ТОП 10:

The film about which we were told had been made several years ago.



2. The magazine in which a very interesting article is published is available
in our library. 3. The material of which this instrument is made is a new
one. 4. This is a subject about which we don't know much. 5. The
cosmonauts about whom we heard so much have come to our town. 6. Have
you seen the main components which the new device consists of?

Упраженение 6.Найдите бессоюзные определительные придаточные предложе­ния,переведите их:

The building our students live in is not far from the institute. 2. Bell

Was making his experiment in a room next to the room Watson worked in.

3. For a long time Bell couldn't get the results he was looking for. 4. The
discovery of Newton's mistake we shall read about was made by a young
physicist. 5. When Rontgen made his discovery the room he was
experimenting in was dark. 6. The plant this material is produced at is in
the Urals. 7. The problem this article deals with is connected with the
subject we study. 8. It is difficult to imagine the world we live in without
radio, television and telephone.

Упражнение7. Определите, являются ли выделенные слова существительным илиглаголом. Назовите подтверждающие это признаки:

This means that; this means; it means; new means; this means is. 2.this increase is; this increases; it increases; nothing increases; its increase. 3. these results; this results in; both results; this result; both result in; it results from.

Упражнение 8. Переведите выделенные словосочетания, обращая внимание наразличные значения слова carry :

During the course of study students carry out practical work in

Well-equipped laboratories. 2. People are carried by airplanes, ships, trains

And cars equipped with electronic devices. 3. Intensive work and research

Are being carried out on new robots in many countries. 4. A modern -

Computer carries out a few hundred thousand calculations in a few seconds.

Peter, help me carry this heavy box, please.

Упражнение9. Найдите русские эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний: to be in general usage; electronically controlled; in other words; of a few square millimetres; commonly; the more..., the more; operation by operation; according to; advantage over; a thousand times faster.

согласно; размером в несколько мм; с электронным управлением; чем больше..., тем больше; являться общеупотребительным; операция за операцией; обычно; в 1000 раз быстрее; другими словами; преиму­щество по сравнению.


 




СЛОВООБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Упражнение 10. Переведите следующие производные слова:

глагол или существительное +-ive = прилагательное to act - действовать -* active - деятельный intensity- интенсивность -* intensive - интенсивный to conserve - conservative, progress - progressive, effect - efffective, mass - massive, to react - reactive;

суффикс существительного -иге nature - природа; culture - культура structure, manufacture, future, measure, feature, agriculture;

префикс super- (сверх, супер) supernatural-сверхестественный; superpower - сверхдержава

supergenius, supercomputer, superman, supermarket, supersonic,

superhot, superconductor.

Упражнение П.Прочитайте и переведитеследующие интернациональные слова:

■computer, supercomputer ['sju:p3kam'pju:ta ], general [^зепэгэ1], millions, electron, electronics, electronic instrument, electronically con­trolled machines [ma'/i:nz ], airplane, globe [glaub ], millimeter, center, operation, components [kam'pamants ], materials [mVtiarielz ], laboratory [b'borstari ], modern, seconds, physical ['fizikal], limit, specialists ['spe/alists], photons ['fautanz].

Упражнение 12.Прочитайте и запомните произношение этих слов:

race [reis], usage ['ju:sid3 ], device [dr.'vais], circle [sa:kl ], world [wa.ld ], circuit ['sa:kit], undoubtedly [An'dautidli], require [ri'kwaia], quality ['kwoliti], quantity ['kwontiti], puriti ['pju:riti ], produce [prs'dju:s], throughout [Qru'aut], reliable [ri'laiabl], whole [haul], perform [pa'fo:m], simultaneously [ simal'teinjasli], basic ['beisik], available [s'veilabl], research [ri'sa:t/], expect [iks'pect].

Слова и словосочетания для запоминания

according to adv- согласно, соот­ветственно available a - доступный, имею­щийся в распоряжении beam n - луч built-in p.p. - встроенный

capable a - способный circuit n - схема, цепь close a - близкий, тесный complete v- завершать control - управлять, контролиро­вать depend on v - зависеть от


by means of prp - посредством, fast a - быстрый

при помощи generation n - поколение

calculation n -вычисление reliable a - надежный

go on v- продолжать (ся) require v- требовать(ся)

machine - tool n - станок speed n - скорость

matter n - дело, вопрос surround v - окружать

ordinary - обыкновенный task n - задание, задача

perform v - выполнять, делать, ис- up to prp - вплоть до , до

поднять _ usage n - использование

quality га - качество whereas cj - тогда как, в то время

как

TEXT 5k

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Is there an End to the Computer Race?

Today the word "electronics" is in general usage. Millions of people have electron watches. There is a lot of various radio and TV sets and tape-recorders in our houses. In factories and plants we are surrounded with electronically controlled machines and instruments, we are carried by airplanes, ships, trains and cars with built-in electronic devices, and satellites circle the globe. In other words, we are living in an electronic world.

And the center of this world is a tiny silicon plate of a few square millimetres,an integrated circuit , or a cto ,d$s it is. more commonly known. The integrated circuit is undoubtedly one of the most sophisticated inventions of man, science and technology. It is in the heart of every electronic device and the more tape-recorders, TV sets and computers we need, the more integrated circuits are required.

When we speak about a further development of computers we mean not only quantity, but also high technology and high speed. As the operation of an integrated circuit depends on microscopic "components", the purity of all materials and the cleanness at the plant they are produced at must be of the highest quality. A continuous search is going on in laboratories throughout the world for more perfect, reliable and high speed electronic circuits.

In the past it took scientists and researchers a whole lifetime to make a few thousand calculations, whereas for a modern computer this task is a matter of a few seconds. At present computers capable of performing billions of operations a second are required- Supercomputers are different from ordinary computers. The ordinary computer does the computations operation by operation, while the supercomputer operates like a brain: all

J 65


operations are being done simultaneously. To develop such a computer qualitatively new integrated circuits were required. They are now the basic components of the Russian Elbrus Supercomputer with a speed up to 125 million operations a second.

In the next few years engineers will complete the work on computers of above one billion operations a second. It will take a few more years to produce a 10-billion operations computer. The fifth-generation computers performing 100 billion operations a second will become available in the nearest future. Is there an end to this race?

According to some researchers, we are close to what can be regarded as a true physical limit. But other specialists think that photons will make the operation a thousand times faster. This means that in the future it will be possible to expect the appearance of photon computers and that computations will be done by means of light. Light has several advantages over electronics: light beams are faster, travel in parallel lines and can pass through one another without interference . Already, the optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced, and intensive research on optical-electronic computers is being carried out in a number of countries around the world. By the end of the 20-th century a new age of light may replace the still youthful electronic age. The race is going on.

Notes to the Text

1. silicon plate - кремниевая пластина

2. integrated circuit - интегральная схема

3. chip - кристалл

4. sophisticated - сложный

5. high technology - передовая технология

6. it takes ... (one year) - требуется

7. interference - взаимное влияние, помехи

i

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ Упражнение 13. Просмотрите текст 5А и ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is this text about? 2. What new things appeared in people's every day life after World War II? 3. What is at the center of all these things? 4. What applications of computers do you know? 5.Where else (еще) may computers be used? 6. How does an ordinary computer (a supercomputer) operate? 7. What is the speed of a new supercomputer? 8. What is the task of engineers in the field of computer development? 9. What types of computers do you know? 10. What are the prospects in the development of computers?


Упражнение 14. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содер­жанию текста 5\:

1. Nowadays an integrated circuit is the main component of every day device. 2. Supercomputers are in general usage now. 3. The operation of integrated circuits depends on their microscopic component quality. 4. Some researchers think that we are close to a physical limit in increasing computer operation speed. 5. Supercomputers are similar to ordinary computers. 6. By the end of the 20-th century the electronic age may replace the light age. 7. It is possible to expect the appearance of optical-electronic computers in the future.







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