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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Упражнение 16. Найдите во втором абзаце текста 5А бессоюзное определительное придаточное предложение и переведите его.
Упражнение 17. Укажите, чем выражено определение:
1. Yesterday we watched a very late TV programme of a football match. 2. Y.Gagarin made the world's first space flight on April 12,1961.3. It was announced that 1000 well-equipped sport clubs could be opened in this country. 4. Our electronics and radio electronics industry have developed from the country's only radio laboratory in Nizny Novgorod. 5. This country has powerful energy systems with the world's largest hydro and thermal power stations and nuclear plants. 6. How can architects solve the problem of living in a region where night lasts for several months and where the temperature may be between 40°C and 50° C?
1. The experiments carried out by Bell and Watson didn't give any positive results for a long time. 2. D.K.Chernov laid the foundation of the science dealing with metals. 3. In many countries scientists interested in electricity wanted to find out whether it could be used for a long distance communication. 4. Articles published by Franklin in 1752 dealt with electricity. 5. Communication satellites used by all countries make intercontinental television transmission possible.
1. Nowadays computers capable of performing billions of operations a second are required. 2. People present at the demonstration of Popov's invention were sure of its great future. 3. Wind and solar energies available throughout the Earth must be used for useful purposes. 4. Russian engineers have developed a new cargo airplane "Ruslan" capable of carrying load up to 150 tons. 5. Computers available everywhere nowadays make our life easier.
1. Polzunov was the first to construct a steam engine. 2. Mendeleev was the first to make a classification of chemical elements. 3. The thermometer
is a device to "measure temperature. 4. Faraday was the first to invent a dynamo. 5. A telephone set is a device to reproduce sounds.
1. Materials new computers depend on must be of the best quality. 2. The number of components supercomputers consist of. is great. 3. The plants computer components are produced at must be superclean. 4. The laboratory the Curies worked in was very primitive. 5. The space laboratory the Russian cosmonauts live and work in is in the orbit for a long time.
6. Satellites our communication goes through are sent into space regularly.
7. The problem Bell was interested in was not an easy one and it took several years to solve it. 8. The problem this article deals with is connected with the subject we study. 9. The changes and movements of the air we are surrounded with influence our lives. 10. This is an article that deals with some environmental problems we face.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение18. Образуйте слова с префиксом super- и переведите их:
man, power, genius, hot, hard, natural, conductor.
Упражнение 19.Найдите слова с отрицательным значением:
true, unusual, important, disappearance, incapable, information, undiscovered, capable, untrue, changing, usual, undetected, unimportant, appearance, detected, discovered, intention, possible, include, impossible, disadvantages, imagine, unchanging.
Упражнение20. Определите, к каким частям речи относятсяследующие слова:
superconductivity, superconductive, quality, qualitative, qualitatively, quantity, quantitative.quantitatively, pure, purity, manufacture.
Упражнение 21.Назовите производные от следующих слов, переведите их:
electron, operate, compute, calculate.
Упражнение 22.Расположите следующие слова в алфавитном порядке:
still, start, specialist, speed, speak, second, search, science, sophisticated, surround, supercomputer, ship, simultaneously.
Упражнение 23.Назовите исходную форму слов:
factories, carried, living, more, depends, components, highest, took, qualitatively.
Упражнение 24.Найдите в правой колонке эквиваленты словосочетаний левой колонки:
1. to make faster
3. a lot of
4. at present
5. to make better
6. to be different from 6. to increase
7. a computer which does 7. to differ all operations simultaneously
8. it takes 8. it requires
Упражнение 25. Найдите антонимы:
simple, untrue, begin, sophisticated, reliable, efficient, close to, true, complete, low, disadvantage, far from, high, unreliable, inefficient, advantage.
Упражнение 26.Найдите значения выделенных слов, запомните и переведите их : 1. In the past "Engineer" meant a designer of engines. 2. The word "a means" means "средство". 3. The meaning of "telemetry" is "measuring" at a distance and is a combination of Greek and Latin words. 4. By means of satellites we can communicate with any country of the world. 5. There were no means of direct communication before the telephone was invented.
6. By communication we mean various ways to send information.
7. Scientists reported that we had technical means to use more channels on
Упражнение 27.Заполните пропуски словами few или a few.
1. ... people know that the first programmer in the world was Lord Bayron's daughter. 2. In the past astronomers spent all their lives to make ... hundred thousand calculations. 3. A calculator makes these calculations in... seconds. 4. In the next... years a new generation computer will be developed. 5. ... people have read that the first electric light illuminated the laboratory of Vasily Petrov, a St. Petersburg physicist, in 1862.
Упражнение 28.Обратите внимание на перевод слова wklclv 1. In our institute the study of theory is linked with practical training, which is very important for future engineers. 2. Students have industrial training at various plants, which allows them not only to watch production processes, but also to take part in production. 3. It is now possible to find a book or an article in this library very quickly, which is extremely important for specialists. 4. Pierre Curie studied the properties of crystals, which led him to the discovery of the piezoelectric phenomenon.
Упражненение 29. Переведите следующие предложения: 1. There are some students in the room now. 2. Are there any students in the classroom now? 3. Everybody knows that one can find any book in
the Lenin library. 4. There are no students in the classroom now. 5.1 was looking for the new reference book on physics everywhere, but couldn't find it. 6.1 must have some paper, I can't write anything. 7. This man knows something, but he does not want to speak. 8.1 have seen you somewhere before. 9. No one said anything to us about it at the meeting. 10. In our institute library I always find everything I need. 11. We could park our car nowhere. 12. They found nobody at home. 13. I have been nowhere this summer. I had no vacation. 14. Every faculty at our institute has a computer.
Упражнение 30.Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их:
won, rung, driven, run, fed, laid, hung, read
Упражнение 31.Прочитайте ипереведите без словаря:
Let's look at the progress the computers have made in their development. Besides the great changes in size and speed, we now have machines which change numbers into pictures, words and sounds. The next big change will be when we get computers that will understand human language. But now if you want to programme your own computer, you must learn it's language. It does not understand yours. For example you talk with an Englishman. You make one small grammar mistake "have" instead of "has". The man understands what you mean and the talk goes on. But if you make even a smallest mistake in computer language the talk breaks down and you must go back to the beginning.
CONVERSATION Exercise 1.Answer the questions:
1. What influences the operation of an integrated circuit ? (the quality of microscopic components it consists of). 2. What is the function of a computer? (making a great number of calculations at a very high speed). 3. What is the speed of the fifth-generation computers available now? (100 billion operations a second). 4. What can increase the operation speed many times compared to the present computers? (a photon). 5. What physical phenomenon can be used to improve a computer's speed? (light). 6. What are the advantages of light for computation purposes over electronics? (the capability to move faster, in parallel lines and pass one another).
Exercise2. Make a sentence out of the two parts:
1. airplanes, ships, trains and cars having built-in electronic circuits and instruments.
2. is being used more widely at home and in office.
3. without electronically, controlled machine-tools
4. with electronics everywhere in everyday life and at plants and factories.
5. scientific research without computers.
6. are in general usage.
7. electronic watches we wear,
Have you seen an interesting advertisement (реклама) in
the last issue of" The Economist" ?
I have not read it yet.
The School of Engineering offers a new programme in
information system. Applications are invited for jobs in this
Professor Smith has told me about it.This programme is
interesting. It is designed to meet the needs of persons with
a computing background for their work in management and
Don't you think that our son can lecture on this new
Why not? He graduated from the Department of Computer
Science and for some years was taking part in the research
project connected with the problems of supercomputers and
As far as I remember his research interests cover software
(программное обеспечение) and application.
And what do they say about the contract?
It is a three years contract and it may be extended for fu'ther
two years. I'll write Mike a letter.
It's too long. You'd better call him.
How do you like these new electronic games?
I am crazy (mad) about them. And you?
Really, I don't know what you see in them.
Well, I think a real computer game resembles real life as
closely as possible, doesn't?
May be you are right, but I am not sure.
Oh, but 1 find them rather relaxing for a change and try
to spend every spare (свободное) minute playing.
Exersice 4. Speak about:
1. The application of electronics in everyday life.
2. New developments in computers.
Use exercise 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic: to be in general usage, research is going on, throughout the world, further development, high speed electronic circuits of the highest quality, according to some researchers, a photon computer, by means of light, advantage over.by the end of the 20-th century.
Exercise 5. Comment on the following statement:
Electronic games are very popular today. There are already up to 10000 different computer games in the world.
Exercise 6. Read and smile.:
Andrew Jackson's Poor Health
After his wife died Andrew Jackson, former President of the United States, became increasingly irritable (раздражительный). Не also worried (.беспокоиться) more and more about his health. Several members of his family had died after a paralytic stroke (паралич) and Jackson was sure he was going to die in the same way. He therefore lived in daily fear (страх) of getting such a stroke. One day, during a party at his home, he was playing chess with a young woman. Suddenly Jackson's hands dropped to his side, his face became white. Several friends run to him. "At last it has come", Jackson said weakly." I have had a stroke. My whole right side is completely paralyzed". "How do you know"? someone asked. "Because", Jackson said, "in the last few minutes I have pinched (ущипнуть) my leg several times and there is absolutely no sensation in it". "Oh, I beg your pardon, sir," said the young woman he played with, "but it was my leg you were pinching."
Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию об использовании компьютеров в повседневной жизни и работе людей. Выпишите и переведите определительные придаточные предложения.
Computers Concern You
When Ch. Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he could hardly have imagined the situations we find ourselves in today. Almost everything in modern world is done with the help of computers - the complicated descendants (потомки) of his simple machine. Computers are being used more and more extensively in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings. They have much better memories and can store (запоминать) great amount of information and they can do calculations in a fraction of the time required by a human
mathematician. No man alive can do 500,000 sums in one second, but a modern computer can.
In fact, computers can do many things we do, but faster and better. They can control machines at factories, work out tomorrow's weather and even play chess.write poetry or compose music. Let's look now at some of the ways in which computers concern people in their daily lives and work.
Many people associate computers with the world of science and mathematics, but they are also a great help to scholars in other subjects: in history, literature and so on. It is now possible for a scholar to find a book or an article he needs very quickly, which nowadays when a million or more new books are published each year is quite an advantage. You tell the computer which subject you are interested in and it produces any microfiche (микрофише, диамикрокарта) you need in seconds.
There are also systems which are being developed to translate articles from foreign magazines by computer and to make up many lists of information which are needed in a modern library. So, computer can help us to deal with the knowledge explosion in many ways. One can imagine a time when libraries will be run by computers, without human beings at all.
Or, let's take another example. When a man drives a car for long distances he has two problems: to keep the carat a constant speed and watch that he does not run into the car in front of him. Engineers are now experimenting with a system which has a computer control of these two problems. The car's computer keeps the speed constant. At the same time the distance between the car and any other car in front of it is measured by a beam of light transmitted forwards. The beam meets the rear reflectors of the car in front and it is reflected back, which enables to measure the distance. This information is fed to the computer which adjusts (регулировать) its speed control accordingly.
Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его. Кратко изложите основное содержание текста по-английски:
Sir Isaac Newton was a supergenius of science who among other things invented calculus (исчисление) stated the laws of gravity and optics. But it turned out (оказываться) Newton also made mistakes. The University of Chicago announced recently that R.Garusto, 23, a physicist, had discovered in one of Newton's calculations an error that had been undetected for three centuries.
The young scientist discovered it while he was studying Newton's masterpiece (шедевр) of physics "Principia" (1687). Newton had derived (выводить) a figure for the Earth's mass based on his new theory that a single force - gravity - governed (управлять) falling bodies on the Earth and the motion of planets around the Sun. The calculation depended on the angle (угол) between two lines from the Earth to the Sun, but because that angle was not exactly known at the time, Newton used slightly different
figures in "Principia". It was that mistake that the young scientist found, a discovery that was soon confirmed (подтвердить) by other physicists. The mistake has no influence on Newton's theory, but its discovery was enough to get him a prize from the University of Chicago.
Прочитайте текст и расскажите по-английски, из каких зданий состоит комплекс Библиотеки Конгресса и каким известным деятелям посвящено каждое из них. Найдите предложения со словами houses и numbers, переведите и запомните их значения.
The Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the Nation's library in the USA. It serves not only to members and committees of the Congress, but to libraries throughout the USA and the world and to the scholars, researchers and scientists who use it.
Its foundation was laid in 1815 when President Thomas Gefferson offered his personal library accumulated for 50 years and considered one of the best in the United States at that time as the basis for a great national library.
Now the Library of Congress complex on Capital Hill includes three buildings. The Thomas Gefferson Building, which has been buill in Italian Renaissance style, is the oldest of them. It was the largest and costliest (роскошный) library building in the world when it was completed in 1897. It is decorated with splendid sculpture, murals (фрески) created by 50 American artists. Its Main Reading Room is 160 feet high.
The Room houses a collection of 45,000 reference books (справочники) , a part of the extensive main catalog of more than 23 million cards and desks for 212 readers. The Computer Catalog Center provides public access (доступ) to the Library's automated catalog.
The simply designed John Adams Building faced with white marble (мрамор), was opened in 1939. Sculptures on its large bronze doors represent 12 famous writers.
The white marble James Madison Memorial Building opened in 1980 more than doubled the Library's available Capitol Hill space. The building which is the official memorial to the Nation's fourth President contains the James Madison Memorial Hall, exhibition areas, eight reading rooms, offices and storage areas for collections which number over 50 million items (предметов).
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте следующие диалоги, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов:
A: You can do without lots of things.
B: You can't do without food or water.
A: Oh, yes, you can! You can do without food for weeks and
without water for days. B: Well, you can't do without air or only for a very short time.
A: Can you write without a pen? B: No, of course, I can't.
A: I must have a new dictionary.
B: Why must you? You don't need a new dictionary. You've got a lot of dictionaries.
I want to see Mr. Z.
I am sorry. I am afraid he may not be in.
But perhaps he may be.
No, sir. He may not be back for some time.
I can wait.
He may not be in until twelve.
I can wait until he is in.
He may be out alb day.
A: May I go to the cinema?
B: No, not today, tomorrow.
A: May not I go today? Zed can't come tomorrow. May I go home with Zed afterwards?
B: Oh, no, you mustn't do that.
A: Why, mustn't I?
B: Because you mustn't be home late.
A: Well, then, may Zed come home with me?
B: Yes, he may do that.
A: May I have the money, please.
B: Oh, very well.
Упражнение 2.Замените модальные глаголы соответствующими эквивалентами:
1. Students must take exams in January. 2. She can speak French well. 3. You may take this book till tomorrow. 4. We must learn new words every week. 5. I live not far from my work. I can go by bus or I can walk. 6. You may come in. 7. We can take this book from the library. 8. She cannot do this work in time. 9. He must go to St. Petersburg for a few days. 10. We can see electrical devices everywhere.
Упражнение З.Поставьте предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной формах:
1. We were able to read that article in the library. 2. Some students will be permitted to take exams in December. 3. You have to read this book. 4. We shall be able to skate in winter. 5. My friend is to take part in the conference. 6. The students of our group had to go to the plant last week. 7. They were allowed to continue their research.
Упражнение 4.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод модальных глаголов:
1. Everyone should know a foreign language. 2. To make supercomputers we need highly developed electronics and new materials. 3. One should do one's work in time. 4. The students ought to know the history of their institute. 5. The development of new materials does not mean that old materials should lose their significance. 6. Marie Curie needed a laboratory and equipment for her research. 7. Every institute ought to be proud of their famous graduates. 8. One should know that "rontgen" is a unit (единица) of radiation.
Упражнение 5.Замените would на used to, где возможно, переведите: 1. He would spend hours in the Tretyakov Gallery. 2. Tsyolkovsky believed that rockets would be used for space travel. 3. Bell and Watson would repeat their experiments many times. 4 .It became known that a new car would be shown at the exhibition. 5. Electricity would pass through metals, but wouldn't pass through wood. 6. I asked my friend to help me, but he wouldn't, he said I could do everything without his help. 7. He would work in the library when he was getting ready for his exam.
Упражнение6. Выберите правильный модальный глагол или его эквивалент:
можно вычислить - (must, can, should) calculate; быть в состоянии выполнить - (have to, be able to, be allowed to) carry out; нельзя предсказать - (can't, needn't, be not able to) predict; должны начаться в 10 - (have to, may, need) begin at 10; следует знать - (should, may, need) know; не нужно создавать - (may not, needn't, should not) create; нужно (необходимо) использовать - (have to, be allowed, may) use; можно взять эту книгу - (must, can, may) take this book; упорно не желать сделать - (need, wouldn't, must) do.
Упражнение 7. Переведите:
1. Он может читать и писать по-английски. 2. Она должна сделать эту работу в конце месяца. 3. Теперь студенты могут войти в аудиторию. 4. Она может заниматься здесь. 5. Он должен прочитать эту статью. 6. Можно мне взять ваш учебник? 7. Я должен пойти в библиотеку и взять книги. 8. Можно мне поехать с вами? 9. Умеет (может) этот ребенок ходить? 10. Вы должны вернуть книгу завтра.
Упражнение 8.Переведите подчеркнутые словосочетания:
1. It was found that proton and neutron have almost the same weight. 2. It was necessary to lay cables across the Atlantic Ocean, as there were no radio or satellites at that time. 3. It is difficult to imagine the world we live in without radio, telephone and television. 4. It is possible to have a direct telephone talk with Vladivostok with the help of satellite systems. 5. This material has properties which make it useful for various space projects. 6. It should be said that computers become increasingly important in our life and work. 7. My adviser considers it necessary for me to read as much literature as possible before starting my work. 8. It is difficult to name all the branches of science and technology which are based on electronics. 9. It is well-known that "watt" is a unit named after Games Watt, an inventor from Scotland. 10. It is impossible to solve many modern complex engineering problems without the help of computers.
Упражнение 9.Укажите, чемвыражено отрицание:
1. Popov had no support from the government to continue his research. 2. Not long ago chemists developed new materials that could withstand high temperatures. 3. No system of measurment of the past is as simple as the metric system. 4. It is no longer possible to put off the solution of ecological problems. 5. Tsarist Russia gave no money for Tsiolkovsky's research. 6. No one is allowed to smoke in our office. 7. There is no doubt (несомненно) that the development of electronics is one of the greatest achievements of mankind. 8. Half a century is not a long period in the history of civilization. 9. Before Newton no one could explain why the planets moved around the Sun. 10. People no longer think of radio and television as something fantastic.
Упражнение 10. Переведите предложения с составными предлогами due to, tlianks to , because of:
1. Ships can communicate over long distances due to the radio. 2. Because of the earth's rotation there are days and nights on the earth. 3. Thanks to the radio it is possible to transmit human voice across the globe. 4. Due to the latest achievements in electronics it has become possible to develop supercomputers. 5. Solar and atomic batteries are used to supply power to transmitters in spacecrafts because of their long life. 6. Thanks to the development of radio telescopes radio astronomy has made great achievements. 7. Our century can be called "Space Age" because of the development of a new branch of science and technology - cosmonautics.
Упражнение 11. Обратите внимание на перевод much перед прилагательным в сравнительной степени:
1. We don't notice the gravitational pull of a book because the pull of the earth is much greater. 2. The speed of computer operations will be much greater in the future. 3. Graphite which withstands much •higher temperatures is one of the best materials for reactors. 4. When a ship is in space much smaller energy is needed for its movement.
Упражнение 12. Запомните значение глагола to cause:
1. Heating causes different changes in metals. 2. A Danish scientist discovered that electricity caused the needle to move from left to right. 3.Vibration not only causes noise but can also break materials and structures: 4. The space flight of Gagarin caused a sensation throughout the world. 5. Rutherford showed that positive charge of a nucleus was caused by protons. 6. New achievements in mathematics caused the development of new means of computerization.
Упражнение 13. Найдите английские эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний:
в большем масштабе; пилотируемые и непилотируемые космические аппараты; проводить эксперимент; на борту космического корабля; преимущества состояния невесомости; условия невесомости; материалы нового поколения; получить полезные и ценные данные.
carry out experiments; zero gravity conditions; at a larger scale; zero-gravity state advantages; on board a spacecraft; manned and unmanned space vehicles; obtain useful and valuable data; new generation materials.
Упражнение 14. а) Образуйте и переведите следующие производные слова согласно образцу:
существительное + -ful= прилагательное use - польза •* useful - полезный power, skill, success;
существительное + -less ш прилагательное use - польза -* useless - бесполезный
change.noise, water, help, end;
прилагательное + -ness » абстрактное существительное weightless - невесомый -* weightlessness - невесомость
useful, dark, hard, weak;
существительное или прилагательное + -istm существительное science - наука -* scientist - ученый
special, art, motor, biology;
б) Переведите существительные с суффиксами -ance/-ence: resistance - сопротивление
consequence, distance, appearance, difference, absence, presence.
Упражнение 15.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова: surprise [sa'praiz], substance ['sAbstans], magnetic [maeg'netik], laser [leiza], polymer [polima], plastics f'plajstiks], experiment [iks'periment], orbital ['arbitl], expert ['ekspart], start [start], simulate ['simjuleit], principle ['prinspl], gravitational [ graevi'tei/nal], convection [kan'vek/эп], temperature ['temprit/a], zero-gravity [ze'ro'gramri], hydromechanical ['haidraumi'kaaikal], acceleration [ak,sela'rei/an], project [pra'djekt].
Упражнение16. Прочитайте следующие слова:
label ['leibl], material [ma'tiarial], alloys ['ae bis], peculiar [pi'kju:lja J, numerous ['nju:maras], pave ['peiv], vehicle [Vi:ikl], inertia [i'na:/ja ], process ['prauses], Archimedes [p:ki'mi:di:z], consequently ['konsikwantli ], separate f'separeit], component [kam'paunant], quite [kwait], gases [gaesiz], cause [ka:z], research [ri'sart/], biochemist f'baiau'kemist], biological [,baiau'bd5ikal], special ['spe/al].
Слова и словосочетания для запоминания
aim v - стремиться, целить(ся) launch n - запуск
alloy п - сплав liquid п - жидкость, а - жидкий
approach v- приближаться, подхо- manned p.II- пилотируемый, с че-
дить ловеком на борту
certain a - определенный movement n - движение
condition n - условие numerous a - многочисленный
createv-создавать obtain -получать
consequently adv - следовательно possess v - обладать, владеть
data n - данные thus adv - так, таким образом
density n - плотность valuable a - ценный
differ from v - отличаться от prove v - доказывать
difference n - различие, разница substance n - вещество
estimate n - оценивать surface n - поверхность
except prp - кроме, за исключе- vehicle n - транспортное средство,
нием космический летательный аппа-
i. е. [that is ] - то есть рат
include v - включать weight n - вес
Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, в которых сообщается о результатах и значении проведенных экспериментов по производству материалов в космосе; переведите:
Made in Space
^ This label "Made in Space" for industrial materials will probably surprise no one in the not so distant future. They may include superconductors, new kinds of alloys, substances with peculiar magnetic properties,supertransparent laser glass , polymers, plastics, and so on. Numerous experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations have paved the way to the development of methods and means of industrial production of new materials of better quality on board3 a spacecraft. Experts estimate that within a few coming years industrial production of various materials will be started in space.
v Conditions on board a space vehicle orbiting the Earth greatly differ from those on its surface. However all of these conditions can be simulated on Earth, except for one - prolonged weightlessness. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. A space flight is another matter: a satellite orbiting the Earth is in a dynamic zero-gravity stale, i.e., when gravity is cancelled out by inertia.
->>What can weightlessness be used for? Many well-known processes go on differently due to the absence of weight. The Archimedes principle is no longer valid and, consequently, stable-stale6 liquid mixtures can be obtained, the components of which would immediately separate on Earth because of different density. In case of melts7 of metals, glasses or semiconductors, they can be cooled down to the solidification point even in space and then brought back to Earth. Such materials will possess quite unusual qualities.
tl In space there is no gravitational convection , i.e., movements of gases or liquids caused by difference of temperatures. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur because of convection. Biochemists also have to deal with the worst aspects of convection, for example, in the production of superpure biologically active substances. Convection makes it very difficult on Earth.
'i Following the launch of the first orbital stations the specialists started experiments aimed at proving the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the production of certain materials. In this country all orbital stations from Salyut 5 onwards were used for that purpose, as well as rockets. Since 1976 over 600 technological experiments have been carried out on board manned and unmanned space vehicles.
<* The experiments proved that many of the properties of the materials obtained under the zero-gravity condition were much better than those produced on Earth. Besides, it has been established that it is necessary to develop a new science - physics of the weightless state - which forms the theoretical basis for space industry and space materials study. This science has basically been developed.The methods of mathematical modelling of the hydromechanical process under the zero-gravity condition have been created with the help of computers.
\ Special space vehicles will also be needed for industrial production of new-generation materials. Research has shown that the acceleration rate on board these vehicles must be reduced to the minimum. It was found that space platforms in independent flight carrying the equipment were most suitable for producing materials. These vehicles will have to use their own propulsion systems to approach their base orbital station after a certain period of time. The cosmonauts on board the station can replace the specimens. Many new and very interesting projects are planned for orbital stations. Here is one of them. Convection does not allow to grow large protein crystals on Earth. But it is possible to grow such crystals under the zero-gravity condition and to study their structure. The data obtained during the experiments can be useful for the work of laboratories on Earth in using the methods of gene engineering . Thus, it may be possible to make new materials in space and also to obtain valuable scientific data for new highly efficient technologies on Earth.
\ь Preparatory work for industrial production in space at a larger scale is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Western Europe and Japan. It should be said that according to the estimates of American experts production of materials in space is to bring 60-billion dollars by the year 2000.
Notes to the Text
1. supertransparent laser glass - сверхпрозрачное лазерное стекло
2. to pave the way - проложить путь
3. on board (a spacecraft) - на борту (космического кораоля;
4. to simulate - моделировать, имитировать
5. to cancel out - уничтожать, уравновешивать
6. stable-state - устойчивое состояние
7. in case of melts - в случае расплавов
8. gravitational convection - гравитационная конвекция (перенос тепла под действием силы тяжести)
9. gene engineering - генная инженерия
Упражнение17. Просмотрите текст 6А и ответьте на вопросы: 1. What is this text about? 2. Have you seen the label "Made in Space" anywhere? 3. Why can't certain materials be produced on Earth? 4. Can all the conditions on board a space vehicle be simulated on Earth? 5. When will it be possible to start industrial production of materials in space? What do you think about it? Can we start such production now? 6. Why can we obtain materials of better quality in space? 7. What equipment is needed for producing materials in space? 8. How will this equipment operate?
Упражнение 18.Составьте правильные утверждения, выбрав соответствующий вариант (согласно тексту 6А):
1. Many well-known processes go on differently in space due to:
a) different density;
b) the presence of weight;
c) the absence of weight.
2. The components of stable-state liquid mixtures would separate
a) high temperature;
b) different density;
c) different conditions.
3. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur
Упражнение 19.Найдите в тексте 6А модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Замените эквиваленты соответствующими модальными глаголами.
Упражнение 20.Выберите соответствующий модальный глагол: 1. Do you live far? (Can, must) we meet here at 7 o'clock? -We certainly (may, can). - I'll see you later this evening, then. 2. Bill, would you help me? Sure, I'd be glad to help you. What ( may, can) I do for you? 3. (Can, may) I take your pen? I've broken mine. 4. Don't you know when Bob comes back from the University? - I am afraid he (can,may) be very late. He has an examination tomorrow. He (can, must) study for the examination. 5. Do you have a stamp (марка)? - No, I'm afraid I don't. You (may, must) go to the post
office for this. 6. I'm very much interested in environment problems. I think we (must, may) learn to live in harmony with nature.
Упражнение 21. Укажите предложения с модальными глаголами, выражающими необходимость совершения действия, переведите:
1. As telegraph wires couldn't be hung over the ocean, cables had to be laid on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. 2. In the next few years engineers are to develop computers of more than one billion operations a second. 3. A new kind of telephone may be called a video-phone. 4. One must know that we shall need a lot of specialists that will be able to work and live in space for a long time. 5. To see distant objects clearly one should change the focus. 6.Within a few coming years a quantity production of various materials is to begin in space. 7. Some liquid mixture components would immediately separate on Earth because of different density. 8. It should be said that special space vehicles are necessary for industrial production of space materials. 9. Our group will be allowed to use new laboratory equipment next term. 10. One can see that there is no principal difference between iron and copper as conductors.
Упражнение 22. Найдите предложения с эквивалентами модальных глаголов to have to, to be to:
1. Television has a great number of uses nowadays. 2. Morse discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written, they could be sent as a sound. 3. That part of this country has become a highly industrial one. 4. Why couldn't you do it yesterday? - Because I had to go home earlier than usual. 5. This important problem had been solved by the end of 1980. 6. In the past messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship. 7. Some materials with useful qualities will have to be produced in space. 8. A historian has to study a lot of various facts to be able to reconstruct the far past.
1. Such metals as iron, cobalt, nickel and some alloys are much more magnetic than any other substances. 2. In the next few years Russian engineers are to complete the work on supercomputers. 3. The main aim of this article is to explain methods and means of space industrialization. 4. We are living in an electronic world. 5. A number of TV stations is to be linked up into a network. 6. Experiments for industrial production of materials in space are being carried out in many countries. 7. Weightlessness is created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. 8. The quality of these metal parts is to be very high. 9. It was found that the acceleration rate on board such vehicles was to be reduced to a minimum.
УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
Упражнение 23.Определите, к каким частям речи относятся следующие
слова и переведите их:
requirement, constituent, scientific, distance, agronomist, ancient,
density, differ, hardness, structural, various, magnificent, presence,
property, culture, conductor, presentation, probably.
Упражнение 24.Напишите глаголы, соответствующие следующим словам: surprisingly, difference, equipment, mixture, coming, estimation,
weightlessness, production, separately, development, movement,
Упражнение 25.Образуйте прилагательные от следующих существительных: magnet, industry, absence, speciality, weight, probability, orbit,
dynamics, preparation, supertransparency, independence, gravitation,
superpurity, difficulty, variety.
Упражнение 26. Переведите слова, учитывая значение префикса super-: supercritical, superactive, supercooled, superalloy, superhard,
Упражнение 27. Дайте для следующих слов
to start, movement, nowadays, quality, research, various, a means,manufacture,possess, to occur, consequently, numerous, spacecraft, to use, to substitute, certain;
distant, to stop, few, to reduce, invaluable, unusual, dependence,
Упражнение 28. Выберите английский эквивалент русского предложения из предлагаемых вариантов:
1. Он должен идти домой.
Не may go home. He must go home. He had to go home.
2. Он должен идти домой в 5 часов.
Не must go home at 5 o'clock. He is to go home at 5 o'clock. He may go home at 5 o'clock.
3. Он может идти домой в 5 часов.
Не may go home at 5. He can go home at 5. He must go home at 5.
4. Он должен будет идти домой раньше.
Не must go home earlier. He should go home earlier. He will have to go home earlier.
5. Ему следует идти домой.
Не should go home. He may go home. He had to go home.
6. Он может очень быстро ходить.
Не can walk very quickly. He will be able to walk very quickly. He could walk very quickly.
7. Ему разрешат идти домой после трех.
Не is permitted to go home after 3. He was permitted to go home after 3. He will be permitted to go home after 3.
8. Ему не нужно идти домой сразу.
Не is allowed to go home at once. He could go home at once. He needn't go home at once.
Упражнение 29.Заполните пропуски словами because или because of: 1. She must go by bus every morning ... she lives far from the institute. 2. The students cannot translate this text... it is difficult. 3. The planes could not leave the airport ...the bad weather. 4. Our life has become easier... the electricity. 5. Critics would say that the young people were too passive... they watched TV so much. Упражнение 30.Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их:
lost, risen, pay, leading, struck, sat.
Упражнение 31.Переведите без словаря:
The first step in any industrialization project, for example, on the Moon should be preparation for plant construction. It is economically desirable to use local materials for this. It is well-known that metals form the most important group of engineering materials. One must know that they possess necessary mechanical and physical properties. They can be easily fabricated into various forms by a variety of techniques. They are hard, tough (пластичный), strong and temperature- resistant, a combination of properties not available in any other materials. The properties of metals can be changed by heat treatment so that the fabrication is much easier since the work pieces can have properties quite different from those needed in the final product. -
Exercise 1. Answer thequestions:
1. What condition on board a space vehicle can't be simulated, on' Earth? (prolonged weightlessness). 2. What eliminates gravity during a space flight? (inertia). 3. What can be the industrial use of weightlessness? (the production of new materials with unusual properties). 4. What industrial materials can be produced in space? (superconductors, new kinds of alloys, magnetic materials, laser glass, polymers, plastics, etc). 5. What is Russia's contribution to the development of methods and means of industrial material production in space? (over 600 technological experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations). 6. What are the results of these experiments? (much better properties of the materials obtained under the zero-gravity condition than those produced on Earth). 7. What is needed for industrial material production in space? (special space platforms).
Exercise 2. Make a sentence out or the two parts:
1. Experts estimate that within a l. for industrial production of new-
is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Europe and Japan.
2. Numerous experiments on board 2. very difficult on Earth.
3. They may include 3. i.e. movement of gases or liquids
because of difference of temperatures.
4. In space there is no gravitational 4. to grow large crystals and to study
5. Convection makes the 5. super and semiconductors, metals,
6. But in zero-gravity conditions it 6. the industrial production of various is possible materials is to begin in space.
7. It should be said that research 7. theRussian manned and unmanned and preparatory work space vehicles and space stations
proved the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the production of some materials.
Exercise 3. Read and learn:
Tom: Are you going to attend the seminar tonight?
Bill: I should go. Unfortunately, I won't be able to do so.
Т.: Why should you go there?
В.: The speaker will talk about composite ceramics.l must know
all about this subject. As you know, I'll do some experimental work in this field next June. So I'll have to know about it.
Т.: In that case, you ought to cancel (отменить) your other plans
and attend the seminar. You shouldn't miss(nponycKaTb) it.
В.: You are right. But I can't go.
Т.: Why can't you?
В.: Don't you remember (помнить)? We are to take an exam in
French tomorrow. I have to study for the examination.
T. Do you have to study? Is it a necessity?
В.: Well, I suppose the expression "have to study" is too strong.
No one is forcing me. But I really ought to study tonight. Shouldn't you do it too?
Т.: I don't have to study. I studied last night and 1 am sure 1
can pass it. Besides that, I must attend the seminar.
В.: Why must you attend it?
Т.: Have you forgotten? I must introduce the speaker to the
В.: Yes, that's right.
Т.: Well, I have to go now. I may be late. I'll see you later.
Exercise 4. Speak about:
1. Space industrialization and its importance for mankind.
2. The latest achievements in industrial materials production in space.
Use exercises 1,2 and the following words and word combinations for your topic : carry out experiments; obtain useful and valuable data; on board a space vehicle; zero-gravity condition; zero-gravity state advantages, materials of better quality; at a larger scale; in case; according to.
Exercise 5. Read and smile:
The teacher was trying to explain the fundamentals of Science to ner class. r'Sir Isaak Newton was sitting under a tree looking up into it when an apple fell on his head, and from that he could discover the law of gravity. Wasn't that wonderful?"
"Yes, it certainly was," a pupil said, "and if he had been at school at his books he wouldn't have discovered anything".
A Trick on a President
W.H.Harrison was the ninth President of the United States. Like so many other early American presidents he was born in a small town. As a boy, he was extremely quiet. In fact, he was so quiet that he had the reputation of being very stupid (глупый) . The town people therefore often used to play tricks (шутка) on him. For example, they would put a nickel and a dime (монеты в 5 и 10 центов) in front of him and tell him to take whichever one he wanted. He would always choose the nickel and they would laugh at him.
One day, a woman took pity (пожалеть) on him. She said: "William, why do you always choose the nickel instead (вместо) of a dime? Don't you know that a dime, though smaller in size than a nickel, is worth (стоить) much more than a nickel?" "Certainly I know it", William answered. "But if I chose the dime they wouldn't play the trick on me any more."
Прочитайте текст и расскажите о новом способе повышения пластичности и износостойкости режущего инструмента из композиционной керамики.
Advanced ceramic materials have such interesting properties that mechanical engineers are becoming more and more interested in their use as structural parts (конструкционные детали).
Ceramic cutting tools have been in use for some time. However, it is only during the last twenty years that there have been rapid
development in this field because of the development of new composite ceramics.
Composite materials are materials in which two or more different substances, such as metals, ceramics, glasses, or polymers are combined without chemical reaction. As a result one can produce a material with properties different from those of any of the individual constituents. The constituents of a composite would retain their individual characteristics.
Recently engineers have developed various kinds of composite ceramics which must combine an increased toughness (пластичность) with the same hardness and strength of usual ceramics. A promising recent development is the addition of a tiny quantity of metal to increase toughness and tool life. Thus, at room and high temperatures ( 1000°C) the composite ceramics for cutting tools should possess the following properties: high strength, high toughness, high hardness, high thermal shock resistance and high chemical inertness.
Прочитайте текст, выделите интересные для вас факты и расскажите по-английски. Ancient Steel-Making Secret
When two metallurgists at Standford University were trying to produce a "superplastic" metal they became interested in the secret of Damascus steel, the legendary material used by numerous warriors (воины) of the past, including Crusaders (крестоносцы). Its formula had been lost for generations.
Analyses of a new steel revealed properties almost identical to those they found in Damascus steel, although their own plastic steel had been produced by present-day methods.
The remarkable characteristics of Damascus steel became known to Europe when the Crusaders reached the Middle East in the 11th century. They discovered that swords (меч) of the metal could split (рассечь) a feather( перо) in air and at the same time retain their edge sharp through many battles.
The secrets of Damascus steel were known in many parts of the ancient world, especially in Persia, where some of the finest specimens were produced. For eighj centuries the Arab sword makers kept the secret about their techniques and methods. And with the invention of firearms (огнестрельное оружие), the secret was lost and it was never fully rediscovered.
The two metallurgists carried out a lot of researches. When they realized that they might be close to the discovery of a new material, a sword fancier (знаток) , at one of their demonstrations, pointed out that Damascus steel, like their own product, was very rich in carbon. This led them to conduct a comparative analysis of their steel and
those of the ancient weapons. As a result, it was found that a basic requirement was a high carbon content. The two metallurgists believed it had to be from 1 per cent to 2 per cent, compared to only a part of 1 per cent in ordinary steel. Their research showed how to make steel of even greater hardness than Damascus steel.
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски, чем примечателен читальный зал Библиотеки Британского музея и какие отделы имеются в Британском музее.
The British Museum
The British Museum consisting of the National Museum of Archeology and Ethnography and the National Library is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. Built in the middle of the last century it is situated in central London which consists of quiet squares and streets.
The British Museum was founded by Act of Parliament in 1753 to bring together the collection of Sir Robert Cotton, some others and future addition to them.
Anthony Panizzi designed the famous circular Reading Room at the British Museum.The first thing that strikes a visitor on entering the Reading Room is its unusual shape. It is a perfect circle. The superintendent (управляющий) and his assistant sit in the centre of the room and they issue (выдавать) and collect books. Long rows of reading desks radiate to the outer walls, like the spokes (спицы) of the wheel.
Many famous people have used the Reading Room at the British Museum. Of the many distinguished people who have used the Reading Room no one was perhaps more regular and more intent (целеустремленный) than the German philosopher and socialist Karl Marx. Soon after he arrived in England in 1849, Marx became a daily visitor of the Reading Room, where he used to remain from nine in the morning till closing time.
The British Museum has a department of ethnography. Ethnograthy is concerned with primitive people and their cultures in various stages of development as revealed by their tools, ritual objects and various crafts (ремесло). This collection is so vast that only a tiny percentage is on show to the general public. Then there is a department of prints and drawings. There are also departments devoted to maps, coins and medals. Visitors interested in chronology can see a large collection of clocks and watches. Those who are interested in philately can find a magnificent collection of postage stamps.
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