Define whether the statements are true or false according to the text.

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Define whether the statements are true or false according to the text.

1. The Law of Ukraine “On Education” establishes a four level system of higher education.

2. The five year education gives a bachelor’s degree; graduates after four year studies receive a certificate of a specialist.

3. The first postgraduate qualification in Ukraine is a master’s degree.

4. The dissertation for a scientific degree of the Doctor of Sciences (Doktor Nauk) must make an original contribution to a certain field of science.

5. The Candidate of Sciences (a scientific degree of Kandidat Nauk) is the highest scientific degree in Ukraine.

6. The Diploma must not be recognized by the state.


3. Complete the following sentences consulting the text:

1. Requirements to the contents, scope and level of the educational and professional training in Ukraine are determined by ….

2. A large network of legal educational institutions has been established in Ukraine recently because….

3. The higher educational establishments (HEE) that train lawyers in Ukraine include: ….

4. Everybody has a possibility to continue his/her education and scientific research….

5. Higher education graduates are awarded qualifications of … and they are granted diplomas of ….

6. A public defence of the dissertation is held in the form of ….


4. Explain the words and word-combinations in your own words in English:

qualification requirements, legal educational institution (establishment), certificate of a specialist, higher education, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, postgraduate education.



1. a) Match the following nouns and noun phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. educational-proficiency level a внесок

2. higher education b наукове дослідження

3. qualification requirements c вища освіта


4. junior specialist d кваліфікаційні вимоги

5. legal profession e навчальний юридичний заклад

6. legal educational institution f галузь науки

7. scientific research g освітньо-професійний рівень


8. scientific degree h науковий ступінь

9. contribution i молодший спеціаліст

10. field of science j юридична професія

11. attainment k досягнення


b) Match the following verbs and verbal phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. to train a отримувати

2. to establish b готувати, навчати

3. to receive c підтверджувати

4. to require d захищати

5. to recognize e включати в себе

6. to confirm f визнавати

7. to make a contribution g вимагати

8. to submit h визначати, встановлювати

9. to defend i представляти на розгляд

10. to hold j проводити

11. to include k робити внесок



2. Substitute the words in italics with the words from the active vocabulary of the text:

1. Requirements to the contents, scope and levelof the educational and speciality preparation in Ukraine are fixedby the Law of Ukraine “On Education”.

2.The dissertation for the Doctor of Sciences degree must bring something original into a certain scientific sphere.

3. The first postgraduate qualification level is the Candidate of Sciences.

4. The Diploma proves the attainment of the appropriate higher educational level.

5. The persons who graduate from HEEs are granted diplomas of the state format.

6. Graduates after five year studies receive a Diploma of a specialist.


3. Choose the correct proposition according of the given in brackets (to (3), of (5), by, in, at, for, on):

1. Requirements … the contents, scope and level … the educational and professional training in Ukraine are determined … the Law of Ukraine “On Education” of 1991.

2. The legal profession is very prestigious and much … demand

3. … the postgraduate level the first qualification is the Candidate …Sciences

4. The dissertation … this degree must make an original contribution … a certain field …science.

5. HEEs … the third and the fourth degrees (depending … the results …accreditation) are institutes, academies, universities and other establishments equal … them.


4. Find in the text the nouns derived from the following verbs and make up your own sentences with them:

to educate, to require, to train, to contribute, to qualify, to establish, to certify.


5. Complete the table:


Higher education Postgraduate education  

professional training, junior specialists, bachelor degree holders, master degree holders, the Doctor of Sciences, certificate of a specialist, scientific degree, make an contribution, a four level system, scientific debates, basic higher education, complete higher education, a two-degree system, the Candidate of Sciences, a thesis, higher educational level, public defence.


6. 1) Give English equivalents:

встановлювати кваліфікаційні вимоги, захищати дисертацію, готувати юристів, включати в себе, представляти на розсуд, проводити захист, робити внесок, вимагати, отримувати, підтверджувати.


2) Give Ukrainian equivalents:

field of science, level, scientific degree, professional training, professional licence, higher education, qualification requirements, junior specialists, bachelor’s degree,

master’s degree, legal profession, legal educational institutions, certificate of a specialist, scientific research, graduate, appropriate educational-proficiency level.

7. Make up sentences using the following words and word-combinations:

1. Requirements to determine;

2. To include postgraduate education;

3. A large network to establish;

4.The higher educational establishments toinclude;

5. Legal education in Ukraine to centre;

6. Higher education graduates – appropriate educational-proficiency level;

7. The qualification of the Candidate of Sciences – to defend.


8. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Вимоги до змісту, обсягу та рівню освітньої професійної підготовки в Україні визначені Законом України „Про освіту”.

2. Чотирирічна освіта дає ступінь бакалавра; випускники вищих навчальних закладів після п’яти років навчання отримують диплом спеціаліста.

3. Диплом – це визнаний державою документ, який служить і свідоцтвом про отримання освіти, і дозволом на здійснення професійної діяльності.

4. Диплом підтверджує отримання відповідного рівня вищої освіти.

5. Найвищий науковий ступінь в Україні – доктор наук.

6. Вищі навчальні заклади в Україні, що готують юристів, включають технікуми, коледжі, інститути, академії, університети.


Мake up the sentences using the Present Simple Tense as in the model.

Model: The Law of Ukraine “On Education” / to establish /a four level system of higher education.

The Law of Ukraine “On Education” establishes a four level system of higher education.

1. The Diploma/ the attainment of a certain professional qualification / to confirm.

2. The four year education/ does not/ a master’s degree/ to give.

3. to require/ the qualification of the Candidate of Sciences/ does/ three years of postgraduate study?

4. Everybody/ a possibility/ to continue/ to have/ his/her postgraduate education.

2. Make the sentences in the Present Simple Tense correct:

1.The system of education also includepostgraduate education.

2. What these students know about this higher educational institution?

3. Does this qualification requires any special studies?

4. These students doesn’t have a certificate of a specialist.

5. Do the Diploma serves as a professional licence?


Some people believe that university students should be required to attend all the classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Give grounds to your answer.

Some students prefer to attend a small higher educational establishment. The others prefer to attend a big university. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

3. Discuss the following points:

1) A level of education defines future life of a person.

2) Building a future career starts:

– at school;

– at a higher educational establishment;

– after graduation from an HEE, when a person begins practical professional activity.

3) Now, when you are a student, what are you ideas about postgraduate education?

– postgraduate education is compulsory for developing my future career;

– no postgraduate education, I’m tired of studying. In my opinion, it’s better to work;

– I’ll try to combine postgraduate education and working;

– your variant.

Unit 4 Studying Law Section 2 Training Lawyers in the UK and in the USA


1. Answer the following questions:

1. Why is competition for a place at a US or UK law school traditionally fierce?

2. Prospective law school candidates in the USA should have a basic understanding in certain areas, including American history; political theory and the American political system; ethics and theories of justice (found in philosophy and religion courses); micro-economic theory; basic maths and accounting skills; human behaviour and social interaction (found in psychology and sociology courses) and an awareness of international issues. Are these requirements similar at Ukrainian law schools?

2. Match the following English words and phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. pursue further study a довірена власність

2. be “admitted to the bar” b учнівство

3. Training Contract c зобов’язальне право

4. mock trial d продовжувати навчання

5. tort e відшкодування збитків

6. civil litigation f інсценований судовий процес

7. trust g стажування

8. restitution h вступити до колегії адвокатів

9. Law of Obligations i цивільне правопорушення, делікт

10. pupilage j судовий процес з цивільної справи


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