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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
The 4,000-kilometer cable broke three times. Each time a new cable had to be made. Finally, on July 27, 1866, the first transatlantic message was sent from Newfoundland to Ireland.
Later cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900 transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last news and business information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world.
Прочитайте текст и ответьте наследующие вопросы:
1. Какие биографические факты из жизниизобретателя телефона приведены и тексте?
2. Какие другие факты, кромеприведённых, вы знаете об изобретателе телефона?
3. Что нового вы узнали изтекста? Соотнесите факты, относящиеся к истории развития телефонной связи,со следующими датами: 1877 г. и 1915 г.
Alexander Graham Bell never planned to be an inventor, he wanted to be a musician or a teacher of deaf реор1е(глухих). The subjects that he studied at school included music, art,literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander's mother was a painter and a musician. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.
When Alexander was only sixteen, he becanfe a teacher in boy's school in Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher of deaf people as his father.
He read all the books about sound that he could find and started to work on some of his own experiments.
At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pupils contributed money for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to build a machine that people could use to talk to one another over long distances. After two years, the two young men were becoming discouraged (опустились руки). Then, one day, when they were working on a new transmitter Alexander spilled some acid (пролить кислоту) on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room, heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire to a receiver on the table! The voice was Alexander Bell's! It was saying: "Come here, Mr. Watson. 1 need you!"
The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. By 1915 a telephone line was opened in the United States - 5,440 kilometers from New York to San Francisco.
Now design bureaus all over the world are conducting experiments to develop video-phone or picture phone. A young man in Moscow wants to speak to his friend in Vladivostok. He lifts his telephone receiver, dials a number. After a very short time his friend answers. As he picks up his receiver his picture appears on the screen. They can speak to each other face to face because they are using a new kind of telephone which may be called "a video-phone". In addition to the usual telephone, the equipment includes a small television screen (14 cm by 13 cm) and, combined with the screen, a television camera. The camera tube will allow the user to switch from a wide view of the room to the face of the person speaking. The focus can be changed to give clear pictures of objects 0.3,0.9 and 6.0 meters away from thecamera.There is alsoa mirror attachment, which allows the camera to scan documents which may be lying on the table. The camera adjusts itself automatically to different lighting conditions.
Прочитайте текст и изложите его содержание по-английски. Talking via Space
Communication has come a long way from the time when a Indian beat a drum (барабан) in the forest to the time when a scientist receives messages from a satellite. In this space age communication has become a highly developed field. The system of communication in large countries is unthinkable today without space satellites. Besides large distances,there is a great time difference: the territories of some countries comprise up to 11 zones. Satellites help to minimize all the difficulties that may appear. They rapidly transmit TV and radio programs to different towns, cities, and distant areas.
Space systems and electronic technology have made it possible to set up an automatic system of communication designed for rapid transmission of all kinds of information.
People write letters and send telegrams. But at the same time people living in various cities like to exchange (обмениваться) news on the telephone. Statistics reports that the number of long-distance telephone calls is about 2, 000 million per year. A person in Moscow talking on the phone with Vladivostok must know that this conversation is carried on through a satellite.
Trains and cars can use mobile radio telephones to make calls. Businessmen can use teletypewriters (телетайп) to send messages via telephone lines to other teletypewriters in another city which automatically
print them as they are received. Even photographs can be sent over
Practically all the population in large countries can watch TV programs via satellites. The orbital communication systems make it possible for people from different continents to see and hear one another.
The importance of space means of communication is increasing every year. The communication satellites of the international organization "INTERSAT" enable people to keep reliable telephone, telegraph and telex communication in any weather with ships practically in every part of the World Ocean.
Определительные придаточные предложения Слова curry и mean и словосочетания с ними Суффиксы -ive, -иге Префикс super-Text 5А. Is there an End to the Computer Race? Text5B. Computers Concern You Text5C.Text 5D. The Library of Congress
Упражнение 1.Переведите словосочетания, обращая внимание на разные способы выражения определения:
a new invention, to be of great importance, books available in this library, at this time, our professor's lectures, the building of their institute, an institute's library, a television programme, our central TV programme, the first television set, the first pocket-size colour television set, today's shows, a tiny nine-by-twelve inch box, the 1939 World Fair, a reading room, people living in different time zones of the country, modern TV sets appearing now, a written text, a factory built in Siberia, an article to translate, the first to translate those texts.
Упражнение 2.Укажите предложения, где подчеркнутое слово является определением:
1. Complex systems of radio transmission networks have Been set up throughout the world. 2. Scientists all over the world were quick to realize the importance of radio and contributed much to its further development. 3. The Russian scientist A.S.Popov worked much at the problem of radio communication. 4. It is necessary to radio the latest news to distant parts of the country. 5. The system of communication in any country is unthinkable today without satellites. 6. Electronic technology has made it Possible to set up automatic communication systems. 7. A new international orbital system provides telephone, telegraph and telex communication with ships practically in every part of the World Ocean. 8. It is known that a Photon is a particle of light. 9. Some specialists expect that a photon can
greatly increase the operation of a computer. 10. Photon computers are quite possible in the not so far future.
Упражнение 3. Назовите определения в следующих предложениях и переведите их:
There are twenty-five students in our group, five students got excellent marks for all their exams. 2.Students studying at our institute must know mathematics well. З.Тпе device made at our laboratory will be used in industry. 4.1t is a short and easy text, our students don't need a dictionary to translate it. 5.Scientists working at new computers have a lot of different problems to solve. 6.A citizen of our country was the first to circle the globe. 7.The first television black-and-white pictures produced a sensation in 1939. 8.A tiny nine-by-twelve inch box was displayed at the 1939 World Fair. 9.Now we can see many different radio and TV sets in every house. lO.Computers of different types and sizes have appeared in every country of the world.
Materials necessary at present to produce supercomputers are difficult to make. 2.A system capable of transmitting long distance messages was developed at the end of the last century. 3.People present at the World Fair in New York were interested in the new invention. 4.Some general engineering subjects difficult for the first-year students are necessary for studying specialized subjects.
Упражнение 4. Назовите подлежащее придаточного определительного предложения и переведите предложения:
Morse invented a code that used dots and dashes for letters of the alphabet. 2. Al.Bell found an assistant who was a specialist in electrical engineering. 3. They wanted to build a machine which people could use to talk over long distances. 4. A television screen and camera that will be used with usual telephone are very small. 5. People who come to the Aircraft Fair in Paris see new designs of aircraft from different countries. 6. Bell did not know German which most writers of scientific and technical papers used at the time. 7. The decimal system that was developed by French scientists was introduced in Russia by D.I. Mendeleev.
Упражнение 5. Измените предложения, гае это возможно, согласно образцам; переведите:
Например: The experiments which Popov made were discussed at the University meeting. The experiments Popov made were discussed at the University meeting.
1. Newton's great work which was published in 1687 is called "Principia". 2. The Russian Chemical Society which is named after Mendeleev was organised more than a century ago. 3. The subjects that the students study in the first and second years are very important for their future speciality. 4. The invention which Popov made did not interest the government.
Например : The laboratory in which the students will workis in a new building Thelaboratory which the students will work in is in a new building The laboratory the students willwork in is in a new building.
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