Insert the right preposition (at, for, against, above, from, into, on).



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Insert the right preposition (at, for, against, above, from, into, on).



1. Modern civil law systems derive …the legal practice of the Roman Empire.

2. Critics of the amendment base their position … the following points.

3. The book is divided … six sections.

4. Andrew is studying law … Harvard University.

5. Many ministers seem to regard themselves as … the law.

6. It's … the law to be drunk in public.

7. Most Americans rely … television as their chief source … information.

8. The new constitution provides … a 650-seat legislature.

5. Translate the following sentences into English:

1.Після тривалого обговорення депутати вирішили призначити комісію, яка має розробити поправки до закону. 2.Згідно з доктриною прецеденту, рішення, прийняте судом у справі, обґрунтування якого вважається нормою, є обов’язковим для інших судів при вирішенні аналогічних справ. 3.У сучасних правових системах Європи та Америки більшість правових інститутів походять з правової практики Римської імперії. 4.Поки всі намагання адвоката вирішити спір та досягти примирення були марними. 5.Джерелом релігійного права є Бог, тому навіть уряд не може заборонити дію релігійних законів.

IV GRAMMAR FOCUS

Mind the use of articles with geographical names. Put the objects in the box into the correct column in the chart. Give examples for each place.

continents groups of islands single islands republics or unions of states countries oceans or seas lakes rivers single mountains mountain ranges cities / towns roads / streets

 

 

with the without the
   

 

2. Some of these sentences are correct, but some need “the”. Correct the sentences where necessary. Put ‘RIGHT’ if the sentence is already correct.

1. Ben was born in Netherlands, but now he lives in Switzerland.

2. ‘I’d love to do a tour of European capitals and visit Paris, London and the Hague.’ ‘The Dutch government is in the Hague, but the capital city is Amsterdam.’

3. I’ve been to Brazil and Argentina, but I’ve never been to the People’s Republic of China.

4. United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

5. Spain is a country in southwest Europe, between France and Portugal.

6. Before it became part of US in 1845, Texas was briefly an independent country.

7. Seychelles are a group of islands in Indian Ocean.

8. Suez Canal joins the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea.

9. Himalayas include the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest.

VI SPEAKING

Characterize the four abovementioned legal systems on the basis of the following criteria: the sources of law, specific features of the legal system, spreading. Can you think of any other types of legal systems?

Imagine you are a politician just before an election. Prepare a speech lasting about two minutes stating your plans and intentions for making improvements in keeping law and order in Ukraine. Take turns to give your speech.

Unit 1 Systems of Law Section 2 Law and Society  

I. LEAD IN

1. Answer the following questions

    1. What did Martin Luther King imply when he said “Never forget that everything Hitler did in Germany was legal.”?
    2. “Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.” Plato. Do you agree with this statement?

2. Match the following English words and phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

to reject a справа  
embodiment b нехтувати  
Transaction c втілення  
framework d чесна гра
inherent e рамки
fair play f притаманний
wisdom g схвалення
approval h нероздільний
inseparable i існування
existence j мудрість

TEXT 2

Read the text “What is Law?” and give your own definition of this notion.

WHAT IS LAW?

Although “the law” may seem to be abstract and far removed from everyday life, it actually is a framework for much of what you do. Perhaps you get a traffic ticket or want a local store to replace a defective toaster you bought. Perhaps you must testify as a witness to an accident or want to stop a road-widening project near your home. Each of these scenarios involves the law. What is law? You can surely find various definitions of it, because scholars investigate the nature of law through many perspectives, including legal history and philosophy, or social sciences such as economics and sociology. The study of law raises important questions about equality, fairness and justice, which are not always simple. However in the broadest terms, law is the set of rules that guides our conduct in societyand is enforceable through public institutions. The most important institutions for law are the judiciary, the legislature, the executive, its bureaucracy, the military and police, the legal profession and civil society.

Our relations with one another are governed by many rules of conduct – from important concepts of ethics and fair play to minor etiquette matters such as which fork to use and how to introduce strangers to one another. We obey these rules because we think they are right or simply because we desire the approval of others. If we do not follow these rules, others may treat us differently – from giving us a disapproving look to completely rejecting us.

The history of law is the history of our race, and the embodiment of its experience. It is the monument of its wisdom and of its frequent want of wisdom. The best thought of a people is to be found in its legislation; its daily life is best mirrored in its customs and traditions, which constitute the law of its ordinary transactions.

There never has existed, and there never will exist, on this planet any organization of human society, any tribe or nation that has not been more or less controlled by some recognized form of law.

The recognition of the existence of law is inherent in man's nature, and is a necessity of his being. While all true philosophy recognizes that society exists for the individual, and not the individual for society, yet it is also true that the individual is intended to exist in society, and that he must in many things subordinate his own will to that of society, since society cannot exist without law. Thus the existence of law is inseparable from that of the human race.

II DEVELOPMENT

1. Find in the text words and expressions which mean:

1. a printed note ordering you to pay money because you have done something illegal while driving or parking your car;

2. a situation in which people have the same rights, advantages etc;

3. knowledge gained over a long period of time through learning or experience;

4. to try to find out the truth about or the cause of something such as a crime, accident, or scientific problem;

5. an institution that has the power to make or change laws;

6. someone who sees a crime or an accident and can describe what happened;

7. the system by which people are judged in courts of law and criminals are punished;

8. something that is done by people in a particular society because it is traditional.

Find words in the text which have a similar meaning to the words below.

para.1 to make a formal statement of what is true

behaviour

para 2. just

to rule

para 4. to regulate

para 5. need

person

3. Translate the following sentences into English:

1.Історія права є втіленням досвіду людського суспільства, пам’яткою його мудрості, відображенням звичаїв та традицій. 2.Свідок злочину заявив, що він готовий давати свідчення у суді. 3. Комісія буде розслідувати причини нещасного випадку, приділяючи особливу увагу питанням безпеки. 4.Громадське суспільство базується на рівності, справедливості і правосудді.5. Водії дотримуються правил обмеження швидкості руху, тільки коли знають, що поліція поблизу. 6.Саме судова, а не законодавча або виконавча гілки влади є найбільш впливовою інституцією. 7.Одна справа розробляти правила, та зовсім інша впроваджувати їх.

IIIPRACTICE AND EXPERIENCE

One of the most controversial political theories in the history of mankind is anarchism. Anarchists believe that the highest achievement of humanity is the freedom of individuals to express themselves, without any form of repression or control. They think that the perfection of humanity will not be achieved until all government is abolished and each individual is left absolutely free.

Though examples of anarchy in the world history (Nestor Makhno in the years of the Russian revolution, the beginning of the 17 century in Russia) demonstrate how destructive, dangerous and hopeless this idea is. In groups of three or four discuss the future prospects of anarchism in the modern world. What is the difference between democracy and anarchy?

IV. WRITING

Profile the legal systems of any two countries you choose which follow different traditions in law. You can use the description below as a model.

Ukraine is a civil law country. Laws are written down, the application of customary law is the exception and the role of case law is small in theory although in practice it is impossible to understand the law in many fields without also taking into account the relevant case law. The Ukrainian system of law is based on the French Code Civil with influences from Roman law and traditional Ukrainian customary law. The new civil law books (which went into force in 2004) were heavily influenced by the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch.

The primary law making body is formed by the Ukrainian parliament (Verkhovna Rada). It is commonly referred to as the legislature. The power to make sub laws can be delegated to lower governments or specific organs of the State, but only for a prescribed purpose. A trend in recent years has been for parliament and the government to create "framework laws" and delegate the creation of detailed rules to ministers or lower governments (e.g. a region or municipality).

The Ministry of Justice of Ukraine is the main institution when it comes to Ukrainian law.

 

V OVER TO YOU

An identity document, or also called a piece of identification (ID), is a document which evidences aspects of a person's identity. The use of identity cards is supported by law enforcement officials who claim that it can make surveillance and identification of criminals much easier. Identity cards can be a useful administrative tool that can increase efficiency in dealings with both the government and private companies. Cards may help reduce immigration service bureaucracy and false identification. Law enforcers can locate and identify people who either do not know or cannot communicate their names and/or addresses (e.g., due to Alzheimer's disease, amnesia or heavy intoxication).



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