ТОП 10:

Структура английских предложений в сравнении



ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

Введение …………………………………………………………..………… Unit I Структура английских предложений в сравнении с русскими и способы их перевода на русский язык …………………………………… Текст How to Write Worksheets Related to Career & Life Skills …………… Unit II Пассивные конструкции и их перевод ……………….………….. Текст What Offends Foreigners in the Behaviour of Russians? ……………. Unit III Модальные глаголы ………………………………..……………. Текст A Town and City Planning …………………………………………... Текст B Public Relations Specialists ……………………………………….. Unit IV Инфинитив, его функции и перевод ………………………..…... Текст How to Become a Public Relations Manager ……………………..….. Unit V Сложное подлежащее и его перевод …………………….………. Текст Composite Construction ……………………………..……………… Unit VI Сложное дополнение и его перевод …………………..…………. Текст Polymers ………………………………………………..…………….. Unit VII Герундий и его перевод на русский язык ………………………. Текст A Marketing and Advertising …………………………...…………… Текст B Pricing, Promotion, Distribution …………………………………. Unit VIII Причастие настоящего времени ……………………………….. ТекстAlfred Nobel – a Man of Contrasts …………………………………. Unit IX Причастие прошедшего времени …………………………..…….. Текст Information about Social System …………………………………….. Unit X Абсолютный причастный оборот и его перевод …………………. Текст Britain Builds 13,000 Prefab Concrete Houses ……………….……. Unit XI Сослагательное наклонение и его перевод ……………..……….. Текст My London …………………………………………………..……… Unit XII Условные предложения и сослагательное наклонение и их перевод ………………………………………...…………………………… Текст Modern Highways in Great Britain ………………………….……… Unit XIII Эмфатический оборот и его перевод …………………………... Текст New York …………………………………………..……….……….. Unit XIV Союзы, союзные слова и их перевод. Условные обозначения ….. Unit XV Перевод патентов …………………………………………………. Текст Patent …………………………..………………………………..,…… Приложение 1 Список сокращений, часто встречающихся в англоязычной научно-технической литературе ……………..,.,.…………. Приложение 2 Тексты для самостоятельной работы …………………… Англо-русский словарь-минимум ………………………………..……... Заключение ……………………………………………...,………………… Библиографический список использованной и рекомендуемой литературы……………………………………………………………...…..        

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

UNIT I

Структура английских предложений в сравнении

С русскими и способы их перевода на русский язык

Structure of English Sentences as Compared

With Russian Ones and their Translation into Russian

I. Изучите следующую информацию.

Чтобы правильно перевести английское предложение на русский язык, следует прежде всего проанализировать его структуру. Для этого необходимо четко помнить, что в английском языке в повествовательных предложениях существует прямой порядок слов: 1) подлежащее (с поясняющими словами); 2) сказуемое (с поясняющими словами); 3) дополнение (прямое, косвенное, предложное); 4) обстоятельство (образа действия, места, времени). Обстоятельство времени может стоять в начале предложения.

Основной особенностью английского предложения является его обязательная двусоставность, т.е. наличие в нем подлежащего и сказуемого, тогда как в русском языке предложение может быть односоставным, без словесно выраженного подлежащего. Например: Холодно. В английском языке это: It is cold. Русское двусоставное предложение, в котором отсутствует указание на субъект действия, типа: Материал доставлен, в английском языке будет иметь следующую структуру: Материал был доставлен. The material has been delivered или The material was delivered.

При переводе английского предложения на русский язык необходимо правильно найти сказуемое.

Сказуемое определяется по следующим признакам: наличие вспомогательных глаголов to be (am, is, are; was, were; shall be, will be), to have (have, has; had; shall have, will have), модальных глаголов и их заменителей: can, could; may, might; must; should, to be to, to have to, ought to), в простом сказуемомэто окончания -s, -es; -ed. Если сказуемое определено неправильно, то и перевод будет неверный. Например:

This results in an excellent effect. При переводе такого предложения студенты делают ошибки, приняв слово results за существительное во множественном числе. Правильный перевод: Это приводит к отличным результатам.

При переводе сложных по своей структуре предложений, в которых не сразу можно определить составляющие их компоненты, необходимо также найти сказуемое, слева от него подлежащее или его группа, и если в начале предложения стоит обстоятельство времени, а в конце – обстоятельство места, в середине обстоятельство образа действия, то такие следует начинать переводить с обстоятельства времени, перед которым часто стоят предлоги, затем обстоятельство места, обстоятельство образа действия, сказуемое, подлежащее, дополнение. Например: During the last few years the general experimental procedures for measuring reaction rates in homogeneous (gases and fluid) systems have been repeatedly described in various outstanding monographs. В течение нескольких последних лет в различных выдающихся монографиях неоднократно описывались общие экспериментальные методы определения скорости реакции в гомогенных (газовых или жидких) системах. Следует подчеркнуть, что при переводе английских предложений на русский язык сказуемое чаще всего переводится перед подлежащим. В то время как при переводе русских предложений на английский язык, подлежащее всегда должно стоять перед сказуемым, в силу прямого порядка слов. Предложения, которые оканчиваются на сказуемое, всегда следует переводить со сказуемого, т.е. с конца предложения. Например:

The classical Fourier heat conduction law was used. Использовался классический закон Фурье.

Propagation speeds of four types of thermo-elastic waves were considered. Рассматривались скорости распространения четырех типов термоупругих волн.

Русские безличные предложения переводятся на английский язык с помощью формальных подлежащих, выраженных неопределенно-личными местоимениями: one, they, it. Например:

При переводе английских предложений часто сталкиваешься с различными трудностями. When translating English texts one is often faced with different difficulties.

В лаборатории холодно. It is cold in the laboratory.

Трудно представить современную жизнь без железобетона. It is difficult to imagine modern life without reinforced concrete.

Общеизвестно, что все строительные материалы делятся на различные группы. It is common knowledge that all building materials are divided into different groups.

Сообщают, что ущерб от пожаров увеличивается. They say that the cost of fire damage is increasing.

Если простое английское предложение начинается с существительного, перед которым стоит неопределенный или нулевой артикль, или неопределенное местоимение (any), его следует переводить с конца предложения. Например:

A concrete plate was delivered to the site. На строительную площадку была доставлена бетонная плита.

New data were obtained in our laboratory. В нашей лаборатории были получены новые данные.

Если предложение начинается с подлежащего, имеющего при себе определенный артикль или указательное местоимение, перевод следует начинать с подлежащего, т.е. с начала предложения. Например:

The concrete plate was delivered to the site. Бетонная плита была доставлена на строительную площадку.

These new data were obtained in our laboratory. Эти новые данные были получены в нашей лаборатории.

Английские предложения, начинающиеся с оборотов there is, there are, следует переводить с конца предложения, если там употреблено обстоятельство или пояснительные слова. Например:

There are many unsolved problem in road building. В строительстве дорог много нерешенных проблем.

There is a formal analogy between these two integrals. Между этими двумя интегралами есть формальное сходство.

Если в конце предложения нет обстоятельства или поясняющих слов, то начинать перевод следует с оборота there is/are, который на русский язык переводится как «есть, бывает, существует». Например:

There are two types of cement: natural and artificial. Есть два вида цемента: естественный и искусственный.

Повелительные предложения служат для побуждения собеседника к совершению какого-либо действия. Такие предложения начинаются со сказуемого, поскольку подлежащее не упоминается, и переводятся со сказуемого. Например:

Study this material properly. Изучитетщательно этот материал.

Instructions

1 Identify your client's skills and weaknesses and get an overview of their circumstances by asking pointed questions on the worksheets. These questions should not be abusive or too deeply personal, and they should not trivialize the decisions your clients are facing. For example, if someone is thinking of quitting their job and taking up a new career, one of the worksheet questions could ask, "What do you stand to gain by quitting your current job and what could you possibly lose?" The responses should provide valuable insights into their situation and abilities. Ideally, you want to prompt self-reflection.

2Help your client set up an action plan to achieve a goal or goals by giving them specific steps to take and a reasonable timeline to follow, with success measured in increments. If, for example, they are seeking a promotion at work, the worksheets could prompt them to assess their skills and start working on gaining new ones while honing the skills they have. The worksheet should help your clients gauge their progress over the course of several weeks.

3Hold the client accountable to themselves by ensuring they make dated entries on their worksheets and perform the necessary follow-up work. If they are apartment hunting, they should note when they last spoke to the real-estate agent and where the next open residence is in their neighbourhood.

4 Provide links to resources that can help clients gain more information or training through blogs, public forums, websites, or workshops to further them on their path.

UNIT II

UNIT III

Модальные глаголы

MODAL VERBS

Unit IV

Формы инфинитива

 

Формы Залог Active Voice Passive Voice
Indefinite Неопределённая to obtain – получать to be obtained – быть полученным
Perfect Совершенная to have obtained to have been obtained
Continuous Длительная to be obtaining -------

 

Неопределенная и длительная формы инфинитива указывают на одновременность действия инфинитива с действием глагола-сказуемого, причем длительная форма указывает на действие в процессе его развертывания. Перфектная форма инфинитива указывает на то, что действие выраженное инфинитивом, предшествовало действию сказуемого.

Наличие в форме инфинитива сочетания вспомогательного глагола tobe с третьей формой смыслового глагола указывает на страдательный залог: to be done, to have been done. Сравните:

I don’t want to translate the text. Я не хочу переводить текст.

I don’t want the text to be translated. Я не хочу, чтобы текст переводили.

Примеры перевода инфинитива:

1. I like to ask questions. Я люблю задавать вопросы.

2. I don’t like to be asked. Я не люблю, когда меня спрашивают.

3. I shall be glad to be asking you again next week. Я буду рада поспрашивать Вас снова на следующей неделе.

4. I am sorry to have asked you so many questions. Извините, что я задала Вам так много вопросов.

5. I was not pleased to have been asked so many questions. Я была недовольна, что мне задали так много вопросов.

В предложении инфинитив выполняет многочисленные синтаксические функции, от которых зависит его перевод на русский язык.

1. В функции подлежащего инфинитив переводится:

а) неопределенной формой глагола,например:

To guide the car is not easy. Вести машину нелегко.

б) существительным,например:

To build good roads is one of the most important tasks facing our engineers. Строительство хороших дорог – одна из самых важных задач, стоящих перед нашими инженерами.

В функции подлежащего инфинитив может стоять после сказуемого. В этом случае перед сказуемым имеется формальное подлежащее it. В предложениях такого типа инфинитив, следующий за сказуемым, переводится на русский язык неопределенной формой глагола, при этом itпереводить не надо.

It is interesting to note that synthetic rubber is used for coatings roofs, walls, floors, etc. Интересно отметить, что синтетическая резина используется для покрытия крыш, стен, полов и т.д.

 

2. В функции именной части сказуемого инфинитив переводится:

а) неопределенной формой глагола.Например:

The function of lubrication is to reduce friction between moving surfaces. Функция смазки – уменьшить трение между трущимися поверхностями.

б) существительным. Например:

The prime object of the ventilation is to provide proper air currents. Основным назначением вентиляции является обеспечение надлежащих потоков воздуха.

 

3. В функции дополнения инфинитив переводится неопределенной формой глагола. Например:

The designers tried to increase the efficiency of the engine.

Конструкторы пытались увеличить кпд двигателя.

 

4. В функции определения инфинитив всегда стоит после определяемого слова часто в страдательном залоге и на русский язык переводится придаточным определительным предложением с союзом «который», с оттенком модальности, со словами «следует», «должен». Например:

The result to be expected is important. Результат, который следует ожидать, важен.

The work to be finished next week is of great interest. Работа, которая должна быть закончена на следующей неделе, представляет большой интерес.

 

5. В функции обстоятельства инфинитив употребляется для выражения цели или следствия, может стоять в начале или в середине предложения. На русский язык переводится придаточным предложением спомощью союзов «чтобы», «для того чтобы». Например:

To give the necessary output the plant needed new technique. Чтобы дать необходимый выпуск продукции, завод должен былперейти на новую технологию.

We need a week more to study the problem in detail. Нам нужна еще одна неделя, чтобы изучить подробно эту проблему.

Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства может также переводиться существительным с предлогом для.

Shock absorbers are used to prevent the spring oscillation. Амортизаторы используются для предотвращения тряски рессор.

Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели, стоящий в начале предложения, часто путают с инфинитивом в функции подлежащего. Чтобы избежать этой ошибки, следует обращать внимание на то, какой член предложения стоит за инфинитивом. В функции обстоятельства цели за инфинитивом с поясняющими словами следует подлежащее (или группа подлежащего). Например:

To demonstrate this phenomenon engineers used a lot of measuring devices. Чтобы продемонстрировать это явление, инженеры использовали много измерительных приборов.

В функции подлежащего за инфинитивом обычно следует сказуемое:

To explain this phenomenon is the task of engineers. Задача инженеров – объяснить это явление.

 

Перевод инфинитивного оборота с предлогом for

 

Инфинитивный оборот, состоящий из предлога for + существительное (или местоимение) + инфинитив, представляет собой синтаксическую структуру, в которой действие, выраженное инфинитивом, относится к лицу (или предмету) обозначенному существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном падеже (me, you, him, her, it, us, them). Инфинитив в таких оборотах может употребляться как в действительном, так и в страдательном залоге. На русский язык они переводятся при помощи неопределенной формы глагола или придаточного предложения в зависимости от функции в предложении. Часто перевод следует начинать с дополнения, которое стоит после предлога for. Например:

It required some more experiments for the scientist to prove the correctness of the results obtained. Ученому потребовалось провести еще несколько экспериментов, чтобы доказатьправильность полученных результатов.

It is impossible for the driver to stopthe car quickly at such a high speed. Водитель не может быстро остановитьмашину при такой большой скорости.

It is necessary for the goods to be deliveredin time. Необходимо, чтобы товары были доставленывовремя.

UNIT V

UNIT VI

UNIT VII

 

Формы герундия

Залог (Voice) Активный (Active) Пассивный (Passive)
Простой (Simple) reducing – уменьшать being reduced
Совершенный (Perfect) having reduced having been reduced

Как видно из таблицы, герундий по формам похож на причастие настоящего времени (Participle I), но в отличие от причастия, перед герундием могут стоять предлоги и притяжательные местоимения, и на русский язык он переводится именем существительным, неопределенной формой глагола, деепричастием или целым предложением. Например:

We like writing letters. Я люблю писать письма.

My friend likes being written. Мой друг любит, чтобы ему писали.

She knows my having written her a letter. Она знает, что я написалей письмо.

I remember having been writtena letter. Я помню, что мне написалиписьмо.

On having received a letter, I read it immediately. Получив письмо, я сразу же прочитал его.

В предложении герундий выполняет следующие функции:

1) подлежащего

В роли подлежащего герундий переводится преимущественно существительным, иногда неопределенной формой глагола:

Splitting the atom is a difficult task. Расщепление атома является трудной задачей. Расщепить атом – трудная задача.

Сложный герундий в этой функции обычно переводится придаточным предложением, причем перевод часто начинается словами то, что (чтобы):

His having obtained a residue at such a temperature was a great success.To, что ему удалось получить осадок при такой температуре было большим успехом.

2) составной части сказуемого

Герундий в качестве предикативного члена или части составного глагольного сказуемого переводится неопределенной формой глагола. Изучите примеры:

Their aim was collecting all the necessary data. Их цель заключалась в том, чтобы собрать все необходимые данные.

The fly-wheel began moving. Маховое колесо начало двигаться.

3) дополнения

Герундий в функции дополнения переводится или существительным или неопределенной формой глагола. Когда перед герундием стоит притяжательное местоимение, он переводится придаточным предложением.

Изучите примеры:

Transformers are used for changing direct current into alternative current. Трансформаторы применяются для преобразования постоянного тока в переменный. / Трансформаторы применяются для того, чтобы преобразовывать постоянный ток в переменный.

They knew about our having done it. Они знали о том, что мы уже сделали это.

 

4) определения

Перед герундием в функции определения всегда стоит предлог и он может переводиться или инфинитивом, или существительным:

Many solids have the power of absorbing gases on their surfaces. Многие твердые вещества обладают способностью абсорбировать газы (абсорбирования газов) на своей поверхности.

 

5) обстоятельства

В функции обстоятельства перед герундием всегда употребляются предлоги, и он может переводиться деепричастием, существительным или придаточным предложением. Например:

After closing the circuit we measured the resistance.Замкнув цепь, мы измерили сопротивление./ После замыкания цепи мы измерили сопротивление./ После того, как мы замкнули цепь, мы измерили сопротивление.

 

Перевод герундия с предлогами

Как было отмечено выше, герундий в синтаксической функции обстоятельства всегда употребляется с предлогами in, on, upon, after, without by и т.д. Следует обратить особое внимание на смысловое значение предлогов in и on. Предлог in означает процесс в его развернутости, а предлог on – завершенность процесса, его результат. Изучите примеры:

In making theexperiment scientists used new measuring devices. Проводя эксперимент, ученые использовали новые измерительные приборы.

On making the experiment scientist discussed the results obtained. Выполнив эксперимент, ученые обсудили полученные результаты.

Герундий с предлогом without переводится или деепричастием с предлогом не или существительным с предлогом без. Например:

Liquid evaporated without leavingresidue. Жидкость испарилась, не оставивосадка.

Without using outriggers the lifting capacity of a crane drops sharply. Без использования выносных опор грузоподъемность крана резко падает.

 

Unit VIII

Participle I

I.1. Изучите следующую информацию.

 

Причастие (Participle) – это неличная форма глагола, обладающая признаками прилагательного (иногда наречия) и глагола. Имеет следующие формы:

 

Таблица 4

Unit IX

UNIT X

 

UNIT XI

 

My London

I am not a native Londoner, of course, but having lived here for the last 25 years, I certainly regard it as home. I took quite a long time to pack my bag, so I think I could still have chosen London as my Home if my business were not here. London is special for me because there are so many parks and commons where one is able to take a long walk and be surrounded by greenery.

Regent Park and Hyde Park are two of my favourite places, particularly for early morning walks in spring and summer. I like to go there about six o`clock in the morning when you can see all the wildlife and it is so quiet: all you can hear are the birds singing. At times like that it is really hard to believe that you are in the heart of a big city.

London is also remarkable for its restaurants. I would be prepared to say that it offers the widest range of ethnic cuisine in the world; every nationality under the sun is represented. Some are better than others, obviously, but you can eat extremely well here. However, I do feel that what is missing here is the little bistro. Bibendum in Fulham Road is one of my favourite restaurants, although, of its type, it is a little expensive for most people. The food is always absolutely superb there and if it were slightly cheaper it would be a perfect world!

British food has a bad name because it has been abused by people who don`t know how to prepare it, but a good, well-cooked English meal is unbeatable, and that`s a real strength at the Connaught where the food is very classical. I like at the Connaught for its grandeur. The staff are very polished and attentive, this is particularly noticeable in the game season when you can see them carving at the table. That`s when you get a sense of the artistry of the job – they are not simply loading a plate, they are waiters rather than “plate porters”.

London is very erudite city; there are so many theatres and museums that it must be a great source of inspiration to visitors who want to learn something. I can`t think of any other capital in the world where so many culture is provided at so little cost; most of the museums here have free admission, and theatre tickets, compared with prices charged elsewhere, are still extremely cheap – tickets on Broadway must be about double the price. Entertainment is very good value here; I go to Ronnie Scott`s some evenings if I am not too tired and have a drink and listen to the jazz. It is a fantastic place and not overpriced.

I am very fond of jazz but really I like most music. I also love ballet, so I make sure I get to see the Royal Ballet at Covent Garden once or twice a year. A trip to the ballet would definitely be part of my ideal day in London.

I have always felt that London is a very safe city and one in which you can wander around quite freely. The architecture here is very solid, nothing frivolous; it gives the impression that it was built for a purpose and not to entertain. But once you get inside, what a wonderful surprise – inside is on a par with what you would find in France or Italy, but you would never guess it from the façade. Maybe it is something to do with the famous British reserve!

UNIT XII

НАКЛОНЕНИЕ И ИХ ПЕРЕВОД

AND THEIR TRANSLATION

UNIT XIII

New York

by Mitreille Vautier

 

New York defies description. You can say anything about it and always be right; if you listen to different people talking about it, they could each be describing a different town. For some, it’s a center of art, music and theater; for others, a city of finance and politics. For manufacturers it’s a bottomless market, for safe-crackers, Ali Baba’s cave.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Manhattan was mostly swamp – so unhealthy that there was an epidemic of yellow fever, a disease more often associated with tropical regions. While the fine residential streets of London and the grand boulevards of Paris were being built, chickens were scratching around the muddy streets of New York. Rickety shacks housed people – and pigs; it wasn’t until 1867 that a municipal decree was passed, forbidding people to let their pigs run freely through the streets. Although rich ship-owners and financiers were building luxurious hotels and mansions, the newly arrived immigrants lived in disgusting slums. Buildings were divided and subdivided to accommodate as many people as possible; some even collapsed under the weight of extra storeys hastily added on. People lived in tenements which were nothing more that rows of dark cages: no lighting, running water or windows. According to police reports of the time, children died simply from lack of fresh air. Fires and diseases were a part of normal life.

In 1875 the population of New York was one million; twenty five years later it was over three and a half million. New inventions were developed to deal with the population expansion. At breakneck speed New York covered itself with trains, suspension bridges, elevated railways, steamboats, and then skyscrapers. The first skyscraper was put up in 1888. It had only thirteen storeys, but the next had twenty two, the Empire State Building had 102, and now the World Trade Center has reached 110. Manhattan solved the space problem by building up. But although the population of New York has stabilized, the city continues to construct itself.

Statistics are impressive. New York City has five boroughs and shelters roughly eight million people – sixteen million if you include the suburbs. But each day the city fills up with another four million who work here but live somewhere else. The subway uses 7,000 cars to transport five million people each day. New Yorkers produce 3 kg of garbage per day – that represents 200,000 tons to collect every day from 9,000 km of streets and avenues. The police force employs 25,000 officers – the equivalent of the population of Monaco. It’s not surprising that being a mayor of New York is supposed to be the most difficult job in the world.

New York is not a city; it is a world of many cities which crowd together. There are business cities which die each day at five o’clock, neon pleasure cities where bars and cinemas shelter noisy crowds, middle-class cities with elegant street lighting and sad cities where no trees grow. New York is all of these and more.

UNIT XIV

Условные обозначения

UNIT XV

 

ПЕРЕВОД ПАТЕНТОВ

TRANSLATION OF PATENTS

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2

Тексты для самостоятельной работы

What Is Building Science?

Some Examples

History Of Bridges

Bridge study has revealed that people have been carrying out bridge construction since humans first assembled into groups. The initial bridge design was basically felled trees that were utilized for moving over the ditches and rivers, and concrete bridges were rare. With the advance of civilization, techniques were discovered to use rocks, stones, mortar, and other materials for the creation of stronger and extended bridges. Subsequently, as the engineers and physicists advanced in the design, materials, and construction technology, modern materials like steel and aluminum were introduced for bridges.

Bridge Construction during 20th Century

The bridge construction skills progressed rapidly during the 20th century. At the end of the century, new techniques were developed that improved the design, strength, and durability of the bridges. Steel bridges were strongly riveted instead of the previous practice of using bolts. Concrete bridges were being cast at the desired place, instead of being precast. Huge bridge elements made from bars and small sections were used, and not rolled as one part. Before the 1980s, the majority of bridge designs included expansion joints for decks, including expansion and fixed support bearings. This technique was used to permit structural expansion and contraction. However, the expansion joints are likely to be filled with debris, and bearings often weaken over time. Thus, the structure is hardened, and maintenance requirements are increased. The bridge engineers explored methods to reduce this trouble, and finally the expansion joints and bearings were eliminated to develop a joint-less bridge. This type of bridge is constructed on a flexible foundation that may expand or contract with negligible trouble.

 

Modern Bridge Co nstruction Techniques

New technologies are expected to meet the challenging and varying requirements, and also offer options that will guide to innovative engineering and bridge construction standards. With the beginning of the new century, bridge construction is being revolutionized. Modern construction methods and the latest advanced materials are being evolved. Construction technologies like post tensioning, reinforced ground walls, and soil freezing are being developed. Modern surveying techniques are being used that have facilitated the soil selection, and other design parameters, through the use of optical and infrared technology. Progress in the deck technology is creating lighter and stronger decks. Bearings, joints, and seismic elements have become more effective since advanced testing facilities have been introduced. Consistent, economical, fast, and programmed inspection systems will emerge.

Stillwater Bridge

 

The Stillwater Bridge, featuring a counterweighted, cable-and-tower design, embodies engineering significance as a rare surviving example of vertical-lift highway bridge construction of the Waddell and Harrington type. The significance of the Stillwater Bridge is best evaluated within the general context of Minnesota and Wisconsin movable highway bridges.

 

Historic Significance

 

Movable bridges, also known as drawbridges, are constructed over navigable waterways when it is impractical or uneconomical to build fixed bridges of sufficient height to permit the passage of vessels. Human ingenuity has devised numerous systems for lifting, dropping, folding, rotating and retracting a span to provide temporary clearance. By the early 20th century, however, engineers had focused their attention on three, basic drawbridge categories: swing, bascule and vertical lift. Briefly defined, a swing span revolves in a horizontal plane around a vertical axis, a bascule span rotates in a vertical plane around a horizontal axis and a vertical-lift span rises and descends in a vertical plane.

In Minnesota and Wisconsin, as well as elsewhere in the nation, virtually all 19th century movable bridges were of the swing-span variety and the type continued to be constructed during the early 20th century. As late as 1935, a total of 51 highway swing spans were in operation in the Minnesota and Wisconsin. Not one of these structures survives. The demise of the highway swing span was nation-wide, reflecting its growing incompatibility with an urban setting. There were two basic problems with swing spans. First, the central pivot pier increasingly became an obstruction to navigation for the ever-larger vessels of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Second, the swing span itself squandered valuable space. By requiring a clear turning radius, it prohibited the development of docking facilities adjacent to the bridge site. These shortcomings were especially onerous along highly industrialized urban waterways, where shipping channels tended to be narrow, highway crossings numerous and real estate prices high. For less crowded sites, the swing span remained a viable form of technology well into the 20th century, Most surviving swing spans, for example, are railroad bridges in rural regions or in relatively uncongested urban areas. But in the downtown waterfronts of late 20th century American cities, the swing span was marked for extinction. Its major adversary was the federal government.

No matter how loudly shipping and real-estate interests might denounce the swing span, there was no effective means of regulating movable-bridge design until the early 1890s, when Congress authorized the War Department to approve plans for all new bridges over navigable waterways and to seek the alteration of any existing bridge that interfered with "reasonably free, easy and unobstructed" navigation. In 1892, the War Department sent a clear message of future policy by way of Chicago, demanding the removal of a two-year-old swing span from one crossing of the Chicago River and denying permission to build a new swing span at another. The search for an alternate drawbridge technology began in earnest. Not surprisingly, Chicago was in the vanguard. In 1895, municipal authorities spanned the Chicago River at South Halsted Street with the world's first, modern vertical-lift bridge.

During the middle decades of the 19th century, an occasional vertical-lift span was constructed in Europe and the United States. Although their engineering was often ingenious, the bridges themselves were quite modest, designed mainly for canals and small navigable streams in cases where it was only necessary to lift the spans a few feet to clear traffic in the channels. The modern, long-span, high-rise vertical-lift bridge dates from the last decade of the 19th century. In 1892, Duluth, Minnesota, hosted a design competition for constructing a drawbridge over its harbor entrance on Lake Superior, which comprised a clear channel 250 feet in width. Under the rules of the competition, the successful design would leave the entire width of the canal free to passing vessels, which effectively eliminated traditional, center-pier swing spans.

Most responses to the Duluth competition employed some form of "sliding draw" mechanism, whereby the span moved back and forth on rollers. A striking exception was a design submitted, and later patented, by John Alexander Low Waddell (1854-1938). Waddell was a consulting engineer based in Kansas City, Missouri, who, during the next 40 years, would become one of the best-known bridge engineers in the United States. Waddell proposed to build a vertical lift bridge consisting of a simple truss span 260 feet long so constructed and supported as to allow of being raised vertically to a height of 140 feet above the surface of the canal. The Engineering News, October 27, 1892, reports on the Waddell entry in the design competition...

At each end of the movable span is a tower 170 ft. high, carrying at its top built steel pulleys about 15 ft. in diameter. Over these pulleys steel wire ropes, or chain cables, pass. One end of each cable is attached to the end piers of the trusses, and end to counter-weights which exactly balance the dead weight of the span. The only work left for the operating machinery is, therefore, to overcome the weight due to dirt, water, snow, etc. The power for operating the bridge is supplied by two electric motors placed at mid-span; the upward and downward motion being regulated by racks and pinions communicating with the power by means of steel shafting and spur and miter wheels.

Although the Duluth authorities selected Waddell's design, the War Department vetoed the construction of any drawbridge at the site at that time. Waddell, however, had devised a seemingly practical solution to the drawbridge problem. His vertical-lift navigation and dockage like a swing span, nor did it clutter up span-did not obstruct the shore approaches like a sliding-draw span. A few months after the cancellation of the Duluth project, the City of Chicago commissioned Waddell to modify his original design for a 130-foot span capable of 150-foot clearance over the Chicago River at South Halsted Street. This structure was completed in 1894.

The South Halsted Street Vertical-Lift Bridge remained the only example of its kind for over a decade. In later years, Waddell commented in the Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, May, 1924, that the long delay in constructing another vertical lift to the knavery of those in charge of subsequent bridge projects, who, as he put it, "demanded boodle...a condition with which [I] never did and never will comply." There were other reasons as well. During the period 1895 to 1905, engineers in Chicago and Milwaukee perfected several bascule designs, which were widely believed to be more economical for narrow waterways than Waddell's vertical lift. The new type received early and strong endorsement from the City of Milwaukee, which built 10 bascule spans between 1902 and 1910. It was subsequently adopted as the preferred movable-bridge type by the Wisconsin State Highway Commission, organized in 1911 to improve the state's roads and bridges. But the greatest obstacle to the initial acceptance of the vertical-lift span was the fact that the South Halstead Street Bridge contained certain mechanical flaws, which gave it the reputation for heavy first cost and maintenance and expensive operation.

In 1907, Waddell formed a partnership with John Lyle Harrington (1868-1942), a skilled civil and mechanical engineer who was largely responsible for reworking Waddell's invention into a rational, well-integrated design. In its essential form and dynamics, the "Waddell and Harrington version" remained true to the original 1892 design. Before the partnership dissolved in 1914, Waddell and Harrington designed about 30 vertical-lift spans for highway and railroad crossings. After they parted company, both men continued to work in the field, and Harrington's new office, Harrington, Howard, and Ash, became particularly well known, as was its successor, Ash, Howard, Needles and Tammen. Six vertical-lift highway bridges were constructed in Minnesota and Wisconsin before World War II. At least 5 were designed by Waddell and Harrington or successor firms. All were of the standard Waddell and Harrington type. The 1931 Stillwater Bridge was the last of this cohort to be completed. Its predecessor at the site was a timber, pontoon, Swing Bridge built in 1910. Owned and maintained by the City of Stillwater, the bridge was taken over by the Minnesota Department of Highways in 1925. By that time, the structure was fast deteriorating so as to be a source of apprehension for the safety of the loads it is obliged to carry. When the bridge was closed to heavy traffic in 1928, the Minnesota Department of Highways prepared preliminary plans for its replacement. These plans called for a series of fixed concrete-slab and steel-truss spans, which were to be designed by the Minnesota highway agency itself, and a single vertical-lift span, which was to be the responsibility of an engineering firm specializing in such work. In November, 1929, a design contract for $3,150 was awarded, on a competitive basis, to Ash, Howard, Needles and Tammen of Kansas City, Missouri. Construction on the bridge proper began the following summer, with the Minneapolis firm of Peppard and Fulton serving as general contractor and the American Bridge Company (Minneapolis and Gary plants) serving as fabricator. The project was completed in August, 1931, for a total cost of $460,174, shared on an approximately 50-50 basis by the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin.

At the time of the bridge's completion, the St. Croix River was only lightly used as a navigable waterway. Since most of the traffic was small craft, there was little occasion to operate the lift span, as the Minnesota Department of Highways noted in a 1938 letter, "for several years not a single request for its opening was received." Although the bridge was far more intensely involved in highway traffic, it was in the role of maintaining, rather than initiating, patterns of transportation, which, in fact, were already well established by the 1930s. The bridge does have significance, however, as a rare type of engineering construction. Only six vertical-lift highway bridges were built in Minnesota and Wisconsin prior to World War II, and the Stillwater Bridge is one of three that still survives.

 

 

Construction Fire Safety

by Mat Chibbaro, P.E.

 

Buildings of all types, while under construction, renovation or demolition, are both more susceptible to fire and at greater risk of the effects of fire. A wide variety of ignition sources increase the likelihood of fires starting. Concentrations of combustible materials, incomplete compartmentation and other passive systems, and unfinished fire protection systems allow fire to spread unimpeded. Wind conditions can increase the rapidity of fire spread.

This places at greater risk the workers occupying such buildings and the emergency responders that may be called upon to operate within or near them. Accident statistics and reports tell a tale of many construction workers being killed or maimed over the years by fires and explosions. In May 2008, 14 employees were injured in a natural gas explosion in a hotel under construction in California.

In 2007, two fire-fighters were killed at a fire incident during the demolition of the Deutsche Bank Building in New York City.

Typically, building and fire codes, such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and the International Code Council (ICC), contain comprehensive lists of the provisions that are to be followed during construction. However, being model standards or codes, they tend to focus more on the "what," and give less attention to the "who," "how" and "when" of implementation. This article presents protection and prevention features of different phases in construction, and discusses ways that the fire protection engineering profession may contribute to efficient and effective implementation of these features.

Building Alliances

An important concept affecting the efficiency of a project is the creation of lines of communication between the various stakeholders.

First, a fire protection engineer can serve as a liaison between disciplines. There is a network of fire safety-related interrelationships between structural fire protection; architectural layout; mechanical, HVACR and plumbing systems; fire suppression systems; electrical features; and fire alarm, detection and control systems. The fire protection engineer is in a unique position to understand how these items work together to achieve overall fire safety goals and thereby work to coordinate them.

The fire protection engineer can also consult with the owner on various concepts. One is the plan for partial occupancy if the owner expects to do this in stages. In some cases, the owner or their insurer will desire protection above and beyond what the fire and building codes require.

Two critical alliances that must be built early, and maintained through a project's life, are those that link the design team with both the code authorities and the emergency response organization in the project's jurisdiction. In some cases, this can be done with one alliance - when the code authority has the ability to speak for the responders within the same fire department or fire brigade. Certainly, the two roles are different - code authorities need to do enforcement, while the responders are in need of information for preincident planning.

Early and regular contact with code authorities can establish communication that is vital to efficient incorporation of code requirements, both those that address construction hazards and those that apply to the finished building. Jurisdictions frequently have amendments to the model codes. Both the base codes and local amendments can be interpreted to accommodate a wide array of sites and structures. The earlier the authority's interpretations and expectations can be learned, the more efficiently the design and construction phases can proceed. This, in turn, translates into cost savings for the owner or developer and valuable time saved for all parties.

Emergency responders face significant challenges during a fire situation in any occupied building. They must deal with an extremely dynamic environment, with limited information on the fire, its byproducts and the building occupants. These challenges are compounded in a building under construction because the protection features and systems are constantly changing, as is the building itself. The more information they have at hand when an incident occurs, the better their decision-making can be, especially during a rapidly unfolding situation.

 

http://www.fpemag.com/articles/article.asp?i=388

 

Mixed economy

The term “mixed economy” arose in the context of political debate in the United Kingdom in the postwar period, although the set of policies later associated with the term had been advocated from at least the 1930s. Supporters of the mixed economy, including R. H. Tawney, Anthony Crosland and Andrew Shonfield were mostly associated with the British Labour Party, although similar views were expressed by Conservatives including Harold Macmillan.







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