ТОП 10:

Useful Words and Phrases of Scientific Communication at a scientific meeting, conference, round-table discussion, symposium, colloquium, seminar, session, congress, etc.





Stages of a meeting Phrases
Opening a meeting I declare the meeting open. Right, can we start? Ladies and Gentlmen, are we ready to begin? OK then, perhaps we could make a start?
Introducing a speaker I have a great pleasure to introduce Dr. (Prof.) Baker, an expert in... Our first speaker, Dr Baker, will speak on...
Interrupting a speaker May I draw your attention to the fact that this point will be discussed later?
Opening a discussion And now I'd like to open the discussion on the presentation given by Dr Baker. Are there anv questions to Dr Baker?
Ending a discussion May I propose that we stop there?
Thanking I,m sure I'm speaking for everyone when I say how grateful we are to Dr Baker for his informative (excellent) presentation, (talk, speech, lecture). I'd like to thank everybody here.
Ending a meeting I declare the meeting closed.
Introducing the report Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen,it is a great honour to adress this meeting(conference); I'd like to talk in my report about... First
While reporting Now, let us turn to the point... The second point is ... Moving to point three ... And finally... So much about... I'd like to attract your attention to... Allow me to call your attention to... I should like to note (emphasize) ...
If you look at this diagram ... Have a look at...
If you remember, 1 mentioned ... As I've already mentioned ...
Do you see what I mean ... Do you follow me... As far as I know ... Sorry, I got lost...
Ending the report In conclusion I'd like to stress the importance Thank you for your attention.
Introducing oneself My name is John Smith. I am from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I'm very impressed with Dr. B's complete (interesting) presentation. I'd like to give you mv view on this subject...
Questions My question is as follows ... I have a question to ask ... One question s.the second question is... I'd like to aska question in this connection.. There is a practical question which ... I'd like to ask a question concerning ... May I address a question to Dr. В.? Is it possible to describe simply, how...





Stages of a meeting Phrases
Agreement with the speaker I think you are entirely right speaking about.. I'd like to express agreement with the speaker
Disagreement But I am not sure you are right. I am very sorry to have to say that I don't agree with Dr. B. Unfortunately, I cannot agree with your final statement. I wish I could agree with you but... We are not yet certain....
Making remarks This is an interesting work but has a lack... It is surprising... It is unbelievable... I'm not surprised that it is possible... I find it hard to believe... I'd like to make a comment of general nature... I'd like to make two more remarks... I have a few points to make... I have just a small point, but it may make things more clear a bit. Excuse me,but I'd just like to point out...
Making contribution to the discussion I'd like to add in connection with... In addition I'd like to mention... Let me put some more questions

Exercise 6. Read and smile:

A Story Too Terrible To Tell

Three men came to New York for the first time. They took a room in a hotel. In the evening they went sight-seeing and did not come back till nearly three in the morning. The room they had taken was on the 43-d floor. "I am sorry, gentlemen", said the porter, "but the elevator does not work, there is something wrong with it. You will have to walk up to your room". This was too bad, but the men agreed to tell stories on the way up in order to kill the time.

By the time the first one had told his story, they had climbed up to the 11-th floor. The next story kept them amused till they had reached the 31-st floor. At last it was time for the third man to tell his story, but he refused. He said the story he had in mind was too terrible, he simply couldn't tell it. They continued climbing and all the time the two asked him to begin. At last they stopped and refused to go on unless he told them his terrible story. "The story I have to tell you is a short one", he said at last, "we have left the key to our room downstairs with the porter".


Прочитайте текст и найдите информацию о преимуществах применения оп­тических волокон в технике связи; о том, что послужило основой разработки систем оптической связи, а также о практическом применении оптической технологии. Соотнесите отмеченные в тексте факты с приведенными ниже датами: 1960, 1970, 1982 гг. Изложите эту информацию по английски:

Optical Technology

One of the most interesting developments in telecommunication is the rapid progress of optical communication where optical fibers are replacing conventional telephone wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone system, optical communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality, performance and reliability of the global telecommunication network. New technologies such as optical fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly integrated into a single digital communication network capable to process and transmit virtually any kind of information.

It is a result of combining two technologies: the laser, first demon­strated in 1960, and the fabrication 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibres which can serve as lightwave conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually improved techniques to produce thin silica fibres of incredible transparency, optical systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for amplification or regeneration.

At present high-capacity optical transmission systems are being installed between many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147 megabits (thousand bits) per second and accomodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of glass fibres (one for each direction of transmission). This system will soon be improved to operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone channels simultaneously.

A revolution in information storage is underway with optical disk technology. The first optical disks appeared in the early 1970-s. They were and are used to record videofilms, but in a continuous spiral rather than digitally.

The first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as compact disks for music. They were further developed as a storage medium for computers. The disks are made of plastics coated with aluminium. The information is recorded by using a powerful laser to imprint bubbles on the surface of the disk. A less powerful laser reads back the pictures, sound or information. An optical disk is almost indestructible and can store about 1000 times more information than a plastic disk of the same size.

The latest optical disk development is a system which enables computer users to record their own information on a glass or plastic disk coated with a thin film of tellurium. Such a disk can store 200 megabytes (200 million characters).

Besides, it is reported that an optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced and intensive research on optical electronic computers is underway at a number of US companies as well as in countries around the world.


It is found that optical technology is cost-effective and versatile. It finds new applications every day - from connecting communication equipment or computers within the same building or room to long­distance transcon-tinental, transoceanic and space communications.


Прочитайте текст и расскажите о практическом применении лазеров. An Encyclopedia on a Tiny Crystal

Scientists have discovered that a laser beam can be effectively used to record alphanumeric data and sound on crystals. According to Russian researchers a method for recording information on crystals by means of a laser has already been developed, but advanced technologies are needed to make it commercially applicable.

At present researchers are looking for the most suitable chemical compounds to be used as data storages and trying to determine optimum recording conditions. Theoretically, the entire "Great Soviet Encyclope­dia" can be recorded on a single tiny crystal.

As far back as 1845, Michael Faradey discovered that a light beam reverses its polarization as it passes through a magnetized crystal. Scientists of our day have used this phenomenon to identify crystalline materials capable of storing information. Lasers have been successfully employed to record information on and read it off.

No ideal data storage crystal has yet been found, but it is obvious now that the future of computer engineering lies in lasers and optoelectronics. As paper gave way to magnetic tape, so the latter is to be replaced by tiny crystals.

Text 10 D

Прочитайте текст и найдите примеры все возрастающей тенденции к более тесному международному сотрудничеству. Почему такое сотрудничество необходимо? Назовите страны-участницы такого сотрудничества. Запомните произношение на­званий стран.

Science and International Cooperation

One of the most striking features of modern science is the increasing tendency towards closer cooperation between scientists and scientific organizations (institutions) all over the world. In fact, it is becoming more and more evident that many of the problems that affect the world today cannot be solved without joining scientific efforts and material resources on a world-wide scale. The exploration of space, world finance, global environment protection problems and the development of new sources of power, such as atomic energy, are the examples of areas of scientific research which are so costly and

complicated that it is difficult for a single country to solve them efficiently and in a short period of time. The renewal of international scientific cooperation was demonstrated in the sharing of data which were obtained by Russian, Japanese and European space probes in 1986 on Halley's comet.

Many countries were successfully cooperating on a programme called Intercosmos and had already launched 23 Intercosmos satellites, 11 vertical geophysical rockets and a large number of satellites. Space exploration programmes are being conducted between Russia and Austria, India, France, Sweden and other countries. Joint manned flights by Russian and foreign cosmonauts included citizens from numerous countries. 12 international crews have worked in orbit and carried out more than 200 scientific experiments.

Everyone is interested in the possibility of Russia - USA cooperation in space exploration. Joint scientific ventures (программы) for the benefit of all mankind are a sign of mutual trust in human cooperation that can only strengthen peace. Space is our last frontier and we have the opportunity now to prevent it from becoming another source of conflict. If we began to establish a cooperative relationship in space today, this dream could become a reality. Russia and the United States can and must overcome their differences. It is necessary to understand that a state of permanent animosity (вражда) is not constructive for either side. There is no doubt that improved relations between these countries and cooperation, especially in the latest technology will continue to develop for the benefit of all mankind. Having obtained the enormous power of nuclear weapons to destroy the world, we have no longer an alternative.



Сложное подлежащее и сложное дополнение

Значение слов either, neither и их сочетаний

Text 11A. Superconductivity

Text 11B.

Text ПС. New Hope for Energy

Text 1 ID. Massachusettes Institute of Technology


УпражнениеI. Переведите предложения со сложным дополнением: 1. We know Morse to have been a painter by profession. 2. Scientists expect lasers to solve the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction. 3. M. Faraday supposed a beam of light to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 4. Designers expect dirigibles to be used for exploration of new territories. 5. Japanese designers believe a new ceramic engine to replace the conventional one. 6 Engineers suppose a new "night vision" system to enable drivers to see better after dark. 7. Scientists believe new laser devices to be widely used in medicine. 8. We know the first digital optical disks to have been produced in 1982 as disks for music.

Упражнение 2. Найдите инфинитив в следующих предложениях, переведите их:

1. Hundreds of radio navigation stations watch the airplanes find their destination and land safely. 2. Twice a year people see birds fly south and north, but we don't know how they find their way. 3. At the Paris Exhibition people watched the cargo airplane "Ruslan" carry a great amount of cargo. 4. When you stand near a working engine you feel it vibrate. 5. Making experiments with electric telegraph Morse noticed a pencil make a wavy line when connected to an electric wire. 6. Nowadays people watch over television cosmonauts work in space, "Lunohod" move on the surface of the Moon and Olympic games on the other side of the globe.

1. A force applied to a body causes it to move in a straight line. 2. The unsatisfactory results of Bell's experiments forced him to change the method of testing. 3. The excellent properties of Damascus steel made metallurgists of the whole world look for the. lost secret of the steel. 4. Very high temperatures often cause certain materials to break.

5. Bad weather conditions make pilots switch over to automatic control.

Упражнение З.Обратите внимание на инфинитивный оборот, состоящий из

предлога for, дополнения и инфинитива:

1. The students were waiting for the lecturer to describe the properties of a new composite material. 2. It is for you to decide which of the two methods to use. 3. It is necessary for the students to know the properties of various alloys. 4. A system of satellites is provided for people to watch the central TV program.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения со сложным подлежащим:

1. Students of Cambridge are supposed to wear gowns at lectures. 2. The first pocket-size colour television sets were reported to have been developed. 3. Today's aircraft is expected to be replaced by a new model of hypersonic aircraft by the year 2000. 4. Intensive research on optical-electronic computer is said to be going on in a number of US companies. 5. A method for recording information on crystal by means of laser is known to have been developed by a Russian researcher.

6. The annual output of personal computers is expected to reach
millions in the nearest future. 7. Laser is known to be a device
producing an intensive beam of light by amplifying radiation. 8. Optical
technology has been found to be cost-effective. 9. The optical equivalent
of a transistor is reported to have been produced.

1. Our present-day life seems to be quite impossible without telephone, radio, and television. 2. Nowadays the principle of radio operation seems to be quite simple. 3. The term "radar" is known to be composed of the first letters of "radio, detection and ranging". It happens to reflect its basic principle, that is, the location of an object at a distance. 4. About 50 per cent of Lake Baikal water prove to have been polluted since the Baikal plant has begun its work. 5. Lasers appeared to be highly useful for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction and communication. 6. A system of Earth satellites appears to have solved the problem of transmitting the central TV program to any part of the world. 7. Electricity proved to be able to travel instantly over a long piece of wire.

1. Dirigibles are likely to be used for taking tourists to distant and beautiful places. 2. Lasers are unlikely to be used in our everyday life soon. 3. Superconductivity is certain to brine about a new technological revolution.

Упражнение 5. Прочитайте, запомните значение выделенных слов:

A.: Do you know what the words either and neither mean?


В.: Yes, I do. Either means каждый, любой, любой из

двух, while neither stands for ни один, ни один (из)

A.: That's correct. Can you give examples?

В.: Yes I can.For example: There is a number of lecture

rooms on either side of the corridor. Which of these dictionaries can be used for translating a technica 1 article? You may use either.

A.: And in what way is either translated when it is used

with or? For instance: "Please, bring some dictionaries either from the library or from the reading room."

В.: Either ...or... means либо...либо, или...или

A.: Now let us speak about neither, it is the negative form

of either, meaning ни тот... ни другой. For instance: I was offered two books, but I took neither of them, as I did not like them.

В.: And neither connected with nor means ни...ни, for

example: These problems seemed difficult neither to my friend, nor to me.

A.: Are these words used in any other way?

В.: Yes, they may be used in short negative sentences such

as: "I don't like this book", said Peter, "Neither do I", said Ann, which means мне тоже (не нравится). I shall not go to the library tomorrow. He won't go either он тоже (не пойдет).

Упражнение6. Определите различные значения слов тоге и much в следующих предложениях:

1. One more present-day complicated problem to be solved is that of combining laser and thermonuclear reaction to produce a practically limitless source of energy. 2. A Japanese company is planning to install several more electronic devices on the car instrument panel. 3. The Voice Warning System is one more device. 4. If you make half-hour breaks while getting ready for your exams your brain will work much more efficiently. 5. Aerodynamics is one more problem to be taken into consideration when designing a hypersonic craft. 6. The wheel-computerized system is much more efficient than those used previously.

7. Cryogenic fuels used both as coolants and propellant make the solution of the superliner surface cooling problem much easier to solve.

8. The fact that dirigibles are much larger in size and their staying power is much longer than those of an aircraft makes them ideally suited for exploration.

Упражнение 7.Найдите русские эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний:

the physics discoveries, discoveries that led to, the scientific advantage, advantage could well come to nation, to bring the mankind to, mercury wire, unexpected phenomenon, to return to normal state, by passing electric current, by applying magnetic field, to make a great contribution, they introduced a model, a model proved to be useful, a theory won for them the Nobel Prize, research in

superconductivity, research became especially active, the achieved record

of 23 K.

исследования особенно активизировались; исследования в обла­сти сверхпроводимости; теория, за которую они получили Нобе­левскую премию; привести человечество к ...; преимущество в науке; открытия в области физики; достигнутая рекордная отметка в 23 К; открытия, которые привели к...; преимущество могла бы получить нация (страна); ртутная проволока; вернуться в обычное состояние; пропуская электрический ток; внести большой вклад; неожиданное явление; они предложили (ввели) модель; прикладывая магнитное поле; модель оказалась эффективной.

Упражнение 8.Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова:prestige [pres'ti:3], nation [nei/эп], Nobel prize ['naubl praiz], absolute zero ['aebsalu:t 'ziarau], phenomenon [fi'nominan], normal, magnetic, electromagnetic, theory [9iari], theorists ['Qiarists], fundamental theory, physics, physicist, model ['madl], metallic [mi'taelik], ceramic [si'ramik], colleagues ['koli:gz], laboratory, critical temperature, fabricate, extremely [iks'trimli ], process ['prausas].

Упражнение 9. Прочитайте слова, обращая внимание на произношение:

latest ['leitest], spectacular [spekt'skjub ], breakthrough ['breik'9ru:], compare [кэт'реэ], award [a'wad], research [ri'satj], mercury [Wkjuri], wire ['waia] below [bi'lau], 5°C ['faiv di'griz 'sentigreid ], completely [кэт'рН:Ш], return [ri'ta:n], either ['ai&a ], finally ['fainali], Zurich ['zjuerrik], previousli ['pri :vpsli], throughout ['8ru:'aut], liquid [likwid], nitrogen ['naitrad^n], lose [lu:z], moreover [то:'гэиуэ], lack [kck].

Слова и словосочетания для запоминания

achievement n - достижение present v - представлять

below adv- внизу previously adv - ранее, предвари-

benifit n - выгода, польза тельно

boil v - кипеть prominent а - выдающийся, извест-

continue v- продолжать ный

cool v - охлаждать random а - беспорядочный, случай-
current п - электрический ток ный

discover v - открывать, обнару- resistivity п - удельное сопротивле-
живать ние
finally adv- наконец return v- возвращаться
introduce v- вводить satisfactory a - приемлемый, удов-
lack v - нуждаться летворительный
likely adv - вероятно suddenly adv - вдруг, внезапно
lose v - терять sufficiently adv - достаточно


master v-овладевать tend v - стремиться, иметь тен-

moreover adv - более того денцию

pass v - пропускать wire n - провод

either...or - или..., или; либо..., либо ,»

at once - сразу, немедленно that is (i.e.) - то есть


Прочитайте текст. Расскажи, об основных этапах развития сверхпроводимости и о тех ученых, которые внесли свой вклад в исследование сверхпроводимости.


According to the prominent scientist in this country V. L. Ginzburg the latest world achievements in the field of superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. Recent spectacular breakthroughs1 in superconductors may be compared with the physics discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. They are likely to bring the mankind to the threshold of a new technological age. Prestige, economic and military benefits could well come to the nation that first masters this new field of physics. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. But in 1911 superconductivity was discovered by a Dutch physicist K.Onnes, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his low-temperature research. He found the electrical resistivity of a mercury wire to disappear suddenly when cooled below a temperature of 4 Kelvin (-269°C). Absolute zero is known to be 0 K. This discovery was a completely unexpected phenomenon. He also discovered that a superconducting material can be returned to the normal state either by passing a sufficiently large current through it or by applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field to it. But at that time there was no theory to explain this.

For almost 50 years after K.Onnes' discovery theorists were unable to develop a fundamental theory of superconductivity. In 1950 physicists Landau and Ginsburg made a great contribution to the development of superconductivity theory. They introduced a model which proved to be useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. Finally, in 1957 a satisfactory theory was presented by American physicists, which won for them in 1972 the Nobel Prize in physics. Research in superconductors became especially active since a discovery made in 1986 by IBM scientists in Zurich. They found a metallic ceramic compound to become a superconductor at a temperature well above the previously achieved record of 23 K.

It was difficult to believe it. However, in 1987 American physicist Paul Chug informed about a much more sensational discovery: he and his colleagues produced superconductivity at an unbelievable before temperature 98 К in a special ceramic material. At once in all leading laboratories throughout the world superconductors of critical temperature 100 К and higher (that is, above the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen) were obtained. Thus, potential technical uses of high temperature superconductivity seemed to be possible and practical. Now some scientists are trying to find a ceramic that works at room temperature. But getting superconductors from the laboratory into production will be no easy task. While the new superconductors are easily made, their quality is often uneven. Some tend to break when produced, others lose their superconductivity within minutes or hours. All are extremely difficult to fabricate into wires. Moreover, scientists lack a full understanding of how ceramics become superconductors. This fact makes developing new substances largely a random process. This is likely to continue until theorists give a fuller explanation of how superconductivity is produced in the new materials.

Notes to the Text

1. spectacular breakthroughs - захватывающие открытия, дости­жения (переворот)

2. IBM - компания Ай Бии Эмм

3. well above - намного выше


Упражнение10. Просмотрите текст ПА и ответьте на вопросы: 1. What is this text about? 2. What is the phenomenon of supercon­ductivity? 3. Who was the first to discover the phenomenon? 4. What scientists do you know who have worked in the field of supercon­ductivity? 5. What materials are the best superconductors? 6. Is it possible to return superconducting materials to the normal state? 7. How can it be done? 8. In what fields of science and technology can the phenomenon of superconductivity be used?

Упражнение П.Укажите, какие утверждения соответствуют содержанию текста 11 А. Неправильные утверждения исправьте:

1. The latest achievements in superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry. 2. Superconductors were once thought to be physically impossible. 3. The achievements in superconductivity cannot be compared with the discoveries that led to electronics and nuclear power. 4. The electrical resistively of a mercury wire disappears when cooled below 4 K. 5. A superconductivity material cannot be returned to the normal state. 6. Landau and Ginsburg introduced a model which was useful in understanding electromagnetic properties of superconductors. 7. Scientists from IBM found a ceramic material that became a superconductor at a temperature of 23 K. 8. Potential

technical uses of high temperature superconductivity are unlikely to be possible and practical.

Упражнение 12.Найдите в тексте 11Л инфинитивные конструкции.

Упражнение 13.Сравните следующие пары предложений и переведите: 1. Designers report a new manned craft to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. A new manned craft is reported to be able to submerge to the depth of 21,000 feet. 2. We know radio navigation stations to be located at different places around the world to guide the pilots. Radio navigation stations are known to be located all over the world to guide the pilots. 3. People considered dirigibles to be too slow and unreliable, that is why they were not used for a long time. Dirigibles were considered to be slow and unreliable. 4. Experts expect the new submersible craft to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. The new submersible craft is expected to move round the ocean floor like a sports car. 5. Scientists in many countries consider propeller engines to be much more economical. Propeller engines are considered much more economical. 6. We know propeller planes to fly slower than jet planes, therefore, a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built. But as propeller planes are known to fly slower than jet planes a new ventilator engine with a propeller has been built.

Упражнение 14.Найдите предложения со сложным подлежащим при глаголе-сказуемом вдействительном залоге, переведите:

1. The phenomenon of superconductivity appears to have been discovered as early as 1911. 2. Before 1911 superconductivity was assumed to be impossible. 3. Recent discoveries in superconductivity made scientists look for new conducting materials and for practical applications of the phenomenon. 4. The latest achievements in the field of superconductivity are certain to make a revolution in technology and industry. 5. Recommendations from physicists will allow the necessary measures to be taken to protect the air from pollution. 6. Lasers are sure to do some jobs better and more economically than other devices. 7. M. Faraday supposed a light beam to reverse its polarization as it passed through a magnetized crystal. 8. Supercon­ductors are likely to find applications we don't even think of at present. 9. A Dutch physicist found a superconducting material to return to normal state when a strong magnetic field was applied. 10. Properties of materials obtained in space prove to be much better than those produced on Earth. 11. There are prospects for lasers to be used in long distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations. 12. The electrical resistively of a mercury wire was found to dissappear when cooled to -269 °C. 13. Additional radio transmitters let the pilot make his approach to an airport by watching his flight instruments. 14. There seems to be a lot of alloys and compounds that become superconductors under certain conditions.


Упражнение 15.Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие произ­водные слова:

resistant, resist, resistance, resistor, resistively; superconductivity, superconductive, superconductor, superconducting; theory, theorist, theoretical, theories; physics, physicist, physical, physically; explain, explainable, explanation; store, storage, storable.

Упражнение 16.Найдите английское слово, эквивалентное заданному:

достижение - achievable, achievement, achieve; электронный - electronics, electronic, electron; легче - easily, easy, easier; удовлетворять - satisfy, satisfactory, satisfaction; действительно - reality, realize, really.

Упражнение 17.Переведите слова с суффиксом -ward, -wards, обозначающем направление:

toward (s), forward (s), backward (s), afterward (s), downward (s), outward(s), northward(s), southward(s), rearward(s), homeward (s), sideward (s), windward (s).

Упражнение 18.Найдите слова с нестандартным образованием множественного числа:

There are a few words taken over from Latin and Greek that still retain their original plurals in English. In some cases we can use either. Formulas is seen more often than formulae. Antenna - Antennae (pi). Many think that media, strata and phenomena are all singular. They aren't. Data, a plural, is used both ways.

Here are some foreign singular and plural forms of words often used in English. Latin: medium ( a means of mass communication) -media, nucleus (ядро атома) - nuclei; Greek: analysis - analyses; axis - axes; crisis - crises; hypothesis - hypotheses; phenomenon -phenomena.

Упражнение 19-Найдите пары синонимов и антонимов:

below - above; useful - useless; easy - difficult; field - sphere; to meet demands - to meet requirements (needs); full - complete; to use - to apply; to get - to obtain; moreover - besides; sufficient -enough; likely - unlikely; to continue - to discontinue; conductivity -no conductivity; to vary - to change; to lead to - to result in; recent -latest; advantage - disadvantage; low - high; believable - unbelievable; to lose - to find; tiny - huge; liquid - solid; unexpected - expected; common - ordinary.

Упражнение 20-Запомните выделенные слова и словосочетания: 1. The climate in this part of the world is the most suitable for people to live in. It is neither too hot, nor too cold. 2. Many lasers give off invisible radiation either infrared or ultraviolet. 3. There is


the tropical zone on eitherside of the Equator. 4. It is possible to divide all countries intoclasses: developed and developing countries. Various criteria maybe used to include a particular country in either of the twocategories. 5.The numbers are eitherodd oreven. 6. Such satellites can contain eithertelevision cameras or photographic equipment for transmittingof pictures to the Earth.

"I see you are nota scientific person, my friend".

"Why do you say that?"

"You do not take good care of your car.You have no water in your radiator".

"I thought that Ihad plenty of water".

"You have no oil either.You will ruin your car if you run it without oil".

"Have I plenty ofwater in the storage battery?"

"No, you haven't a drop".

"I haven't any air inmy spare tire, either".

"Have you any extratubes?"

"No, I haven't, but Ihave a good tube in the spare tire. I had four new tubes when I met aman who was having tire trouble. Ha hadn't an extra tube. Ilet himhave my tubes. I suppose he was not a scientific person either. Hiscar was in a worse condition than mine is".

How did it All Begin?

Do youever wonder why people do or wear, or say certain things? Why dothey shake hands when they meet? Many things you say and do couldhave reasons that date back thousands of years.

Forexample, it is very strange to think that shaking hands - a friendly custom(обычай) today - was originally a means of keeping a stranger's (незнакомец)weapon hand where it could do no harm.

In primitive times,man never went about without some weapon of defense- usually aclub (дубинка). Upon meeting a stranger a man could eitherstand and fight or turn away before discovering if the stranger was a friend oran enemy, or greet the stranger and possibly becomefriends.

But howcould he be sure the stranger would be friendly and how could thestranger trust in return? There was only one way to show friendly intentions and thatwas for both men to lay down their weaponsand hold out empty hands.. For added insurance, each would reach forthe other's right hand. As long as, both men's hands were

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