Point out sentences with Infinitives in the text and explain the use. 

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Point out sentences with Infinitives in the text and explain the use.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive form (with or without to).

1. Why are you reading this journal? - … (read) the new article about contract law.

2. I would like … (ask) a few questions about concluding of a contract.

3. I managed … (get) to the library quickly.

4. We regret … (inform) you that we don’t have this Code in the library.

5. You must not … (use) this brand. It’s illegal.

6. I have … (work) on Saturday. We’re very busy at the agency.

7. Could we … (borrow) your book, please?

8. Do you intend … (make) a complaint?

9. I can’t wait … (see) the books you took.

10. They arranged … (go) to the office together.


Speak on the types of contracts.

Work together to make a marriage contract (or contract of employment). Think of questions to ask parties about their requirement, termination, fee etc. Use the following issues while making a contract: 1) property, care of children, mutual obligations etc.; 2) work conditions, time of work, salary, social insurance etc.

3. Speak on the differences between Ukrainian and US Contract Law. According to the US legislation“the contract of a lunatic, an idiot, or a person so under the influence of a narcotic or of intoxicating liquor as not to be capable of a free exercise of will is sometimes said to be wholly void. In recent cases, however, such contracts have usually been regarded as merely voidable; and in some instances they are enforced if the other contracting party is unaware of the incompetency and the terms are fair. The contract of a minor, usually a person under the age of 18, is not void, but voidable, and it may be affirmed by that person on attainment of full age.”

The article below gives examples of an illegal agreement. List arguments for and against illegal contracts. Are there any types of illegal contracts mentioned or implied in Ukrainian legislation? Write an essay on illegal agreements in Ukraine in comparison with that of other countries. Give your own examples of illegal contracts.

A contract is void if it is based on an illegal purpose or contrary to public policy. One example, from Canada, is Royal Bank of Canada v. Newell. A woman forged her husband's signature on 40 cheques, totalling over $58,000. To protect her from prosecution, her husband signed a letter of intent prepared by the bank in which he agreed to assume "all liability and responsibility" for the forged cheques. However, the agreement was unenforceable, and struck down by the courts, because of its essential goal, which was to "stifle a criminal prosecution." Because of the contract's illegality, and as a result voided status, the bank was forced to return the payments made by the husband.

In the U.S., one unusual type of unenforceable contract is a personal employment contract to work as a spy or secret agent. This is because the very secrecy of the contract is a condition of the contract (in order to maintain plausible deniability). If the spy subsequently sues the government on the contract over issues like salary or benefits, then the spy has breached the contract by revealing its existence. It is thus unenforceable on that ground, as well as the public policy of maintaining national security (since a disgruntled agent might try to reveal all the government's secrets during his/her lawsuit).

Unit 2 Contract Civil Law and Intellectual Property Section 2 Intellectual property


1. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the definition of ‘intellectual property’ according to Ukrainian Civil Code?

2. How is intellectual property protected in Ukraine?

Can you give examples of breaking intellectual property laws?

3. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:


1. copyright a) невідчутний (на дотик)

2. trademark b) авторське право

3. intangible c) оголошення, реклама

4. advertisement d) нововведення

5. innovation e) фабрична марка


Read the text to understand what information is of primary importance or new for you.




Intellectual property, creative works that have economic value and are protected by law. Intellectual property laws reward the creators of most types of intellectual property by preventing others from copying, performing, or distributing those works without permission. The main purpose of this protection is to provide incentives for people to produce scientific and creative works that benefit society at large. grant of rights from a government agency before they can be protected by law. Nearly all nations have laws protecting intellectual property. However, some nations do not vigorously enforce intellectual property laws, making illegal copying, or piracy, a major problem in these areas.

Intellectual property was not always recognized as a single field of law. Historically, the fields of patent, copyright, and trademark developed independently. In the late 20th century, however, legal experts began to recognize that these various fields of law had a great deal in common because they all pertained to intangible products of the mind. Nevertheless, an attorney will often specialize in only one area of intellectual property, such as patent law, and the legal rules for the different branches of intellectual property law vary greatly.

In all branches of intellectual property, the legal system seeks to balance two competing concerns. On the one hand, protection must be strong enough to encourage authors and inventors to invest the necessary effort in innovation. On the other hand, the law must also allow people some freedom to use the intellectual property of others. This is because artistic, technological, and commercial progress always requires building on the work of others. To strike this balance, all branches of intellectual property law confer general rights on creators but also limit those rights with a variety of exceptions. For example, in patent law, a scientist may use someone else’s invention to conduct experiments. Similarly, copyright law allows a literary critic to quote passages of a novel in a review. Under trademark law, a company may use a competitor’s brand name in a comparative advertisement. In all these ways, intellectual property law tries to be flexible enough to protect the property rights of the creator while also allowing the public to benefit from the protected work.




Match the titles to each paragraph

a) The definition of the intellectual property;

b) A balance of different branches of intellectual property;

c) History of the intellectual property laws.

Fill in the table with the words from text

Protection of creative works  
Types of intellectual property laws violations  
Copyright law  
Patent law  
Trademark law  

Speak on types of intellectual property laws and their functions.

Translate the text into Ukrainian. Write a list of measures that a legislator should take to protect intellectual property in the Internet.


In the last years of the 20th century, the growth of the Internet and related digital technologies began to pose new problems for intellectual property owners. Unauthorized parties began using trademarks such as domain names for Web sites, which made it difficult for consumers to find the trademark owner’s official Web site. Copyright owners found that their works, particularly music and movies, could be perfectly duplicated by parties using file-sharing software. New devices were sold that made it possible to defeat copy-control features, such as those designed to prevent duplication of digital video discs (DVDs). The U.S. government attempted to respond to these developments by adopting several complex new laws protecting intellectual property. These laws became controversial. On the one hand, intellectual property owners claimed that the laws failed to provide full protection against unauthorized use of their property. On the other hand, various consumer groups argued that the laws interfered with the public’s rights to engage in free speech and may also invade privacy.

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