ТОП 10:

The Functions of an Executive


Each company has its business structure. An organization has a number of positions and some people have more authority than others.

Top Management of a corporation consists of the board of directors and the executive officers. The board of directors determines the basic company policies and appoints the executive officers. These officers include a chairman of the board, a president and a number of vice presidents. They are responsible for carrying out the decisions of the board of directors and the stockholders. The executive officers select the managers (or the heads) of the various departments of the corporation. The Managing Director (sometimes called the Chief Executive or the President in Russia and the USA) is the head of the company.

The number of departments in a corporation depends on the size of the company and on the nature of the goods and services that it provides. A corporation with many employees may need a personnel department. A manufacturing firm may need a research department to study ways of developing new products. Most corporations have departments that handle three basic business activities - production, finance and marketing.

The Production department consists of several divisions: Production, Packaging, Distribution, Quality and Maintenance.

The Marketing department plans how to sell new products and may include Advertising division.

The Finance department connects with customer accounts, wages and salaries, financial services, taxation, investment and cash management.


What Are the Duties of a Public Relations Officer?


Public relations officers are responsible for how companies are represented in the media. Public relations officers are primarily spokespeople for the organization to the media. They are also responsible for writing and creating press kits, organizing press tours, and monitoring the media and Internet forums to learn what is communicated about the organization. Public relations officers are also responsible for creating a media strategy and ensuring that it is followed. They are responsible for both internal and external public relations – communication within the organization and to the public.


A public relations officer handles media requests, answering questions that are posed by the media, including reporters who represent radio, television, Internet publications, newspapers, and magazines. Members of the media contact public relations officers to verify information or get comments for news stories about a company or an organization. The public relations officer should be the primary contact for the media. Public Relations Officers may work for nonprofit organizations or businesses.


Public relations officers write press releases, newsletters, or other internal and external communication. Internal publications include newsletters, memos, and email notices for the company's staff. External communications are press releases submitted to reporters and publications that are meant for the public to read or see. The public relations officer publicizes positive news and events related to the company. He serves as the lead writer, writing the press releases and distributing them to the media.

Monitor News

Public relations officers monitor the news media for news that is related to the organization to find out how the organization is portrayed by the media. The officer should understand customer and client needs and how the media -- in print, on television, on the radio, and online -- present these needs.

Develop a Public Relations Strategy

Public relations officers must develop a plan to brand the company in the media. They must develop contacts in the media and use the company's mission statement as a guide for marketing. The plan helps the organization establish or maintain recognition in the public eye.

Organize Media Events

The public relations officer may organize press trips, press conferences, or in-house tours for the media. To do this she may contact stakeholders and venues, and make arrangements to show and present information to the media that is representative of the company's message.


Social structure

History of the concept of social structure

The concept of social structure has a long history in the social sciences, going back for example to the functionalism of figures such as Herbert Spencer, the class structure analysis of Karl Marx, or the work of 19th century German sociologist Georg Simmel on social structure as abstract patterns underlying human interaction.

The notion of social structure has been extensively developed in the twentieth century, with key contributions from structuralist perspectives drawing on the structuralism of Levi-Strauss, Feminist or Marxist perspectives, from functionalist perspectives such as those developed by Talcott Parsons and his followers, or from a variety of analytic perspectives (see Blau 1975, Lopez and Scott 2000).

The notion of social structure is intimately related to a variety of central topics in social science, including the relation of structure and agency.

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