Exercise 1. Translate the Contract into Russian.

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Exercise 1. Translate the Contract into Russian.

Exercise 2. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Проект включает установку и ввод в эксплуатацию оборудования.

2) Продавец берет на себя обязательство поставить Покупателю в счет осуществленного им платежа оборудование в полном соответствии с коммерческим предложением.

3) Покупатель осуществляет платеж в сроки и в форме, указанные ниже.

4) Настоящий Контракт вступает в силу с момента подписания его сторонами.


NOTE: 1. FCA (Free Carrier (... named place)) means that the seller fulfils his obligation to deliver when he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the seller may choose within the place or range stipulated where the carrier shall take the goods into his charge. When, according to commercial practice, the seller’s assistance is required in making the contract with the carrier (such as in rail or air transport) the seller may act at the buyer's risk and expense. This term may be used for any mode of transport, including multimodal transport. "Carrier" means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. If the buyer instructs the seller to deliver the cargo to a person, e.g. a freight forwarder who is not a "carrier", the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are in the custody of that person. From: Incoterms ICC 1990 2. ICC Arbitration.Contracting parties that wish to have the possibility of resorting to ICC Arbitration in the event of a dispute with their contracting partner should specifically and clearly agree upon ICC Arbitration in their contract or, in the event no single contractual document exists, in the exchange of correspondence which constitutes the aagreement between them. The fact of incorporating one or more Incoterms in a contract or the related correspondence does NOT by itself


5) Продавец устраняет дефекты и неисправности путем ремонта оборудования или замены деталей по своему выбору.

6) Продавец не несет ответственность за дефекты и неисправности, возникающие вследствие недостаточного техобслуживания или его отсутствия.

7) Коммерческие счета-фактуры выписываются на французском языке.

8) Отгрузка авиатранспортом осуществляется согласно графику отгрузки, который является неотъемлемой частью настоящего Контракта.

9) Риск потери или повреждения оборудования переходит к Покупателю в момент передачи оборудования перевозчику или экспедитору, назначенному Покупателем.

10) Языком настоящего Контракта является английский язык.

11) Все споры и разногласия, вытекающие из настоящего Контракта или связанные с ним, подлежат рассмотрению после направления одной из сторон письменного уведомления другой стороне, одним или несколькими арбитражными судьями.

12) В подтверждение вышеизложенного стороны заключили настоящий Контракт в двух экземплярах в день, месяц и год, указанные выше.

Exercise 3. Translate the following into Russian using dictionary, if necessary:

1) Within ... days of the date of the signing of the present Contract the Seller is to send the Buyer two copies of the following drawings and technical documents for each complete machine:

General view and assembly drawings with main sized of the equipment as well as a detailed specification of all parts and assemblies of the machine.

Detailed technical description of the machine.

Technical conditions for testing the equipment; erection, maintenance and operation instructions, lubrication systems, etc.

Foundation and installation drawings.

Working drawings of the rapidly wearing-out parts of the machine.

All printed materials as well as inscriptions on the drawings are to be made in the Russian language.

In addition two copies of the above drawings and technical documents as well as the Certificate of Quality of the equipment or the Test Report stating that the equipment is manufactured in accordance with the conditions of the Contract are to be wrapped in waterproof paper and packed in case No 1 together with the equipment.

If the drawings and technical documentation are not placed in the case or not sent to the Buyer beforehand, the delivery is considered non-complete, and in this case the guarantee period is to begin on the date of receipt of the complete set of drawings and technical documents by the Buyer.


2) Should the equipment prove to be defective during the period of guarantee, or should it not correspond to the conditions of the Contract, or not reach the ordered capacity, the Seller undertakes at the Buyer's option either to remedy the defects or to replace the defective equipment by new equipment to be delivered without any delay c.i.f. ... . All the expenses incurred in this connection are to be borne by the Seller.

If the elimination of the defects is effected by the Buyer by mutual agreement between the parties, the Seller is to compensate the Buyer for all the expenses incurred by him in connection with this elimination.

In case the elimination of defects or the replacement of faulty equipment or parts takes place, the guarantee period is to be prolonged for the period used for such elimination or replacement.

If neither party can eliminate the defects, the Buyer has the right either to demand from the Seller a proportionate decrease in the price of the equipment delivered or to cancel the Contract and in this case the Seller is to compensate the Buyer for the losses sustained by him.


Lesson 1

The purpose of marine insurance is to indemnify interested parties against loss, damage, or expense occasioned accidentally in connection with vessels, cargoes, and freight charges through any of the numerous perils incident to transportation by water.

Marine insurance policies may be classified into four broad groups based on the nature of the interest covered. These are policies covering against damage to the conveyances on which persons or goods are transported (i.e. (a) the various hull policies written according to the class and/or trade of vessel; (b) builder’s risk policies; (c) port risk only policies; (d) fleet policies; and (e) full form and total loss only policies); those protecting a carrier against liability to others for loss of or damage to their property; those covering damage to the various kinds of goods being transported; and those covering the loss of freight and related losses resulting from the inability to use a particular vessel.

Qualifications of Marine Insurance Policy are mainly determined by the terms of sale, identifying the party with the insurable interest. The three most common arrangements for the passage of title from the seller to the buyer are identified as FOB or FAS contracts, where the buyer is responsible for the cost of transportation and for any loss or damage to the goods in transit; C&F terms the buyer also bears the risk of loss and must therefore arrange and pay for any cargo insurance. The danger to the seller, in both of these cases, is that the buyer may withhold some or all of the payment if the goods are damaged. Should the seller have any fear this would happen, it would be well to arrange for contingency insurance. With this endorsement, the insurer guarantees the payment of losses that would have been insured had the shipment been declared under the shipper’s own policy. In CIF type of sale the seller arranges and pays for both the transportation cost and the cargo insurance premium. One note of caution: when the purchaser has relied on the seller to purchase the insurance, it may be that the coverage is more restrictive than that of the importer’s policy. Thus, for full protection, the importer may add a marine version of Difference in Conditions (DIC) Clause. On a CIF basis several financial documents are required. Taken together, these documents make what is referred to as the commercial set. As a minimum, the set will consist of the bill of lading, a sight draft on the purchaser for the amount of the invoice, and evidence of insurance (i.e. an insurance certificate spun off of an open cargo policy). If the goods are damaged in transit, the buyer holds this as the basis for presenting a claim for loss.




conveyance - перевозка; документ о передаче имущества
hull policy - полис страхования судна
builder’s risk policy - полис, покрывающий страховые риски
fleet policy - единый полис страхования флота
insurable interest - страховой интерес (подлежащий страхованию)
premium - первый страховой взнос
DIC clause - оговорка о различиях в условиях страхования
evidence of insurance - документ о страховании
open cargo policy - полис страхования груза против всех рисков, кроме особо оговоренных



Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for:

Первый страховой взнос, страховой интерес, полис страхования судна, оговорка о различии в условиях страхования, страхование на случай столкновения, страхователь, сумма страхового покрытия, перевозка, страхование утери, индоссамент, требование возмещения убытков.

Exercise 2. Translate into Russian:

Marine PolicyProvisions


1. The insured on account of whom the policy is concerned must possess a true interest for the policy to be valid. In the case of mortgages on hulls, the policy is to be made payable to the mortgagee and the insured as their respective interest may appear. All claimants to a loss must prove their insurable interest, as well as the amount of the claim, through documentary evidence.

2. It is understood and agreed that this insurance attaches from the time of goods leave the factory, store, or warehouse at the initial point of shipment, and covers thereafter continuously, in due course of transportation, until same are delivered at store or warehouse at destination (warehouse to warehouse clause).

3. This insurance is also specially to cover any loss of or damage to the interests insured hereunder, through any latent defect in the machinery, hull or appurtenances, or from faults or errors in the navigation and/or management of the vessel… (Inchmaree clause). Should the vessel be fumigated and direct loss or damage to the assured’s merchandise result therefrom, this Company agrees to indemnify the assured for such loss or damage.

4. In the event of risk of war being assumed by endorsement under this policy, the assured warrants not to abandon in case of capture, seizure, or detention, until after the condemnation of the property insured; nor until ninety days after notice of said condemnation is given to this Company.

5. It shall be and may be lawful for the said vessel, in her voyage to proceed and said to, touch and stay at, any ports or places, if thereunto obliged by stress of weather or other unavoidable accident, without prejudice to this insurance.

6. In case of loss, such loss to be paid in thirty days. After proof of loss, and proof of interest (amount of the note given for the premium, if unpaid, being first deducted), but no partial loss or particular average shall in any case be paid, unless amounting to 5%.

7. The subject-matter insured is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable, or because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value.

8. If an interest insured hereunder is covered by other insurance attached prior to the coverage provided by this Policy, then this Company shall be liable only for the amount in excess of such prior insurance; and this Company shall return the premium upon so much of the sum by them insured as they shall be by such prior insurance exonerated from (double insurance clause).




endorsement - индоссамент, жиро
condemnation - отчуждение
assign - правопреемник, цессионарий
appurtenance - преимущественное право, связанное с владением имуществом
to abandon (goods to the insurer) - отказываться (в пользу страховщика)
to exonerate - освобождать, оправдывать
actual total loss - действительная полная гибель (например, предмета страхования)
constructive total loss - конструктивная (т.е. неопровержимо презюмирующая) гибель
particular average loss - убытки по частной аварии
double insurance clause - оговорка о двойном страховании


Exercise 3. Find English equivalents for:


при наступлении страхового случая, действительно понесенные убытки, страховая стоимость, при наличии умысла со стороны страхователя, выгодоприобретатель, страховое возмещение, действительный ущерб, страхование ниже стоимости, освобождаться от обязанностей, деликт, при наличии ограничений, тратта срочная по предъявлении, оговорка о переходе прав страхователя к страховщику, судоходный водоем, индоссатор, требование покрытия, риск столкновения.

Exercise 4. Give Russian equivalents for:

to arrange for carriage; document of title; to be liable in tort; to be estopped at common law; to impliedly warrant; outward shipment; the apparent order and condition of goods; prima facie evidence; indorsee for valuable consideration; to exonerate; to claim under a person; to one’s detriment; claused bill of lading; to defraud; the indemnity cannot be forced; through bill of lading; to turn on the normal rules of negligence.


Exercise 2. Insert prepositions and translate:

1. The object … this practice is to guard … loss … transit. 2. A person who negligently issues a bill … lading …respect …the goods which have not been shipped may be liable … tort … negligence. 3. If the B/L is claused, the shipping company may be responsible … cost of the damaged goods. 4. Goods are insured … certain risks, usually … the full invoice value. If they are found … arrival to be damaged, a claim … compensation will be made.





to impliedly warrant (one’s authority) - давать гарантию (наличия полномочий)
outward shipment - отгрузка за границу
the apparent order and condition - состояние товара, определяемое осмотром
prima facie evidence - доказательства prime facie (при отсутствии опровергающих доказательств)
indorsee (endorsee) for valuable consideration - индоссатор (лицо, получившее коносамент по передаточной надписи за встречное уловлетворение или возмездность)
to be estopped at common law - ограничиваться нормами общего права
claused bill (of lading) - коносамент с оговорками (о повреждении)
to turn on the normal rules of negligence - регулироваться обычными правовыми нормами о небрежности


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