Find words in the text which have a similar meaning to the words or phrases below.

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Find words in the text which have a similar meaning to the words or phrases below.


Para 2 to use

Para 3 to write down



para 4 resident


para 6 methodical

to integrate

to start up




Give the English equivalents for the following words and phrases.

Cукупність правових норм, розробити проект закону, відповідати вимогам, застарілі правила, важливий внесок, приватне право, видавати закон, розповсюджувати правову культуру, переконати патриціїв, тлумачити закони, застосовувати закони, політична влада, включити до правової системи.

Complete the sentences with the words from the active vocabulary.

1. Our original proposals were not … in the new legislation.

2. AIDS is not … by common everyday contact.

3. These laws are often difficult … in practice.

4. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his … to Quantum Theory.

5. The government has carried out numerous executions and … arrests.

6. In the end she … the jury of her innocence.

7. A 16-member commission to … a new constitution was also set up.

8. The State Department will … a statement at noon.

9. The prisoners were well … by their guards.

10. Some applicants who meet the… are rejected because they are not Ukrainian citizens.

Match a word in column A with a word/phrase in column B to make phrases from the text “Roman Law”.


apply Roman law

meet a decree

incorporate a thorough study

issue supreme political power

spread scientific methods

convince the subject of law

treat patricians

give the requirements

Insert the right preposition.

1. The minimum requirement… the post was a degree … law.

2. He made outstanding contributions … children's medicine.

3. The new law was developed … the edicts of the ruler.

4. Perhaps they could sit down and discuss things … a civilised fashion.

5. Roman law became incorporated … the legal systems of many European countries.

6. The extension of citizenship … the years … 100 bc … ad 212 to all free inhabitants of the empire made the distinction … the jus gentium and the jus civile obsolete.

7. The first codification of imperial legislation was published… Theodosius II.

8. Most of his books have been translated … Ukrainian.

9. This body of rules was applied exclusively …Roman citizens.

In each of the following sets of four, one word or expression is the odd one. Find the word which is different.

1. illegal unlawful criminal licit

2. government administration authorities public

3. disagreement obligation argument controversy

4. old-fashioned obsolete arbitrary outdated

5. careful thorough systematic curious

6. revival impact influence effect

7. to record to write down to set forth to register

8. citizen resident foreigner inhabitant

9. decree edict order digest

10. summit meeting gathering assembly

6. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Римське право це система права, яка була сформована у Давньому Римі та зіграла виключну роль у розвитку європейського права. 2. Не зважаючи на численні суперечки та застарілі принципи, ця правова система поширилася на північ імперії. 3. Це був законодавчий орган, який мав формулювати проект закону та видавати закони, що відповідали вимогам тогочасної правової культури. 4. Ця людина зробила значний внесок у створення правових інститутів, що мали повноваження витлумачувати закони, записувати їх та допомагати громадянам застосовувати цей або інший закон у повсякденному житті.


Verbs: active/passive

Change the sentences below from active to passive. For example:

Active: The police officer asked for proof of identification.

Passive: Proof of identification was asked by thepolice officer.

1. The emperor appointed a special committee of jurists.

2. Theodosius II, ruler of the Byzantine Empire, published the first codification of imperial legislation.

3. Roman law influenced many modern civil law systems in Europe.

4. They chose ten Roman citizens to record the laws.

5. They inaugurated a more thorough study of Roman law at Bologna University

6. My uncle wrote his will in 2000.

7. The constable arrested and searched the driver of the stolen car.

8. They left the wounded man lying on the road.

9. The judge asked the witness to speak louder.

10. Between about 367 bc and ad137 they developed the new law from the edicts of the praetor.


What do you think about the following statements?

When men are pure, laws are useless; when men are corrupt, laws are broken. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) British politician and author.

It would be better to have no laws at all, than to have too many.

Law, without force, is impotent. Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) French mathematician, physicist and philosopher.

Where the law is uncertain there is no law. (proverb)

Below you will find phrases and language you can use in the discussion to express opinions, offer explanations and disagree.

Opinions, Preferences:

I think..., In my opinion..., I'd like to..., I'd rather..., I'd prefer..., The way I see it..., As far as I'm concerned..., If it were up to me..., I suppose..., I suspect that..., I'm pretty sure that..., It is fairly certain that..., I'm convinced that..., I honestly feel that, I strongly believe that..., Without a doubt,...,


I don't think that..., Don't you think it would be better..., I don't agree, I'd prefer..., Shouldn't we consider..., But what about..., I'm afraid I don't agree..., Frankly, I doubt if..., Let's face it, The truth of the matter is..., The problem with your point of view is that...

Giving Reasons and offering explanations: To start with, The reason why..., That's why..., For this reason..., That's the reason why..., Many people think...., Considering..., Allowing for the fact that..., When you consider that...

Unit 2 Evolution of Law: Historical Aspect Section 2 Anglo-Saxon Law


Answer the following questions

1. What is the name England derived from?

2. What ethnic groups formed the people known as the English?

2. Match the following English words and phrases with their Ukrainian equivalents:

in conjunction королівське дарування

promulgate гільдія

ecclesiastical звичаєве право

outlawry порушення

folkright проголошувати

royal grant оголошення поза законом

exertion разом з

guild вияв

infringement народна мова

vernacular церковний



Read the text “Anglo-Saxon law”.


Notes on the text:

Domesday Book Книга Судного Дня


Anglo-Saxon law is the body of legal principles that prevailed in England from the 6th century until the Norman Conquest (1066) and after. In conjunction with Scandinavian law and the so-called barbarian laws of continental Europe, it made up the body of law called Germanic law. Anglo-Saxon law was written in the vernacular and was relatively free of the Roman influence found in continental laws that were written in Latin. Anglo-Saxon law was made up of three components: the laws and collections promulgated by the king, authoritative statements of custom such as those found in the Norman-instituted Domesday Book, and private compilations of legal rules and enactments. The primary emphasis was on criminal law rather than on private law, although certain material dealt with problems of public administration, with public order, and with ecclesiastical matters.

Before the 10th century, the codes often merely presented lists of compositions--money paid to an injured party or his family--but by the 10th century a new penal system had evolved, based on outlawry (declaring a criminal an outlaw), confiscation, and corporal and capital punishment. By this time there had also been an increased development of the law relating to administrative and police functions.

The Anglo-Saxon legal system rested on the fundamental opposition between folkright and privilege. Folkright is the aggregate of rules, whether formulated or not, that can be appealed to as an expression of the juridical consciousness of the people at large or of the communities of which it is composed. The responsibility for the formulation and application of the folkright rested, in the 10th and 11th centuries, with the local shire moots (assemblies). The older laws of real property, succession, contracts, tariffs of fines were mainly regulated by folkright; the law had to be declared and applied by the people themselves in their communities.

Folkright could, however, be broken or modified by special enactment or grant, and the foundation of such privileges was royal power. In time the rights originating in the royal grants of privilege came to outweigh folkright in many respects and were the starting point for the feudal system.

Before the 10th century a man's actions were considered not as exertions of his individual will but as acts of his kinship group. Personal protection and revenge, oaths, marriage and succession were all regulated by the law of kinship. The preservation of peace was an important feature of Anglo-Saxon law. Peace was thought of as the rule of an authority within a specific region. Because the ultimate authority was the king, there was a gradual evolution of more and more stringent and complete rules in respect of the king's peace and its infringements.


1. Answer the following questions using the information from the text:

1. When and where did Anglo-Saxon law prevail?

2. What are the three components of Anglo-Saxon law?

3. What was the primary emphasis of Anglo-Saxon law?

4. What did folkright regulate?

5. Who the responsibility for the formulation and application of the folkright rested with?

6. What was the role of kinship?

7. How was the preservation of peace treated in Anglo-Saxon law?

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