Fill the blanks with the derivatives of the words in brackets. Translate these points.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Fill the blanks with the derivatives of the words in brackets. Translate these points.



Violations of International Law

· Japan … international law in 1941 by attacking Pearl Harbor without first declaring war. ( violation)

· Germany broke international law during World War 2 when the German …killed millions of European Jews and forced slave laborers from other European countries to work in German war factories. (to govern)

· Reports were given to the United Nations about the cruel … of many UN prisoners of war by the Chinese Communists and North Koreans in the Korean War (1950-1953). (to treat)

· In 1990, during the crisis that resulted in the Persian Gulf War , Iraq broke international law by … foreign hostages as “human shields” to discourage attacks against military and industrial sites. ( to use)

 

6. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following word combinations:

International law, principle, rule, international affairs, provisions agreed to in treaties, rulings of international courts, environmental pollution, adoption of common rules, to maintain peaceful international relations , legal equality, enforcement of international law, ownership of property, international organizations, recognizing countries, legal entities.

 

Match the following synonyms and try to guess the differences in their meaning. Compose your sentences to illustrate the usage of these words.

Word Synonym from the text
to maintain peace tribunal
court covenant
treaty to keep peace
to define legal person
to resolve issues
problems to determine
legal entity nation
state to decide

Make up word-combinations using the words from two groups.

 

long-standing pollution
international states
diplomatic relations
sovereign entities
multinational sanctions
legal of international law
environmental customs
enforcement law

 

Read the extracts below and put them in correct order.

1. While there were other intermediate influences on the development of international law, its modern roots may be traced to the seventeenth – century Dutch philosopher Hugo Grotius. He is often referred to as the “father of international law”. Grotius’s fundamental contribution to the theory of international law was his insistence upon a voluntary law of nations based upon their consent.

2. The Greek city-states and their philosophers believed that there was a legal hierarchy of local and “higher laws”. Local laws governed the conduct of individuals within each city-state. These laws of the city-states, however, were subordinate to what the ancient Greeks perceived as a branch of law now called international law.

3. As it developed, international law incorporated various inconsistencies and definitional aberrations (омана). Even in the late twentieth century, some topics have only just been resolved after centuries of controversy- and others remain in the many “gray” areas of international law.

4. The process by which international law is formed dates from regional developments in the ancient Chinese and Indian empires. In the fourteenth century B.C., the Egyptian pharaohs entered into treaties with neighboring kings. These agreements represented a consensus on the recognition of sovereignty over certain geographical areas, the extradition of refugees, and the exchange of ambassadors.

 

9. Translate sentences and pay attention to new information about international law :

1. Найдавніший міжнародний договір, який було укладено між аккадським царем Нарамсином та правителем Еламу, датується першою половиною 23 століття до н.е.

2. Стародавні римські юристи ввели поняття “право народів” (jus gentium), яке тривалий час в міжнародно-правовій доктрині використовувалося, як еквівалент терміна “ міжнародне право ”.

3. Сучасне міжнародне право є окремою правовою системою, яка складається з принципів, договорних і звичаєвих норм, що регулюють відносини між державами, міжурядовими організаціями й суб’єктами міжнародного права .

4. Система міжнародного права - це порядок розташування принципів і норм у логічній послідовності або за предметом регулювання.

5. У сучасних умовах можна виділити три основні напрями розвитку міжнародного права: врегулювання глобальних проблем сучасності, розв’язання нових конфліктів, реформування ООН.

6. Міжнародні договори - одна з найбільш поширених у наш час форм закріплення взаємних міжнародних прав і обов’язків.

.

 

IV. GRAMMAR FOCUS

Point out sentences with Passive Voice in the text and explain the use.

Correct the mistakes in the sentences given below. You can find the right versions in the text. Mind the grammar (Passive Voice).

1. Some international law is also create by the rulings of international courts and organizations.

2. The rules of international law generally divided into laws of peace, of war, and of neutrality.

3. Enforcement may effectively achieved through the actions of individual nations, agencies of international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), and international courts.

4. War still recognizes under traditional international law.

5. Neutral waters and ports must not be use for naval operations.

 

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate forms from the table.

Enforcement of International Law

After a …(1) body passes a law for a nation or a state, police …(2) the laws, and people who break …(3) are tried in courts. However, there is no international legislature to pass rules that all nations are required … (4). Neither is there an international police force …(5) countries obey international law. As a result, it is often difficult to enforce international law.

International law …(6) in three groups, according to how many nations accept them. Universal international law …(7) the rules …(8) by all nations as part of international law. These rules …(8) such items as the sanctity of treaties, the safety of foreign ambassadors, and each nation’s jurisdiction over the air space above its territory. General international law includes rules accepted by the majority of countries, especially …(10) that are most powerful. One law of this type is the rule that each nation has jurisdiction …(11) its territorial waters. A water area typically claimed to extend 12 nautical miles from …(12) shore. Particular international law includes agreements between two or among a few nations, such as trade treaties.

 

  A B C
legislation legislative legislature
enforce enforcement enforceable
they them their
to observe observance observation
made to make make
are often classified is often classified often classified
include includes to includes
accepted accepting accept
covers cover is covered
them they those
under above over
it’s its it

 

VI. SPEAKING

Does a rule of International Law exist only if all nations formally accept it as binding upon them?

May a state rely on its own domestic law as a defense to a breach of International Law?

Does the term International Criminal Law refer to the enforcement of national and international laws against individual criminals, rather than the application of a set of laws based on a treaty agreed to by all nations? 4. Did International Law exist before 1648, when the European Peace of Westphalia established the modern system of states?

Answer the following questions and discuss these problems with your groupmates.

International Law Quiz.

1. International law is only effective:

a) absent supreme executive, legislative, and judicial bodies;

b) because there are supreme executive, legislative, and judicial bodies;

c) when all nations apply it in their international relations;

d) when enough nations apply it in their international relations.

2. Mrs. Jones was born in State A. Her parents then lived in State B, where they still reside. State A follows the rule of nationality by birth. State B follows the rule of nationality by parentage. Mrs. Jones is probably a:

a) dual national;

b) citizen of A only;

c) citizen of B only;

d) citizen neither A nor B.

3. A State X diplomat commits a felony in host State Y. Y’s authorities may thus:

a) arrest the diplomat because no one above the law of State X;

b) arrest the diplomat because the Vienna Convention authorizes arrest;

c) declare that the diplomat has thus waived any right to immunity;

d) declare the diplomat persona non grata.

4. An authorized individual is carrying a diplomatic bag for State X to the embassy in State Y. State Y airport authorities learn that she is also carrying bombs and ammunition in the bag when she arrives at in Y. State Y authorities:

a) can do nothing;

b) may have a limited right to remove the bombs and ammunition from the bag at the airport;

c) can immediately arrest and prosecute the diplomatic courier;

d) can immediately close the State X embassy in Y and arrest the diplomatic staff.

 

 

Unit 1 International Law Section 2 International Treaties

I. LEAD-IN



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