ТОП 10:

Einstein had no such difficulty: he would break off and go sailing or play violin - not very well, he said, but it was very comforting.



The lesson here is clear. To avoid exam stress you have to tell that what you are doing is fun (забава) and the best way to do this is to treat revision as a game. If you stimulate your brain with short, snappy (энергичный) sessions, you will be surprised how quick and sharp you are. A laugh with friends or a walk through the country is really giving your mind the recreation it needs.


 




LESSON 8

 

Герунди{ [  
Значение as и by  
Суффикс -ize (-ise)  
Префикс over-  
Text 8A. A New Era for Aircraft  
Text 8B. The Return of the Dirigibles  
Text 8C. Off the Ground: How do We Find Where We are Going?
Text 8D. New York  

ПРЕДТЕКСТОВЫЕ УПРАЖНЕНИЯ

Упражнение 1. Найдите в следующих предложениях герундий по его признакам, переведите предложения:

1. On detecting danger on the road, the computer signals the

driver. 2. Detecting an object in front of a car in the dark is the

purpose of the "night vision system". 3. One of the main problems

of a driver on the road is keeping the speed constant and watching

the cars ahead. 4. A new device for monitoring and adjusting air

pressure in tires has recently been developed. 5. Before starting a car

one must examine it carefully. 6. Computers are widely used for

controlling all kinds of processes. 7. Alexander Bell's being a teacher

of deaf people influenced his interest in sound and its transmission.

8. Starting a car one must be very attentive. 9. Samuel Morse's hobby

was experimenting with electricity.

Упражнение 2. Определите формы и функции герундия:

4 1. One of the best ways of keeping the speed steady is using a computer for this purpose.\/2. Newton's having made a mistake in his calculations' has no influence on his theory. 3. Supercomputer is able of performing one billion operations a second. 4. On being turned on the radar will warn the driver about stationary or slow-moving objects on the road.v5. Upon being heated the molecules begin moving very rapidly. 6. The white line in the centre of the road is one of the most effective means of controlling traffics. On graduating from the Moscow


Higher Technical School S.P.Korolev began working in the field of rocket design. 8. The function of a car computer is detecting and summing up the information about the road conditions. $. Monitoring and adjusting air pressure in tires is one of the new developments of the car designers. 10. It is difficult to solve some of the present-day scientific and technologocal problems without using supercomputers. у 11. On seeing a red light on a panel and on hearing a warning sound the driver should decrease the speed.\/l2. By picking up infrared rays emitted by objects ahead of the car an image-processing system produces different images of objects. 13. On studying for half an hour before an exam one should switch over to some other activity.

Упражнение З.Объясните значения выделенных слов, переведите:

1. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared measures were taken to limit their speed in many countries. 2. His having measured the distance will enable him to calculate the intensity of light. 3. The universal system of measures and weights was worked out by the French Academy of Science in 1791. 4. The distance from the North Pole to the Equator was measured, one-fourth was taken and divided into ten million equal parts. One of these parts was called a «measure» or «a meter».

1. One of the earliest ideas to propel a vehicle using mechanical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. 2. Having used a steam-driven engine a French engineer built a three-wheeled vehicle for two passengers. 3. At the end of the last century the use of cars was still very limited. 4. Constant efforts are made to use standart components for the cars. 5. The use of multi-cylinder engines greatly increased the speed of cars. 6. N. Otto having used the gasoline engine,motor cars got the standard shape and appearence.

1. Many times Alexander Bell wanted to stop his experiments being unable to get any results. 2. Since ancient times people dreamt of flying. 3. Four times five is equal to twenty. 4. There is much more lithium on the earth than zinc, 130 times more than cadium. 5. The magnesium-lithium alloy is 1.5 times lighter than aluminium and 4.5 times lighter than iron.

Упражнение 4. Укажите различные значения as:

1. People no longer think of radio and television as something fantastic. 2. It was necessary to lay cables across the Atlantic Ocean, as there was no radio or satellites at that time. 3. Rocketlaunching,


concerts, football and tennis matches can be seen on TV as they occur. 4. As the operation of integrated circuits depends on microscopic components, the purity of all material at the plant must be very high. 5. One can see that there is no principal difference between iron and copper as conductors. 6. President T. Jefferson offered his personal library as the basis for the national library.

7. It is difficult for the first-year students to study at the institute
as they do not know yet how to organize their work and time. 8. No
system of the past was as simple as the metric system. 9. Such
metals as iron, cobalt, and nickel are much more magnetic than
any other known substances. 10. Cryogenic fuels such as liquid
hydrogen are used to cool the aircraft surface. 11. Metallurgists are
trying to make composite materials as strong and light as possible.

12. Measures must be taken to keep Moscow air as clean as possible.

13. Engineers are working at the problem of making computers as small as possible.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, учитывая различные значения пред­лога by:

1. It should be said that according to estimates the production of materials in space is to bring 60 billion dollars by the year 2000. 2. The best way to study before the exam is by changing one's activity every 30 minutes. 3. The first self-propelled vehicle in Russia was made by Kulibin in the 18-th century. 4. Driving a new Japanese car a driver will find his way even in Sahara by switching over to a navigation Earth satellite. 5. By 1960 the number of cars in the world has reached 60 million. 6. A driver may avoid collisions on the road by using a radar system. 7. Newton's great work "Principia" was published by Halley, the famous astronomer, out of his own pocket.

8. The cosmonauts were told to increase their daily exercise by 30
minutes.

Упражнение б. а) Найдите русские эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний:a new form of supersonic transport, prospective model, elongated fuselage, without horizontal stabilizer, cover the distance, less than two hours, overall length, overall aircraft weight, at high velocities, lower atmosphere, the skin is heated, the only way out, one of the ways, combined engines, combined with, as economical as possible.

единственный выход, комбинированные двигатели, менее двух часов, без горизонтального стабилизатора, нижние слои атмосферы, один из путей, удлиненный фюзеляж, общий вес самолета, обшивка нагревается, на больших скоростях, общая длина, как можно более экономично, перспективная модель, новый вид сверхзвукового транспорта, в сочетании с, покрывать расстояние.


б) Переведите:

today's aircraft, ordinary aircraft, ordinary aircraft windows, passenger liner, future superliners of such a class, reliable hypersonic plane, look like a rocket, five times above the speed of sound, diameter of the fuselage, the front of the cabin, the skin is heated to a very high temperature, highly economical engines, new generation model.

СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 7.Образуйте и переведите производные слова согласно образцу:

прилагательное или существительное + ize/ise = глагол special-специальный -* specialize - специализировать?ся)

computer, ideal, crystal, central;

префикс over- (сверх-; пере-)

to heat - нагревать -* to overheat — перегревать

production, active, grow, estimate.

Упражнение8. Прочитайте и переведите следующие интернациональные слова:

aviation, airplane, project, passenger, liner, model ['modi), fuselage ['fju:zila:3], horizontal stabilizer ['steibilaiza ], rocket, distance, meter ['mi:ta], diameter [dai'iemita], cabin, technological, prob­lem, thermodynamics ['0a:maudai'memiks ], aerodynamics [earaudai'namiksl, percent, efficiency [i'fi/ansi], extreme [iks'tri:m J, temperature f'temprit/э ], cryogenic ['kraiadjenik].

Упражнение 9.Прочитайте и запомните произношение следующих слов: supersonic ['sju:pa'sonik J, hypersonic ['haipa'sanik |, Paris ['paris], Tokyo ['taukjau], plane [plein |, hours fauas |, reliable [ri'laiabl], combined [kam'baind |, engine |'end3in|, hcal-insulaling |hi:t insju'leiting |, extreme |iks'tri:m|, generate |'djensreit \. generation, in general, require |ri'kwaia |, fuel |fjual |, liquid |'li:kwid |. hydrogen ['haidrid3an |, surface fsa-.fisl vaporize ['veiperaiz |, inject [indsekt], combustion |kam'bAl/an |, chamber f't/eimba J, pcr-centage [pa'sentidj].

Слова и словосочетания для запоминания

amount n - количество efficiency n - производительность,

announce v- объявлять, заявлять КПД , эффективность
combine v-сочетать(ся), комби- e.g. (for example) - например
нировать(ся), объединять(ся) expect v- ожидать, предполагать

combined with - в сочетании с extreme a - крайний, чрезвычай-

ный

Ida


combustion n - горение friction n - трение

complicated p.p. - сложный fuel n - топливо

conventional a - обычный, стан- heat v-нагревать(ся)

дартный inject v- впрыскивать, вводить

currently adv - в настоящее время mainly adv - главным образом

disadvantage n - недостаток structure n - конструкция, струк-

measure n - мера тура

noise n - шум substitute v - заменять

overall a - полный, общий vaporize v - испарять (ся)

overcome v - преодолевать velocity я - скорость
resistance n - сопротивление
stress n - напряжение

apart from - помимо, кроме
way out - выход

TEXT 8A

Прочитайте текст по абзацам. Назовите основные рассмотренные в них вопросы и озаглавьте их. Скажите, какие абзацы можно объединить под одним заглавием. Переведите текст.

A New Era for Aircraft

Aviation experts expect that today's aircraft will begin to be replaced with some new form of supersonic transport by the year 2000. A 21-st century hypersonic aircraft may open a new age of aircraft design.

The designers of this country displayed the project of such a supersonic passenger liner among the prospective models at the latest Aerospace Salon held on the old Le Bourget airfield1 in ParisT'Xn elongated fuselage with a sharp nose and without a horizontal stabilizer makes it look more like a rocket. The speed matches the looks2. This plane will fly at a speed five to six times above the speed of sound, e.g., it will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. The diameter of the fuselage will be 4 meters and the overall length 100 meters, with the cabin accomodating 300 passengers. The future superplanes of such a class will have no windows, but the passengers can enjoy3 watching the panorama of the Earth on the TV monitor at the front of the cabin. They will fly so fast that ordinary aircraft windows would make the structure too weak to withstand the stresses at such a speed. At high velocities the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is so great that the skin is heated to very high temperature. The only way out is to fly higher. Therefore, airliners' routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere.


In general, to build a reliable hypersonic plane one has to overcome a whole set of technological and scientific difficulties. Apart from creating highly economical combined engines and heat-insulating materials4, designers have to make such an amount of thermodynamic computations that can't be performed without using supercomputers.One of the ways to make planes as economical as possible is lightening the aircraft by substituting new composite materials for conventional metal alloys. Accounting for5 less than 5 per cent of the overall aircraft weight, the percentage of composite material parts will exceed 25 per cent in new generation models. An extensive use of new materials combined with better aerodynamics and engines will allow increasing fuel efficiency by one-third .

Because of the extreme temperatures generated by atmosphere friction, a hypersonic craft will also require complicated cooling measures. One possibility is using cryogenic fuels, such as liquid hydrogen, as both coolants7 and propellants. The fuel flowing through the aircraft's skin, would cool the surfaces as it vaporizes before being injected into combustion chamber.

* In addition, specialists in many countries are currently working on new propeller engines considered much more economical and less noisy than jets. The only disadvantage is that propeller planes fly slower than jet planes. However, it has recently been announced that specialists succeeded in solving this problem. As a result a ventilator engine with a propeller of ten fibre-glass blades has been built, each being five meters long. It will be mounted in the experimental passenger plane.

Notes to the Text:

1. Le Bourget airfield - аэропорт Ле Бурже

2. the looks - внешний вид

3. can enjoy - с удовольствием <зд.)

4. heat-insulating materials - теплоизолирующие материалы

5. accounting for - составляя

6. by one-third - на одну треть

7. coolant - охлаждающая жидкость

8. succeeded in - удалось

Упражнение 10.Просмотрите текст 8А и ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is this text about? 2. What aircraft was displayed in Paris?

3. What are the characteristics of the new liner? 4. What are the

difficulties in building a hypersonic plane?


 


no


in


Упражнение II. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста 8А. Неправильные утверждения исправьте:

1. Today's aircraft will be replaced with a new form of supersonic transport by the year 2000. 2. The new hypersonic aircraft that looks like a rocket will cover the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours. 3. The future superliner of this class will have large windows that will allow passengers to watch the panorama of the Earth. 4. Airliner's routes will mainly lie in the stratosphere because the air resistance in the lower atmosphere is too great.

5. Designers can easily make all the necessary thermodynamic
calculations to build a reliable hypersonic plane.. 6. It is possible to
lighten the aircraft by substituting conventional metal alloys by new
composite materials. 7. Cryogenic fuels are used as both coolants and
propellants. 8. The great advantage of propeller planes is that they
fly faster than jet planes.

Упражнение 12.Найдите в тексте 8А герундий <см. 3, 4 и 5-й абзацы).

Упражнение 13.Найдите герундий в функции обстоятельства, переведите пред­ложения:

1. Flying from Los Angeles to Tokyo on board a new supersonic craft will take two hours. 2. On examining the car before starting on a long journey a driver can be sure that he will get to his destination without accidents. 3. By summing up the information about the speed and distance of various objects on the road, the computer detects all possible danger. 4. A superliner of a new kind will be capable of flying at five times above the speed of the sound. 5. The only way of overcoming the great air resistance at high velocities is flying higher.

6. At low speeds the engine can use turbines for compressing the air
before mixing it with fuel in the combustion chamber. 7. In future in
switching over to the new Earth satellite a driver can be sure of coming
safely to his destination. 8. Cryogenic fuels will vaporize before being
injected into combustion chamber. 9. In flowing over the aircraft's
surface the fuel cools its skin. 10. On reaching its cruising speed the
supersonic liner will fly at 100,000 feet above the Earth. 11. By using
supercomputers it is possible to avoid making mistakes in extremely
complicated thermodynamic computations. 12. A new carburetor offers
easier starting in cold weather. 13. By using the automatic guidance
system a driver will be able to make long journeys without concentratring
on the road conditions. 14. It is impossible to solve economic problems
without using the achievements of the scientific and technological
revolution.

Упражнение 14.Найдите герундий в следующих парах предложений: 1. Overcoming these difficulties is not so easy as it may seem. Overcoming these difficulties the designers can increase the fuel efficiency. 2. Setting a problem the scientist makes the first step to


its solution. Setting a problem is the first step to its solution. 3. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow in less than two hours this superliner develops a speed five times above the speed of sound. Covering the distance between Tokyo and Moscow on board a superliner requires about two hours. 4. Putting the discovery into practice the engineers will solve a complicated technological task. Putting the discovery into practice sometimes requires more effort than making it.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

Упражнение 15. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих глаголов илисуще­ствительных по образцу:

move - двинуть, двигаться movable - подвижный

comfort, change, compare, control, program, measure.

Упражнение 16. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:

reliable, elongate, percentage, stabilizer, stabilize, prospective, carrier, brilliant, relativity, intelligent, intelligence, assistance, fuselage, mainly, encircle, departure, statement, hypersonic, liner, horizontal, powerful.

Упражнение 17. Найдите эквиваленты:

конструктор - design, designer, to design ,

стабилизировать - stabilizer, stability, stabilize

самый последний - latest, late, later

эффективный - efficient, efficiency, efficiently

характеристика, работа - perform, performing, performance

надежно - reliable, reliability, reliably

немыслимый - thinking, thinkable, unthinkable

невесомость - weightlessness, weightless, weight

Упражнение 18. Определите, являются ли следующие пары слов синонимами или антонимами:

advantage - disadvantage; to remain - to stay; reliable - unreliable;
fast - slow; apart from - besides, in addition; capable - incapable;
to begin - to start; liquid - solid; to cool - to heat; possible -
impossible; weak - strong; to build - to break; aircraft - plane; engine -
motor. ,

Упражнение 19. Запомните значения выделенных слов и словосочетаний: 1. At higher schools specialization generally begins in the third year. 2. Nowadays we generally have computers at every plant. 3. This doesn't improve the speed of transport vehicles in general and that of an automobile in particular. 4. The general principles of the design of new transport machines in general and diesel locomotives in particular


 



 



can be found in the newmagazine. 5. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion operationsa second will become available in the nearest future. 6.Because ofthe extreme temperatures generated by atmospheric frictiona craftwill require protection. 7.The generation of electric powerincreases every year.

Упражнение 20.Определите, какой частью речи является выделенное слово в следующих предложениях:

1. Television has a great number of usesnowadays. 2. This car uses a new sensor mechanism. 3. A.Bellwanted to builda mechanism that people could use to talk toone another over long distances. 4.The new material can be applied inmanufacturing the components much smaller than those in use today. 5.The Library of Congress serves not only Members of theCongress, butresearchers and scientists who use it. 6. In Russian institutes thereis no charge for the use of reading rooms, laboratories arid libraries. 7. Measuresto keep Moscow's air clean are importantcomponents of our ecological programme. 8. A thermometer is a device that measurestemperature. 9. Computers can do many things, they can controlmachines in factories, cars on roads, play chess and so on. 10.Engineers are now experimenting with a system which hasa computer control.11. Computers controlnearly everything we do in themodern world. 12. Today dirigibles are equipped with electronic controls.

Упражнение 21. Выберитеправильное слово з скобках:

1. The car has ... (brought, broughtabout) mobility to millions of people, but at the sametime pollutedthe atmosphere. 2. The scientific and technologicalrevolution ... (brought, brought about) great changes in people's life and work. 3. A lotof people came to ... ( look at, look for) a new invention,the television set, at the World Fair in New York. 4. It wasnecessary ... (to look at, to look for) a more reliable method of calculation. 5.The airplane "Ruslan" can ... (carry, carry out) up to 150 tons. 6.Research is being ... (carried, carried out) for developing newcomposite materials to lighten aircraft structure.

Упражнение 22. Заполнитепропуски предлогами by, with, for, at, in:

The steam was invented... James Watt, who worked ... many years before he could make theinstruments ... which he perfected his machine. ... first he worked... primitive tools so he could not make his engine well-regulated. The oldmachine was kept going ... a boy who stood by it and let... the air ... means of which the steam was condensed at every revolution.... this machine, though it was imperfect, some work was done and it hadbeen used ... a large mine-owner (шахто­владелец) to pump out thewater. The first efficient steam-engine was made ... a Burminghamfirm and it was soon used...nearly every


manufacturer. The revolution in industry made ... this machine was extremely great.

Упражнение 23. Дайте недостающие формы глаголов, запомните их:







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