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My Memories and Miseries As a Schoolmaster
The parents of the boys at school naturally fill a broad page in a schoolmaster's life and are responsible for many of his sorrows. There are all kinds and classes of them. Most acceptable to the schoolmaster is the old-fashioned type of British father who enters' his boy at the school and says:
"Now I want this boy well thrashed if he doesn't behave himself. If you have any trouble with him let me know and I'll come and thrash him myself. He's to have a shilling a week pocket money and if he spends more than that let me know and I'll stop his money altogether."
Brutal though his speech sounds, the real effect of it is to create a strong prejudice in the little boy's favour, and when his father curtly says, "Good-bye, Jack" and he answers, "Good-bye, father," in a trembling voice, the schoolmaster would be a hound, indeed, who could be unkind to him.
But very different is the case of the up-to-date parent. "Now I've just given Jimmy five pounds," he says to the schoolmaster, in the same tone as he would use to an inferior clerk in his office, "and I've explained to him that when he wants any more he's to tell you to go to the bank and draw for him what he needs." After which he goes on. to explain that Jimmy is a boy of very peculiar disposition, requiring the greatest nicety of treatment; that they find if he gets in tempers the best way is to humour him and presently he'll come round. Jimmy, it appears, can be led, if led gently, but never driven.
During all of which time the schoolmaster, insulted by being treated as an underling, has already fixed his eye on the undisciplined young pup called Jimmy with a view of trying out the problem of seeing whether he can't be driven after all. (From "College Days" by S. Leacock)
b) Answer the questions below:
1. How does the author characterize two opposite types of "British father"? 2. Why, in Leacock's view, the "old-fashioned" type is more acceptable for a schoolmaster? Would you prefer to have Jack or Jimmy for a pupil? 3. How did the acquaintance with the fathers influence the schoolmaster's attitude to the boys? Do you find it natural? 4. Do you think the problems raised in the text are outdated? Justify your answer. 5. In what way should teachers and parents cooperate in educating the child?
XVI. Act as an interviewer. Let the rest of the group speak about why and how they decided to qualify as a teacher of languages. Find out:
1. if anybody or anything influenced their choice;
2. when they finally made up their minds;
3. what attracts them in the work;
4. what they consider its advantages and disadvantages.
XVII. Interview a teacher at the school where you have school practice. Ask him or her the questions from Exercise XVI and also try to find out:
1. how long he or she has been in teaching;
2. if he or she ever regretted having taken up the job;
3. what is the most notable feature of teaching;
4. what advice he or she can give to a teacher trainee.
Discuss the interviews in class.
XVIII. Comment on the picture. You may find these phrases useful:
a Teacher-Parent Association meeting; to keep discipline in the classroom; to use traditional (new) methods; to be in the habit of giving orders; to be strict with the pupils: to tell the pupils off; a bossy teacher.
"I will now explain the progressive methods by which your children are taught — so keep quiet, sit up straight and don't fidget."
XIX. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film segment 1 "An Unexpected Turn'' (London), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISHI
Clarity, interest and emphasis are marks of good writing. Good writing is also based on selection of words in a sentence, on organization of sentences in a paragraph, and on unity of a written passage. These are the main objectives of the second-year studies of written English.
Patterns of written prose. When writing you may choose to describethe facts or events, to tell a storyabout them, to argueabout them or to explainthem according to your understanding. These verbs correspond to four basic forms of treating a topic: description, narration, argumentation,and exposition (explanation).
Paragraph is a single sentence or a group of related sentences expressing and developing a basic idea, or a particular phase of thought. The paragraph is a practical device in writing. Its purpose is to indicate the beginnings and endings of a thought unit. The beginning of a paragraph is indicated by beginning a line a little in from the margin.
Here is a short paragraph describing a well-known portrait: "Mona Lisa (Gioconda) isrepresented sitting in front of a marble balcony. The left arm rests on the arm of the seat, and the fingers fold over the end of it. The right hand, perhaps the most perfect hand ever painted, lies lightly over the left hand and wrist. On sleeves and bodice the pleats of the satin dress take the light" (From "Leonardo de Vinci" by E. Mc. Curely)
The author presents his impressions of the portrait and describes it in detail.
Here is another example of a paragraph telling a story: "A rather dreadful thing happened in the car as they were driving up from the beach to the ancient town, once a Norman port, but now left high and dry by the receding sea." (From "The Wind" by A. Bennett)
Here is an example of a paragraph of argumentation: "I am here to say a very few words or» the whole question of the treatment of animals by our civilized selves. For I have no special knowledge, like some who will speak to you, of the training of performing animals. I have only a certain knowledge of human and animal natures; and a common sense which tells me that wild animals are more happy in freedom than in captivity — domestic animals are more happy as companions than as clowns." (From "On Performing Animals" by J. Galsworthy)
The author tries to convince the reader of his point of view: he dislikes the idea of turning domestic animals into performers in the circus.
The expository paragraph below makes it clear what politeness is: "It isn't only with acquaintances and friends that politeness counts so much. Half the trouble in marriage and other family relationships begins with the throwing of politeness overboard. Politeness is often little more than the exercise of self-control, which is as valuable a quality in friendship as kindness itself." (From "Effective English and Personal Efficiency Course")
Note:These patterns of writing seldom occur alone, more often they are joined together.
1. Read the text "Anne Meets her Class" and point out the paragraph» of description, narration, argumentation and exposition. What does the author like to describe in this episode? What is he telling the reader about? What argument is Anne thinking of to manage the class? What is Miss Enderby trying to explain to Anne?
2. Search Texts А, В (Р. II) for the basic forms of treating the topic "On Teaching" and prove your selection of paragraphs.
Write a paragraph describing the picture suggested by the teacher.
Write a short paragraph about your visit to a former schoolmate.
Write a paragraph supporting or arguing Jane's and Bob's idea about teaching. (See the Dialogue.)
LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)
1. a) Listen to the additional text "What's Your Line?" on the topic "Choosing a Carrer", mark stresses and tunes, practise reading the text.
b) listen to the dialogue and learn it by heart.
Respond as in the models. Check your replies.
Write a spelling-translation test, check it with the key.
4. Write the dictation "Five Hundred Years of English Language Teaching", check your spelling with a dictionary.
Translate the sentences into English, check your translation with the key.
6. a) Listen to the text and find English equivalents to the given words and word combinations.
b) Check the words and word combinations.
c) Listen to the text again and do the tasks after it.
la. It would have been natural if the boy had gone to sleep.
It would have been natural if you had punished the child for his behaviour yesterday.
It wouldn't have been so cold in the morning if the wind had stopped blowing.
It would have been strange if he hadn't called on me when he was here last summer.
It would have been quite dark in the forest if we hadn't made a good fire.
1b. The father wouldn't have called the doctor if the boy had been quite well.
Grant would have accepted Mario's invitation if he hadn't made up his plans for the summer.
Anne would have taken her spring exams if she hadn't fallen ill.
We shouldn't have made friends with them if we hadn't stayed in the same camp.
We should have finished our work yesterday if you had helped us.
1c. The boy would have behaved in a different way if he were selfish.
They wouldn't have quarrelled if they both were less nervous.
You would have improved your spelling long ago if you were more diligent.
We should have invited him to our party if we knew him better.
She wouldn't have forgiven him if she didn't love him so much.
2.He seemed to know all about influenza.
The children seem to like each other very much. You don't seem to understand me.
She seemed to know grammar much better than we thought.
They did't seem to have met before.
3.I can't keep from thinking.
Can't you keep from talking all the time? Try and keep from gossiping about other people. She couldn't keep from scolding the child, though she knew she shouldn't do it.
We can't keep from laughing when we look at him.
EXERCISES I. Change these sentences, using Patterns 1a and 1b:
Example: We should meet a lot of tourists if we went to a tourist camp next summer.
We should have met a lot of tourists if we had gone to a tourist camp last year (last summer, when we had our holiday, etc.).
1. Mario wouldn't come to England if John didn't invite him. 2. Peter would accept your invitation if he were not ill. 3. It wouldn't be a hardship for the children to sweep and clean the rooms, would it? 4. If the weather were fine we should go to a holiday camp next summer. 5. We would live in a hotel if the rates were not very high. 6. It would be natural if they didn't meet after their quarrel. 7. My friend and I would go to the cinema after this lesson if the rest of the students agreed to go with us. 8. If the weather didn't change we should go to the country tonight.
II. Combine the fallowing sentences into one, using speech Pattern 1c:
Example: They quarrelled. They both are very nervous.
They wouldn't have quarrelled if they both were not very nervous.
1. Bob recovered. The doctors that had treated him are very experienced. 2. Mary passed her exams. She is industrious. 3. We invited John Brown to our tea-party. We are acquainted with him. 4. I didn't leave the children alone. They are naughty. 5. She didn't agree to teach us French. She doesn't know the language well. 6. Martha understood the German delegates, she is a German. 7. I gave you this book because it's very interesting. 8. I advised my friends to have a walking tour because I myself am fond of walking tours.
III. Make up sentences after Patterns 2 and 3, using the following words and phrases:
a) Pattern 2: to be busy, to know a lot, to understand each other, to hate (smb. or smth.), to love music, е.g. Ann seems to love children, I often see her playing with little boys and girls in our yard.
b) Pattern 3: to scold each other, to argue (about smth.), to meet (with), to write a letter, to dream (of smth), е.g. She can't keep from crying when she reads sentimental poetry.
IV. Translate these sentences into English, using the patterns from Units One and Two:
1. He беспокойся, ребенок не был бы таким веселым, если бы он был серьезно болен, 2. Тебе не пошло бы, если бы ты носил бороду я усы, ты бы выглядел гораздо старше своих лет. 3. Было бы лучше, если бы они не позволяли детям смотреть телевизор так поздно. 4. Было бы естественно, если бы дети спросили меня об их новой учительнице, но никто не задал этого вопроса. 5. На твоем месте я ела бы поменьше сладкого, ты располнеешь. 6. Было бы естественно, если бы он стал ученым, ему хорошо давались точные науки в школе, но он стал актером. 7. Ты бы давно закончила этот перевод если бы не болтала по телефону. 8. Ты бы не забыла мне позвонить, если бы не была такой рассеянной.
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