашей помощи.

29. Supply the correct mood of the verbs in brackets:

1. I knew he (to be) silly, but I (not to believe) that he (to be) as silly as that. 2.1 wish he (to be) a bit stronger against Crawford. 3. After a moment's silence he (to break out): "It (to be) a nuisance if I (to beg) a cup of tea in your rooms?" 4. You must thank him, not we. Without him we (not to achieve) any success. 5. I wish she (not to look) so pale. 6. "If I (to be) Crawford, I (to thank) Winslow much," said Chrystal. 7.1 (to give) a good deal for that assurance! 8. Are you glad to see me? — You're funny, Dick! As if you (not to know). 9. If I (to think) as you do I (to feel) miserable. 10. Mr. Dermant's glance rested on Shelton and quickly fell down to the ground as though he (to see) something that alarmed him. 11.1 wish you (to show) more sign of not liking it in practice. 12.1 can't for the life of me understand why you didn't wait before they decided. I (to expect) you to discuss it with me. 13. When Hilary opened the door the stranger made a quick movement forward, almost as if he (to be) going to stick his foot hurriedly to the opening. 14. Her voice sounded as though something (to offend) her. 15.1 wish I (can) play tennis as well as you do. 16. He looked up sharply as if he (to make) a dangerous remark 17.1 may travel out with Uncle, but it (to be) such fun if you (to come). 18. He saw it as clearly as though it (to be) before his eyes. 19. But for your friendship I (to feel) lonely here.

30. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to the use of the Subjunctive and the Conditional:

I. Как жаль, что он уехал. 2. Она желала, чтобы была ночь вместо утра, чтобы никто не видел, как она несчастна. 3. Как жаль, что она не сестра мне, я бы ее очень любила. 4. Как жаль, что сегодня не воскресенье, я бы сводила детей в зоопарк. 5. Мы пожалели, что оставили его там одного. 6. Обидно, что вы мне не верите. Я никогда не обманывал вас. ?. Он пожалел, что ушел рано. 8. Рэндал рассердился так, как будто были истрачены его собственные деньги. 9. Не смотри на меня так, как будто никогда не видел меня раньше. 10. У нее такой вид, как будто она не знает, что сказать. 11. Даже если бы мы получили телеграмму вчера, все равно было бы слишком поздно. 12. Даже если бы я была очень занята, я бы все равно нашла время навестить ее в больнице. 13. Если бы только он не был таким ленивым! 14. О, если бы я могла быть уверенной, что это так! 15. Если бы не велосипед, он бы нас не догнал. 16. Если бы не ваша беспечность, несчастного случая не произошло бы. 17. Если бы не его сообразительность, мы не сделали бы перевод так быстро и не были бы сейчас свободны. 18. Если бы я знал, что ты првдешь, я бы остался дома. 19. Я бы пошел с вами, но у меня болен братишка, и мне надо идти в аптеку. 20. Это было бы важно тогда, но не теперь. 21. Вам было бы полезно спать с открытым окном круглый год

31. Comment on the use of the Old Present Subjunctive and translate the sentences into Russian:

1. "So be it," returned Steerford. 2. Success attend you! 3. Now it was Wednesday, and he was determined to go, come what might, in the late afternoon. 4. My sentence is that the prisoner be hanged. 5. Whoever he be, he must be punished. 6. See that all be present, when he comes. 7. He insisted that the boy remain in bed. 8. The workers demanded that their wages be increased.

MODAL VERBS[84]

(To Units Four—Six)

can, may

32. Say whether could is the form of the Indicative or of the Subjunctive. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. He took up a position from which he could see what was going around. 2. Oh! If I only could go back to my flower basket! 3. If I thought like you I couldn't stay another day in India. 4. I don't believe I could utter one of the old sounds if I tried. 5. Oh, Gustave, we're so thirsty. Could you bring us some ginger-ale? 6.1 can't tell stories, never could. 7. Shelton could not help a smile; Lady Bonington in the place of the poor! 8. But he could not, did not know how to turn and go away. 9. How could you be so silly, Henry? 10. Do you think you could complete it by the evening? 11. If she had said "He's gone to Mars" she could not have dealt James a more stunning blow. 12. What could he do to help her? If only his father were alive! He could have done so much! 13. He could neither move nor speak. 14. What could you know of such things? 15. Could you believe that? 16. Could it be that he is lying? 17. I wonder what that could have meant? 18. He couldn't be so sure if he didn't know it for certain. 19, Do you think you could command an army? 20. The mountains were a long way away and you could see snow on their tops.

33. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb can. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. I can't exactly express my meaning. 2. He could not take his eyes off her. 3. She can play the piano quite beautifully. 4. We'll go away today, if you like. We can easily catch the 3.40. 5. It is quite fine, Clara, the rain has stopped. We can walk to a motor bus. 6. You can't take the knowledge you gave me. 7.1 will let you know, so you can be there. 8. He was so weak that he could not lift his head. 9. He is much better and can walk without my help now. 10. Oh! It can't be true! 11. Oh? Freddy, there must be one (a cab). You can't have tried. 12. He can't have taken it (the box) upstairs this morning. 13. Anne can't mean that, it's not like her. 14. He couldn't have done it all by himself. Somebody helped him, I'm sure. 15. Can you believe the girl? Can it be true? 16. "Can he be my son?" she thought. 17. Could she have done it without consulting me? 18. Can it really be as bad as that? 19. There's such a smell of burning. Daddy. Can I go down and see? 20. James, you can take Agatha down. 21. You can wait in the kitchen. 22. You can keep the change. 23. You can take my other umbrella. 24. What is done cannot be undone. 25. Nothing can be done, it's too late. 26.1 don't believe a single word of his; he can't have failed to leam the news before us.

34. Use the verb can in the correct form followed by the appropriate infinitive:

1. Have you a friend whom you ... (to trust)? 2. What ... Freddy (to do) all this time? He has been gone for twenty minutes. 3. He ... not (to see) me. I came when he had gone. 4. I am not a person who ... (to tell) a lie. 5. How ... you (to make) such a mistake as to suppose that I was younger than you? 6, Surely you ... (to do) it before. What have you been doing all the morning? 7. Say what you like, but the work ... not (to do) in two days. 8. Mr. Fenwill's house was built on the top of the hill and ... (to see) from afar. 9.1... not (to sleep) two hours, I still feel tired. 10. He ... not (to be) her father: he is too young. 11. They .„not (to hear) us. Knock again. 12. If you had asked me for money I... (to lend) you some. 13. He ... (to tell) me the answer but he refused to. 14. ... he still (to sleep)? It seems to me they simply don't want us to see him. 15.1... not (to swim) — I wish I... . 16. She has a university education and ... (to make) a career for herself if she hadn't married. 17. You ... not (to forget). I don't believe you.

35. Translate Into English, using; the verb can;

1. He может быть, чтобы он солгал. Это на него не похоже. 2. Неужели это правде, что он стал известным актером? 3. Не может быть, чтобы они были брат и сестра. Они совсем не похожи друг на друга. 4. Вряд ли это так. Во всяком случае мы не можем это доказать. 5. Интересно, что вы могли бы предложить при подобных обстоятельствах? 6. Вряд ли он мог допустить такую ошибку. Он опытный инженер. 7. Неужели все это лишь его фантазия? 8. Если бы не он, мы могли бы заблудиться. Уже темнело. 9. На вашем месте я бы ему не доверял, он может обмануть вас. 10. Вряд ли он так молод. Я заметил у него седые волосы на висках. 11. Вы его легко можете узнать по благородному орлиному профилю. 12. Не может быть, чтобы они нас заметили. Мы были довольно далеко от них. 13. Не может быть, чтобы они нас не заметили. Мы были совсем близко. 14. Нельзя судить о человеке по внешности. Наружность обманчива. 15. Неужели это маленькая Лиззи? Как она выросла! 16. Могу я видеть управляющего? — К сожалению, нет. Он будет сегодня в 12. 17. Не мог бы ты дать мне конспекты при условии, что я верну их послезавтра? 18. Она надеется, что можно избежать операции. 19. Можно было видеть, что он был взволнован, хотя и старался выглядеть беззаботным. 20. Можно тебя на несколько слов? — Ну, в чем дело? 21. Это нельзя сделать так быстро. Вам придется подождать. 22. Он не умел читать по-латыни и не мог понять, что ему прописал врач. 23. Неужели ты не можешь объяснить родителям, что ты не в состоянии поехать туда? 24. Поначалу он не мог нащупать пульса и решил, что его сердце перестало биться. 25. Не мог он этого сказать. Он не так глуп, как ты думаешь. 26. Я бы давно мог это сделать, если бы знал, что это так срочно. 27. Я не верю, что есть болезни, которые нельзя излечить. Мы просто не знаем, как их лечить. 28. Не может быть, чтобы это была правда.

36. Comment on the form and meaning of the verb may. Translate the sentences into Russsian:

1. It may be so or it may be not... I don't know, and what's more, I don't care. 2. "The old actor was drunk," thought he. "Still there may be truth in what he said." 3. This may be the reason of their refusal to join us. 4. You may want a friend some day. 5. I think we might be great friends. 6. She might be a sistei of Mercy, I should think, sir. 7. Jane may have met him at her uncle's. 8. They may not have come back yet. Let's ring them up and find out. 9. I suppose she might be glad to see him, though I am not sure. 10. Still there is the risk that he might come. 11. If he had brought a weapon Soames might have used it at that moment. 12. If he weren't ill he might be in much greater danger. 13. He had known before he looked, but a vague hope that he might have been mistaken had encouraged him. 14. May I come, Mr. Doolittle? I should be very sorry to miss your wedding. 15. May I ask whether you complain of your treatment here? 16. Mr. Higgins told me I might come. 17. I think you might work harder! 18. Surely Holly might have told him all this before. 19. Really, mamma, you might have spared Freddy that! 20. He might be seen in the club any night of the year. 21. I suffered most from the thought that people might guess my state. 22. Let's go a little farther, I'm afraid they may hear us from the house. 23. It is possible that he may leave it as it is. 24. I hope your dream may come true. 25. However hard he may work he won't catch up with the group after being so seriously ill for a long time. 26. May I talk to you sometimes? I know I'm not a bit clever but I'll try not to be a bore.

37. Translate these sentences into English, using the verb may.

1. Давайте подождем немного. Он, возможно, еще придет. 2. Она, может быть, ничего об этом не знает. 3. Многое может показаться нам необычным в чужой стране. 4. Мой вопрос, возможно, озадачит вас, но все же я хочу задать его. Можно? 5. «Тетушка, можно мне взять еще кусок сахару?» — спросил Том. 6. Может, это всех вас удивит, но я получил приглашение к ним на вечер. 7. Можно остаться дома, а можно и сходить в кино, 8. Позвони Нику, он, возможно, уже видел новый фильм. Спроси, стоит ли его смотреть. 9. В самом деле, Джон, ты мог бы объяснить мне с самого начала, насколько это было важно. t0. Если вы бывали в Лондоне, вы, возможно, заметили, что это город контрастов. 11. Я не знаю, где она, может быть, в саду, а, может быть, ушла в библиотеку. 12. Никто не отвечает. Может быть, он еще не вернулся с работы. 13, Я думаю, он, возможно, не знает всех деталей, но основная идея ему ясна. 14. Может быть, это невежливо, но я скажу ему, чтобы он больше не приходил. 15. Если бы он не столкнулся с нами случайно в метро, мы бы, возможно, никогда его больше не встретили. 16. Мне тоже можно прийти, не правда ли? 17. Вполне возможно, что они ждут нас внизу. 18. Боюсь, мы можем опоздать. 19. Надеюсь, мы встретим там вашу сестру. 20. Оки боялись, что их, возможно, спросят, почему Том не пришел с ними. 21. Как бы поздно вы ни вернулись, я буду ждать вас. 22. Я принес вам большой ящик, чтобы вы могли упаковать ваши книги.

38. Fill in the blanks with the verbs can or may in the correct form:

1. When you get there tell them to wait. I... be a little late. 2.1 ... come at six. I'll be free by that time. 3. ... this old man be Tom Brown? He ... not have changed so much! 4. None of us know what... happen before it is finished. 5. This ... be a great idea. It ... also be a trap in which England will perish. 6. I'm not sure, but she ... have gone to the village shop. 7. I told them he ... be in the garden. 8. Sh! She ... hear you. 9. How strange!... you believe that? 10.1 haven't seen her for ages. She ... be quite middle-aged by now. 11. Don't send him away. We ... need his advice. 12. I fear they ... miss the train. They left rather late. 13. It ... be seen that he was puzzled. 14. Why do what... never be needed? 15. People ... chatter about her, but they don't know anything definite against her. 16. He ... not have thought of this himself. Who suggested it to him? 17. He... be a medical student though I'm not sure. 18. But what more he ... have said I don't know for I left. 19". You ... tell me what he said! I have a right to know. 20. Miss Carter ... have gone to the school to call on Mr. Ever-ard. 21. Then he found that he ... not stay in bed. 22.1... not swim. I expect you .... Everyone ... except me. 23. You ... have warned me beforehand! 24. He ... not have said that. I don't believe you. 25. It was a year or two ago, or it... be three years ago. 26. She came to ask her mother if she ... stay and dance a little longer.

39. Point out the oblique moods and modal phrases with can and may. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. — Will you be coming again this year, Mr. Welch?

— I might manage it, I suppose.

2. It might never have happened if you'd sent him to a real doctor when he first got sick.

3. "That wouldn't surprise me in the least," Bertrand said, standing aside so that Margaret could pass him.

4. She glanced up quickly as if she had been expecting to be asked this, but he couldn't tell whether she was glad or sorry when it came.

5. — Can you stop talking about it?

— I wish I hadn't said what I did say. I was a fool. I acted like a perfect fool.

6. I think they got back before us. They might have got a taxi.

7. — Why didn't you tell me?

— I couldn't. It wouldn't have done me any good.

8. But for your kindness and understanding I couldn't have done it all in so short a time.

9. I wish I had my car here so that I might drive you home.

10. Had she been a man she might have been described as a bright young man of business.

40. Translate these sentences into English, using can or may.

1. Неужели это Джим Стирфорс? Он совсем старик, седой и сутулый! 2. Я думаю, она»не захотела со мной разговаривать. — Я бы так не думала. Может быть, она вас не заметила 3. Не может быть, чтобы он обманул их, он честный человек. 4. И ты не мог догадаться, куда я положила деньги? 5. Может, он и знает об этом, а не хочет сказать нам. 6. Не может быть, чтобы она не нашла вашего дома. Я сама дала ей ваш адрес. 7. Неужели ребенок все еще спит? Вам давно пора его разбудить, 8. Вы могли бы сказать мне об этом вчера! 9. Я бы с удовольствием пришел, но, возможно, я буду занят. 10. Может быть, это правда, а может, нет. П. Не могли бы вы одолжить мне 3 рубля до завтра? 12. Я позвоню ему, возможно, он не знает, что случилось. 13. Вам придется поторопиться, или вы можете опоздать. 14. Я сделаю все, что могу, чтобы помочь вам. 15. Куда бы это он мог уйти? 16. Вы могли бы сделать это сами, вы просто не попытались. 17, Подойди поближе, чтобы я мог лучше тебя рассмотреть. 18, Вы можете его узнать по фотографии? 19. Не моху себе представить, что из этого может получиться. 20. Возможно, новость уже всем известна. 21. Не может быть, чтобы он знал об этом. Он вел бы себя иначе. 22. Кто бы это мог сказать такую вещь? 23. Он, возможно, им все уже рассказал. 24. Подожди, пока он придет. Может быть, он разъяснит нам, в чем дело.

 

Must

41. Comment on the meaning of the verb must. Translate the sentences into Russian;

1. Old age must lean on something, 2. A man must stand up for his rights. 3. You mustn't think it's so very easy. 4. Must it be done before tomorrow? 5. She must work from morning till night to earn her living, 6. One must have a rest after a day of hard work. 7. The only thing he knew for certain was that he must not meet Antonia. 8. You are right, I mustn't stay here. 9. You must be reasonable, Mr. Higgins; really you must. 10. Give him something to eat. He must be hungry. 11. That fellow must be made of steel. He's never tired. 12. It's quite a charming letter. Must have taken the poor young man an hour to write it. 13. He must be quite old by now. 14. You must have frightened her. 15. That fellow has seen and felt ten times as much as I, although he must be ten years younger. 16.1 felt that before long my secret must be known. 17.1 hear somebody's steps on the stairs. She must be coming! 18. Judging from the books and papers on his writing-table he must have been working for several hours.

42. Translate the following sentences Into English:

Note:Remember that mustin the meaning of supposition is not used in the negative.

1. Там, должно быть, никого нет. 2. Он, должно быть, ничего не понял и обиделся. 3. Она, наверное, не помнит, что обещала принести нам карту Москвы, 4. Вы, по всей вероятности, не знали, что они переехали в один из пригородов Лондона. 5. Она, наверное, оставила дверь незапертой. 6. Вы, наверное, не встречали такого забавного мальчишки, как наш Тим. 7. Вам, должно быть, нелегко этому поверить. 8. Дети, должно быть, не заметили, что уже стемнело. 9. Он, наверняка, ничего об этом не знает. 10. Она, наверное, совсем неопытна в переводе медицинских статей с английского на русский. 11. Это, должно быть, кажется вам невероятным, но это факт. 12. Он, должно быть, не узнал вас в толпе.

43. Change the following sentences from Active into Passive:

1. You must take this medicine regularly. 2. Students must do homework in time. 3. We can win peace. War is not inevitable. 4. You may put the book on the upper shelf. 5. You may allow the children to go for a walk. 6. We must discuss the matter not later than tomorrow. 7. Nobody can do it without your help. 8. We must look into the matter. 9. You mustn't take the magazine away. 10. You must post the letter as soon as you have written it. 11. May I take the books and papers away? 12. I must pay for the dinner. 13. You must work for success, 14. You can't describe it. One must just see it.

44. Fill in the blanks with the verbs can, may or must:

1. I have forgotten my own language and ... speak nothing but yours. 2, We ... go somewhere. We ... not wander about for ever. 3. But I think you ... have told us this half an hour ago! 4. You ... see much of interest there. 5. I did not hear him return to the room. I... have been asleep. 6. You ... have mistaken him, my dear. He ... not have intended to say that. 7. It seemed possible they ... return. 8. It.. not have happened at Ainswick. 9. No good looking back; things happen as they .... 10. To be ashamed of his own father is perhaps the bitterest experience a young man ... go through. 11. How ... you let things slide like that, Dick? 12.1 think you ... be glad of some coffee before you start back to your hotel. It's such a cold night. 13. It was known — whispered among the old, discussed among the young — that the family pride ... soon receive a blow. 14. And though he undressed and got into bed he ... not sleep. 15. You ... not go out so late at night. 16.1 think it... happen sooner or later. 17.1... come tonight, ... I not? 18. Somebody is knocking at the door. It... be John. — It ... not be John. It's too early for him to be back. 19.1 don't know for certain, but he ... have been a sailor in his youth. 20. They... ask me about him. What should I say?

45, Translate these sentences into English, using the verbs can, may, mash

1. Если вы так думаете, то вы не правы. Вы не должны так думать. 2. Возможно, что население вашего города больше, но что это доказывает? 3. Теперь ты свободна и можешь делать, что тебе нравится. 4. Е этом, должно быть, что-то есть. 5, Он, может быть, ничего не знает о том, что мы собираемся осмотреть достопримечательности города сразу посла завтрака, 6. Вред ли они вернулись из зоопарка. Они там впервые и могут долго пробыть. 7, Если ты будешь проводить так много времени перед телевизором, у тебя может разболеться голова. 8. Мальчик, возможно, вырвал картинку из книги, которую вы оставили на столе. 9. Если это так, то его нужно наказать. 10 Вы можете найти его в саду, я полагаю. Он, должно быть, играет а теннис с Джимом. II. Она, может быть, ничего не знает об этом. Вы тоже не должны ей ничего говорить пока. 12. Она говорит, что поездка в Лондон произвела на нее незабываемое впечатление. Она никогда не думала, что это может быть так интересно: узнавать места, о которых она знала из книг. 13. Мы могли бы найти дорогу обратно в отель сами, если бы Бо-, рис не потерял карту Лондона. 14. Переверни еще одну или две страницы, и ты увидишь фотографию. Скажи мне, если можешь, кто это. 15. Интересно, что он может делать здесь так поздно? — Возможно, он ждет Мэри. 16. Что это за шум? — Это, должно быть, в ванной течет вода. Кто-то моется. 17. Если бы на этот вопрос можно было дать ответ, он был бы дан давным-давно. 18. Кто бы это мог забыть ключ у меня на письменном столе? Неужели Джим? 19. Не может быть, чтобы Джим забыл ключ. Я видел, как он клал его в карман. 20. Не могли бы вы прийти немного раньше? Это было бы удобнее для меня. 21. Он постоял, раздумывая, можно ли ему незаметно уйти, рассердится ли Минин, когда узнает. 22. Я не умею говорить по-французски, никогда не умел. 23. Должно быть, трудно овладеть иностранным языком, не правда ли?

46. Comment on the meaning of have to. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. I'm afraid, I shall have to send him away. 2. Was the fire already laid or did you have to lay it? 3. The rope was so strong that he had to take a knife to cut it. 4. But was it worth while going to bed when he had to be up again at five? 5. I suppose I shall have to go back to London, shan't I? 6. Do you have to get up early every morning? 7. He will have to pay me back before Sunday. 8. How long did you have to stay there? 9. "We shall have to wait a long time for our holidays," she said with a sigh. 10. And you have to go there twice a week, don't you?

47. Fill in the blanks with must or have to:

1. Don't worry about that. You ... do as you think best. 2. My mother was unwell, and I... go to the chemist's. 3.1... go and look at the dinner. 4. Yesterday's rain spoilt my hat completely; I ... buy a new one. 5. There was no one to help him so he ... move the furniture himself. 6. "Oh, hallo," she said; "I thought you ... have gone home." 7. They didn't answer my first knock so I ... knock twice. 8. You ... always come to me if anything goes wrong. 9. He was very sorry to think that he would ... part with it. 10. I had a sleepless night. I ... go and see the doc and get him to give me something, I can't go on like that.

48. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative:

1. He will have to come again. 2. My sister has to go to work. 3. They had to go back alone. 4. You have to answer all these questions. 5. I shall have to go out after all. 6. He will have to come on foot. 7. The students had to read the whole book. 8. She has to come every week. 9. He has to stay the night. 10. They had to begin very early.

49. Change the following statements into disjunctive questions:

1. I gather you have to read a lot in English. 2. He had to wait at the station till it stopped raining. 3. The work will have to be done before nightfall. 4. They usually have dinner at home. 5. She often has to go to the dentist's. 6. You have to go to school on Saturday. 7. They will have to do what they are told. 8. We have to begin before five o'clock. 9. As far as I understand you had to stay there a fortnight. 10. You look a bit tired, you've had a long walk. 11. She has to clean the house herself. 12. They had to finish that last night

50. Group the examples according to the meaning of the "be + infinitive" construction: (i) expressing a previously arranged plan (2) expressing instructions or commands:

1. I am to see him tomorrow. 2. What am I to do now? 3. You are not to communicate with anybody. 4. She said that I was not to leave the house. 5. She is to return tomorrow. 6. He said that Tom was to apologize. 7. He inquired when the secretary was to come. 8. She says I am not to lay the table before twelve o'clock. 9. At what time am I to come? 10. Something must have happened. He was to have come at eight. 11. Jim reminded me that we were to be at the station not later than seven. 12. W^hich of you is to bring the magazines and newspapers?

51. Comment on the use of must, have to, be to and translate the sentences into Russian:

1. I want you to obey her. You must do exactly as she says and make no noise. 2. "Well, what am I to do about dinner?" said Miss Handforth. "Spoil it by over-cooking or let it get cold?" 3. Randall was excited. He thought he must telephone her at once, he must see her, somehow, that very day. 4. Emma must have been very beautiful when she was young. She has a fine face. 5. "We are not to be trifled with," returned the policeman in a threatening voice. 6. You must come and have dinner with me some time. 7. He lost all his money at the races and I had to lend him five pounds. 8.1 hope I won't upset or annoy you by speaking frankly. I must have your advice. 9. Wake up, do you hear! You are to wake up at once. 10. So Frank has come? — Oh, yes; quite unexpectedly. He was to have stayed a week longer. 11. You are not to stay so late. You may leave after dinner. 12. The story was still clear in his mind. He knew what had to be done. He took his pen and wrote in his neat, steady hand the title of his new novel.

 

Need

52. Comment on the meaning of the verb need:

1. He needs sea air. 2. We don't need anything else. 3.1 need not finish my sentence, for you already know what I was going to say. 4. Need it be finished by Saturday? 5. What more do you need? 6. He need say no more to her this evening, and risk giving himself away. 7. You needn't have carried all these parcels yourself. The shop would have delivered them if you had asked them. 8. You needn't take any more pills after next Monday. 9.1 must go at once, but you needn't. 10. You needn't have waited for me, I could have found the way. all right. 11. Looking back I can see exactly how it happened. It need never have happened. 12. And he was always careful to have money in his pocket, and to be modish in his dress, so that his son need not blush for him.

53. Fill in the blanks with didn't have to or needn't have:

1. You ... (to bring) your umbrella, as we are going by car. 2. You ... (to water) the flowers, as it is going to rain. 3. I ... (to translate) it for him, he did it himself, he understands Latin. 4. I... (to answer) the questions, which saved me a lot of trouble. 5. I knew I ... (to lock) the door after me, but how was I to know you wanted to come out, too? 6.1... (to ring) the bell because the door opened before I got to it. 7. I... (to help) them at all, they themselves knew what to do. 8. I ... (to write) him because the news was already known to him. He phoned me shortly afterwards. 9. You ... (to listen) to him. His information was misleading. 10. You ... (to buy) such a lot of flowers. We've already got more than necessary. 11. He... (to get up) so early every day. It was only on that particular occasion that he did. 12. You ... (to say) if you didn't want to. We could have done without you just as well.

54. Fill in the blanks with mast, have to, be to or need:

1. You ... not (to bring) your books to class tomorrow, we are going to listen to a wireless programme. 2. I'm glad the lessons will begin later now. The children won't... (to get up) so early. 3. You ... not (to learn) the poem. You ... only (to read) it. 4. Children ... not (to play) with matches. 5. It was late, and they ...(to light) a fire to cook their supper. 6. You ... (to give) it back to me before you go. 7. You ... not (to be) late for the concert. 8.1 made a few mistakes, so I... (to do) the whole exercise again. 9.1... hardly (to say) how important it is. 10. She ... (to be married) next month. 11. You... not (to miss) that film, it is extraordinary good. 12. You ... not (to strike) a match; I can see well enough. 13. Jim ... (to make) a speech at the meeting, but he had fallen ill, so Tom ... (to speak) instead, 14. You ... not (to bring) any food with you tomorrow. I'll have enough for both of us. 15. We ... (to be) there at 12 sharp. 16, We ... not (to wait) long. A bus came almost at once. 17. You ... (to learn) the whole poem.

55. Translate the sentences into English, using must, ham to, be to or need:

1. Зря мы вышли из дому так рано, поезда не будет в течение часа. 2. Мы можем не спешить. Нам не нужно быть там раньше 8.30. 3. Вы не должны следовать их примеру. Это было бы глупо с вашей стороны. 4. Интересно, надо ли приносить с собой учебники? 5. Мне не пришлось запирать дверь, кто-то уже запер ее. 6. «Если завтра будет сильный мороз, — сказала мать, — тебе можно будет не ходить в школу». 7. Вам незачем беспокоиться, они скоро вернутся. Наверное, задержались на набережной Темзы у здания Парламента: их всё здесь интересует. 8. Не нужно забывать, что в Ист-Энде живут те, кто своим трудом обеспечивают жизнь этого огромного города. 9. Вам не обязательно продолжать, я знаю, вы скажете, что среди архитектурных памятников Лондона особое внимание привлекает Вестминстерское аббатство, построенное в XIII веке. 10. Они должны были встретиться на мосту Ватерлоо в 6 пополудни. 11. Что мне рассказать нашим гостям о поездке в Лондон? — Опиши им церемонию караула у ворот лондонского Тауэра. 12. Она сказала, в какое время мы должны были прийти, и попросила не опаздывать. 13. Мы решили, что дети не должны идти туда одни. 14. Нет нужды упоминать, что Кремль — выдающийся музей и памятник старины. Это всем известно. 15. Мне пришлось принять это приглашение, хотя я очень неважно себя чувствовал. Я не хотел обидеть своих новых друзей. 16. Он знал, что ему, возможно, придется прожить там больше месяца. 17. Спроси старосту, кто сегодня должен принести наушники на урок фонетики. 18. Вчера мы должны были навестить Аню в больнице и поэтому не могли зайти к тебе.

Ought

56. Comment on the meaning of the verb ought. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. I think for your wife and children's sake you ought to have a try. 2. There are people who think they ought to be reformed. 3. We all know that things are not always what they ought to be. 4. You ought to do something, you know; it'll be fatal for you to have nothing to do. 5. Have I said anything I oughtn't? 6. "I ought to have told Soames," he thought, "that I think him comic." 7. I suppose she is right. I oughtn't to have tried to speak to her! 8. By the end of the evening I almost felt that I ought to call him "Uncle Jack." 9. It'll be lovely round there today. — Yes, it ought to be quite nice. 10. It is the last of the Madeira I had from Mr. Jolyon when we came in here; it ought to be in prime condition still.

57. Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use ought (oughtn't) followed by a correct form of the infinitive:

E x a m p l e: I felt it would be only proper to follow his advice.

I felt I ought to follow his advice.

1. I knew it would be improper if I opened the letter. 2. I recommended you to finish your work before going out. 3. I advise you not to eat between meals; it will make you fat. 4. I disapprove of your smoking so much; you are wasting your money and doing harm to your health. 5. It's a pity I didn't take those books back to the library last week. 6. It was wrong of you not to tell our guide that you wanted to go sightseeing all by yourself. 7. You didn't wait till the lights were green before crossing the road, and it was wrong, you know. 8. It was unreasonable of you to have crossed the road when the lights were red. 9. I wish you had been there. The performance was wonderful. 10. If he starts at eight he will probably be there by one o'clock.

58. Fill in the blanks with ought, have to, be to or need followed by the appropriate infinitive:

1. Mother always tells me that I ... (to be) more careful. 2. You ... not (to tell) him my telephone number, he knows it. 3. You ... not (to say) that! See how distressed she is. 4.1 don't want to do it, but I.... 5. All the same, I think you ... (to see) a doctor. There must be something the matter with you. 6. Don't forget that you ... (to get up) at seven! 7. But there was no other way out. 1... (to communicate) with him. No one else knew her address. 8. Such things ... not (to be allowed). 9, You ... not (to write) such a long composition. The teacher only asked for 200 words, and you have written 400. 10. "Perhaps I... not (to trouble) you." He closed his lips tight. He was offended.

 

Should

59. Comment on the meaning of the verb should. Translate the sentences into Russian:

1. Can you show me any English woman who speaks English as it should be spoken? 2. A wife should obey her husband. 3. Besides you shouldn't cut your old friends now that you have risen in the world. 4. They should be taught a lesson. 5. I confess I did not foresee this turn of events. But I should have foreseen it. 6. You have discovered what I intended you should never have known. 7. He should not have said it. The moment the words crossed his lips he knew it was not the right thing to say. 8. Considerable debate took place between the two sisters whether Timothy should or shouldn't be summoned to see Annette. 9. "You should come here often," he said to Shelton... "You ought to come here often," he repeated to Shelton. 10. You ought to finish your work before going out. — I know I should.

60. State whether should is auxiliary or modal:

1. "So you think I should go, then?" said Randall behind him. 2. At breakfast I told Mary that I should be absent at least four days. 3. I shouldn't have believed it if I hadn't seen it with my own eyes. 4. You really shouldn't have said that, Felix. I'll talk to him myself. 5. How about Pinfold? Shouldn't he be here? 6. Thank God for our Gilbert. What should we do without him? 7. No one knew when I was to be back or if I should be back at all. 8. Felix said hastily, "Forgive me. I shouldn't have troubled you". 9. Nell has just told me you wanted to see me or I shouldn't have troubled you. 10. They had not seen — no one should see her distress, not even her grandfather.

61. Translate the sentences into English, using must, ought, should, need, have to or be to:

1. Извините, что задержал вас, но мне надо было позвонить домой и предупредить, чтобы меня не ждали к обеду. 2. В конце концов мы решили, что нам не следует там дольше оставаться и что нужно отправляться в горы. 3. Ты должна одеться в самое лучшее, я хочу, чтобы ты произвела на всех наилучшее впечатление. 4. Вы должны были приготовить домашнее задание как следует. Тогда бы вам не пришлось задавать подобных вопросов. 5. Напрасно ты ждала столько времени. Тебе бы лучше было оставить мне записку. Я бы сделала все, что ты хотела, 6. Они, должно быть, работают в лаборатории. Не следует им мешать. 7. Почему ты не пришла вчера? — Я должна была встречать двоюродную сестру на вокзале. — Тогда ты должна была бы позвонить, мы бы тебя не ждали. 8. Поступай, как знаешь, я не собираюсь мешать тебе, кроме того, мне предстоит вскоре уехать. 9. Вечер, вероятно, будет интересным. Студенты так долго готовили его. 10. Нет ничего смешного в том, что он сказал. Нужно быть серьезнее. И. Ему придется работать здесь, пока лаборатория ремонтируется. 12. Ты сказал, это шутки ради, а она обиделась. Нужно быть более внимательным к людям. 13. Подготовка к их приезду заняла у нас целый день. Каждому пришлось что-то сделать, 14. Такие люди достойны восхищения. 15. Мне не пришло в голову поговорить с ним, а следовало бы. 16. Не разрешай детям играть в моей комнате. Они перевернут там все вверх дном, а тебе потом придется приводить все в порядок. 17. Вам не нужно было беспокоить профессора. Я мог бы дать вам всю необходимую информацию. 18. Им следовало бы удержать его от такого неразумного шага. Они еще пожалеют об этом. 19. Я точно следую указаниям, которые получила. Я хорошо знаю, с чегомне надо начинать.

62. Comment on the use of should for the sake of emotional colouring. Pay attention to the structure of the sentences and the word combination it is found in:







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