Steps To Follow After A Motor Vehicle Accident 

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Steps To Follow After A Motor Vehicle Accident

If you, or someone you know, has been injured in automobile collision you (or the person involved) should do the following:

1) Don't sign anything except a ticket, citation or report issued by police. Never sign anything else at the accident scene. Signing some types of documents may jeopardize your rights.

2) Get out of your vehicle. Although you must remain on the accident scene, remove yourself from further danger by getting out of your vehicle --- and out of traffic.

3) Turn off your engine to minimize the risk of fire.

4) Stop your car . . . no matter who is at fault, the law requires you to stop and exchange names, addresses and insurance information at the scene of an accident.

5) Collect information. If possible, collect information about the accident at the scene or as soon after as appropriate.

6) Call for police or medical assistance. Even if there are no injuries, assistance may be necessary to clear the accident scene, handle traffic, and file an accident report.

7) Inform your insurance company. Call your agent or your company's claims number and inform them that you have been involved in a collision and give them the information about the time, date and place of the collision and the people involved.

8) Don't discuss the accident . . . except for giving necessary details to police, medical personnel, your insurance company, or your attorney, do not discuss the accident...especially with insurance companies or lawyers representing other people or insurance companies.

Unit 1 Civil Law Section 2 Unification of European Civil Law  


1. Answer the following question:

What is a harmonisation of law?

2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. internal market a) влада права

2. authority of law b) орган влади, що має усі повноваження

3. party (of an agreement) c) влада, правління

4. governance d) справа

5. overarching body e) поширення

6. case f) сторона (договору)

7. extent g) внутрішній ринок

Read the text to understand what information is of primary importance or new for you.


Harmonisation of Law

Harmonisation of law means “make or form a pleasing or consistent whole”. In the case of harmonisation of law, the aim is to make a consistent whole of law. It is an important concept in the European Union for creating common standards across the internal market.

It is a process of admitting limits of international unification but does not necessarily mean total uniformity. Harmonisation is usually not comprehensive but is relatively partial. That is, harmonisation of law doesn’t seek to create a sole authority of law on a particular subject. This is because measures to harmonise law cannot go further than that which is necessary. Harmonisation is unsystematic. The Directives of the European Union do not focus on or contain comprehensive regulation of the entire law. The Directives regulate some very specific issues and they regulate them only for particular situations or circumstances and only for particular types of parties.

Harmonisation generally takes place on two levels of governance, the overarching body and the each of the members individually. Taking the European Union, the two levels are the European level and national level. Although both European and national legislators share the legislative responsibilities, neither of these bodies has final responsibility for the whole. Also, there is no superior political authority which has the final say on who is responsible for what, i.e. no overarching authority over the European and national legislators. The European Court of Justice may however determine the extent of harmonisation when determining cases.

Harmonisation can be seen as a step towards unification of European Union Law.



Find in the text the information on

a) definition of harmonisation of law;

b) harmonisation and unification;

c) levels of unification.

Prove the following statements.

1. Harmonisation of European law is partial.

2. Harmonisation is unsystematic.

3. Directives of the EU are of specific character.

4. Harmonisation of law acts on two levels of governance.

Speak on differences between harmonisation and unification of EU law.

Explain the difference between a law and a directive.

Insert one of the following words into the text in an appropriate form.


to assemble to discuss to enact to feel to apply to bind


In February 1997, a large symposium was convened in The Hague _______ the further harmonization of European private and commercial law. More than 200 jurists ____________ for this particular purpose, most of them academics, judges, practitioners and civil servants from EU Member States, but also representatives from the EU Parliament and Commission, as well as observers from countries currently _________ for EU membership.

The conference title was "Towards a European Civil Code". The ultimate goal for the pro-Code group in Europe is the enactment of comprehensive legislation, _________________ upon all European Union Members and comprising virtually all aspects of private and commercial law.

Though the idea of drafting and implementing such a codex is not really new, it might seem both unworkable and unattainable, at least in the foreseeable future. Then again, as certain influential delegates emphasized in the Hague, the Code project has already gained the support of the ever-more-powerful European Parliament, and if a Civil Code were to be ____________ as a Directive or Regulation, it would not even require a unanimous vote! For these and other reasons, even the most skeptical among the symposium participants ________ compelled to take a second, more serious look.

Translate into Ukrainian. Make a title of the text. Explain the difference of the terms: a decree - an act; to adopt - to pass; a purpose - an aim.

According to the Minister of Economic Affairs of Ukraine, Anatoly Kinah, for the purpose of efficient realization of our state exports capacity, harmonization of monetary policy and in the context of increase in competitiveness of Ukrainian exports, the Government has adopted the Decree “On validation of procedure of determination of periods and conditions of completion of import transaction without carriage of goods inwards Ukraine”. it was passed in 2007.

The aim of the Decree is very important for the European integration. “The subject-matter of this draft decree is governed by banking law, which, according to the Act of Ukraine “On nationwide programme of harmonization of the law of Ukraine with the law of the European Union”, belongs to priority sectors, within which the laws of Ukraine are harmonized with the laws of the European Union”, - the Minister of Economic Affairs of Ukraine, A. Kinah has told.


Prepare a report “Ukraine and harmonisation of European law”.


Speak on the future development of harmonisation of European laws in Ukraine.


Write an essay using on of the topics:

1) Business-government partnerships, cooperation by government and certain types of businesses to further technological development or economic quality.

2) Intellectual property laws and corporations in Cyberspace.

3) Globalization in the coming decades.


Read the definitions and put the letters in order to make 10 words connected with the law.


1. belonging to or shared by members of one or more nations or communities; public — MMOOCN;

2. of the ordinary life of citizens as distinguished from military, legal, or ecclesiastical affairs — LIICV

3. established by or founded upon law; lawful — EAGLL

4. legal action — SGPREEOCDIN

5. not widely or publicly known, confidential, secret — EIATPRV

6. of, relating to, or concerning the people as a whole — PBLUIC

7. a formal agreement between two or more parties — CCTTAONR

8. relating to crime or its punishment — IILNAMRC

9. a failure to act, to meet a financial obligation or to appear in a court of law at a time specified — FRDAU

10 a moral or legal requirement, duty — IIOONTABLG

Unit 2 Contract Civil Law and Intellectual Property Section 1 Contract Law


1. Answer the following questions:

What is a contract?

Have you ever concluded a contract? What was it?

What can the consequences of breaking a contract be?

2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. obligation a) грошовий

2. covenant b) невиконання зобов’язань

3. pecuniary c) нерухоме майно

4. default d) предмет обговорення

5. fraud e) юридична сила

6. subject matter f) шахрайство

7. real estate g) домовленість, договір

8.validity h) гарантія, зобов’язання


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